Modeling and Simulation of Impedance Distance Relay for Fault Location and Protection of Single Wire Earth Return Line

ABSTRACT:

Different technologies and resources are utilized to provide electricity access for the rural population around the world. Single wire earth return (SWER) line gets prominent attention around the globe to electrify low load profile customers and remote load like telecom base stations by extending from the nearby medium grid. SWER distribution system is designed by tapping from medium voltage distribution line using an isolation transformer. Unlike other distribution systems, the secondary side of a transformer has an only single line with dedicated perfect grounding system. SWER lines are considered as a cost-effective solution, compared to the three phase grid extension by electric utility companies. Since line route is mostly in rural areas with different geographical topologies, natural and human-made faults are inevitable scenarios on the line. According to a preference of utilities and geographical locations, SWER lines are equipped with over current relay, surge arrestors or reclosers to isolate faulty line during the fault. The two main challenges on SWER line protection are to back up existing over current protection relay when it fails to clear the fault and to locate the location of fault for line maintenance. Technicians patrol up to hundreds of km along SWER line to locate a fault. This activity will be inefficient and time-consuming way of locating the fault. In this paper, we model and simulate the impedance distance relay to back up existing protection system and locate the fault. Our model successfully backs up definite time over current (DTOC) relay for a single line to ground (SLG) faults across the line. Consequently, fault locator-block locates the faulty line position.

KEYWORDS:

  1. SWER
  2. Rural Electrification
  3. Impedance relay
  4. Fault location
  5. Protection

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig.1.Impedance relay simulation model

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Fig.2.Fault cleared by DTOC

Fig.3.Fault cleared by Zone-1 relay

Fig.4.Fault cleared by zone -2 relay

CONCLUSION:

In this paper, the two challenges on SWER line, backup protection of DTOC relay and fault location during fault are addressed. An impedance relay is proposed to backup DTOC relay and to locate faults on SWER line.The simulation is done on MATLAB/SIMULINK on each step of 15km from relay point to the entire line. A fault is simulated at 0.4 s and during the inception of fault, the proposed impedance relay managed to clear the fault according to the intentional time delay set between each zone when DTOC fails to operate. Fault locator-block also measures the fault location by considering fault impedance during a fault. The model can measure a SWER line fault location for a fault impendence of 5Ω and below with less than 3% errors. Whereas, fault impedance compensation is required for a fault impedance greater than 10Ω to achieve better result with minimum error percentage.

REFERENCES:

[1] P. Cook, “Infrastructure, rural electrification and development,” Energy Sustinable Development , pp. 304-313, 2011.

[2] IEA, “Iea.org/sdg/electricity/,” IEA, [Online]. Available: https://www.iea.org/sdg/electricity/. [Accessed 10 03 2019].

[3] ESAMP, “Reducing the Cost of Grid Extension for Rural Electrifcation,” The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development 227.200, USA, 2000.

[4] L.MANDENO, “RURAL POWER SUPPLY, ESPECIALLY IN BACK COUNTRY AREAS.,” in Proceedings of the New Zealand Institution of Engineers, Vol. 33 (1947), 1947.

[5] P. Grad, “Energy Source & Distribution,” 2014, 18 May 2014. Available: https://www.esdnews.com.au/swer-still-going-strong/. [Online] [Accessed 11 March 2019].

Transmission Line Protection with Distance Relay

ABSTRACT:

 With the development in science and engineering the power system protection field also get advanced which includes the development of relays .the relays journey started by electromechanical then solid state and now digital and numerical relays .An economical and feasible solution to investigate the performance of relays and protection system offered by modeling of protective relays .Distance relay is one of the effective protective relays that are used for the protection of extra high voltage transmission lines. Distance relays are considered of the high speed class and can provide protection. To detect the fault on transmission lines many distance relays are used but for long transmission line mho relay is most suited. The proposed work is about designing of numerical mho relay in MATLAB / SIMULINK to be used for distance protection schemes of long distance transmission lines with better result and characteristics. The required mho relay algorithm is evaluated by using MATLAB to model the power system under different fault condition and simulate it by using phasor based method available in MATLAB simulation. Thus the modeling and simulation of numerical mho relay gives the improved result and greatly enhance the performance of mho relay

KEYWORDS:

  1. Distance protection
  2. Numerical relays
  3. Matlab/Simulink

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

EXPECTED  SIMULATION RESULTS:

CONCLUSION:

This work presents a detailed phasor model for a distance relay of mho characteristics. Mho relays are inherently directional so there is no need for directional elements in the relay model. Here the developed simulation is evaluated for line to line fault on the system, and the results found as Simulation results of different faults regarding type and position show clearly the accurate performance of the developed distance relay model. From results it is seen that speed of operation of numerical mho relay is faster than impedance relay. The model versatility, adaptability and applicability promote it for use in power system simulators. Also, it can be used as a training tool to help users understand how a distance relay works and how settings are performed.

