Compact Regenerative Braking Scheme for a PM BLDC Motor Driven Electric Two-Wheeler


This Paper presents compact regenerative braking scheme for a PM BLDC motor driven electric two wheeler. Electric vehicles have been attracting unprecedented attention in light of the volatile market prices and prospect of diminishing supplies of fuel. Advances in battery technology and significant improvements in electrical motor efficiency have made electric vehicles an attractive alternative, especially for short distance commuting.


This paper describes the application of Brushless DC (BLDC) motor technology in an electric vehicle with special operation on regenerative braking. BLDC motors are frequently used for electric vehicle due to its high efficiency & robustness. In an electric vehicle, regenerative breaking helps to conserve energy by charging the battery, thus extending the driving range of the vehicle.


  1. Regenerative braking
  2. BLDC Motor
  3. Electric vehicle



Fig. 1 Equivalent circuit of an inverter driven 3- phase PM BLDC motor


Fig. 2. Drive cycle with maximum vehicle speed of 25 kmph (corresponding motor speed 330 rpm)

Fig. 3. Battery power and current during combination of regenerative braking and mechanical braking.

Fig.4. Acceleration signal, brake signal, vehicle speed and distance travelled.

Fig.5. Comparision of SOC for different braking methods


In this paper, the line back –EMF based regeneration Technique is used. The performance presented in this paper gives better than conventional mechanical braking in two wheeler EVs.Ultra capacitor is used as secondary energy storage, with regards to its remarkable properties, has used to improve the acceleration performance and regenerative braking efficiency.


Further, the presented method is the simplest one among the known regenerative methods in terms of the simplicity of the system, ease of implementation. This control system developed higher braking BLDC Motor torque than conventional mechanical braking. The proposed control strategy also gives a higher electric regenerative braking efficiency and better control performance.


In an BLDC Motor electric vehicle, regenerative breaking helps to conserve energy by charging the battery, thus extending the driving range of the vehicle.


[1]Cody J, 2008, “Regenerative Braking Control for a BLDC Motor in Electric Vehicle Applications”, Honours Paper in Bachelor of Engineering degree, University of South Australia, School of Electrical and Information Engineering.

[2] Ehsani, M.; Falahi, M.; Lotfifard, S. Vehicle to grid services: Potential and applications. Energies 2012, 5, 4076–4090.

[3] Falahi, M.; Chou, H.M.; Ehsani, M.; Xie, L.; Butler-