REFERENCES:

I. P.G. Mclaren SM, G.W. Swift SM, 2. Zhang, E. Dirks, R.P. Jayasinghe, I. Fernandouniversity Of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, R3T 2N2.” A New Directional Element For Numerical Distance Relays” IEEE Transactions On Power Delivery, Vol. 10, No. 2, April 1995.

II. P. G. Mclaren, K. Mustaphi, G. Benmouyal, S. Chano, A. Girgis, C. Henville, M. Kezunovic, L. Kojovic, R. Marttila, M. Meisinger, G. Michel, M. S. Sachdev, V. Skendzic, T. S. Sidhu, And D. Tziouvaras” Software Models For Relays” IEEE Transactions On  Power Delivery, VOL. 16, NO. 2, APRIL 2001.

III. Shailendra Kumar Saroj, Harish Balaga, D. N. Viswakarma (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi, India ” Discrete Wavelet Transform Based Numerical Protection Of Transmission Line ”, Department Of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute Of Technology

IV. Li-Cheng Wu, Chih-Wen Liu, Ching-Shan Chen,Member, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwa, “Modeling And Testing Ofa Digital Distance Relay Using MATLAB / SIMULINK ,IEEE Transaction On Power Delivery,2005.

V. Eng. Abdlmnam A. Abdlrahem , Dr.Hamid H Sherwali Modelling Of Numerical Distance Relays Using Matlab ”, “IEEE Symposium On Industrial Electronics And Applications”,Octobe,2009.

Implementation and Evaluation a SIMULINK Model of a Distance Relay in MATLAB/SIMULINK

ABSTRACT:

This paper describes the opportunity of implementing a model of a Mho type distance relay with a three zones by using MATLAB/SIMULINK package. SimPowerSystem toolbox was used for detailed modeling of distance relay, transmission line and fault simulation. The proposed model was verified under different tests, such as fault detection which includes single line to ground (SLG) fault, double line fault (LL), double line to ground fault (LLG) and three phase fault, all types of faults were applied at different locations to test this model. Also the Mho R- jX plain was created inside this model to show the trajectory of measured apparent impedance by the relay. The results show that the relay operates correctly under different locations for each fault type. The difficulties in understanding distance relay can be cleared by using MATLAB/SIMULINK software.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Power system protection
  2. Distance relay
  3. Line protection
  4. MATLAB/SIMULINK
  5. Apparent Impedance

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Figure 1. Overall simulation model

CONCLUSION:

A Mho type distance relay was successfully developed based on MATLAB/SIMULINK package, (each part of the relay is implemented as a separate function). Each function has been created using special blocks of SIMULINK. By testing the behavior of the developed relay model under different fault conditions, the relay model was able to recognize the appropriate fault type. From perspective impedance calculations, the relay model has the ability of indicating the correct zone of operation in all cases. The relay identifiers the fault locations as expected, as the fault location is changed, the measured impedance change consequently. The impedance path which reflects the behavior of the model under different fault conditions was presented and discussed

REFERENCES:

[1] Anderson. P.M.”Power System Protection”, ISBN 0-07-134323-7 McGraw-Hill,1999.

[2] Muhd Hafizi Idris, Mohd Saufi Ahmad, Ahmad Zaidi Abdullah, Surya Hardi “Adaptive Mho Type Distance Relaying Scheme with Fault Resistance Compensation” 2013 IEEE 7th International Power Engineering and Optimization Conference (PEOCO2013), Langkawi, June 2013.

[3] M. H. Idris, S. Hardi and M. Z. Hassan, “Teaching Distance Relay Using Matlab/Simulink Graphical User Interface”, Malaysian Technical Universities Conference on Engineering and Technology,

November 2012.

[4] L. C. Wu, C. W. Liu and C. S. Chen, “Modeling and testing of a digital distance relay using Matlab/Simulink”, IEEE 2005.

[5] The Math Works, Inc., “SimPowerSystems user‟s guide”, Version 4.6, 2008.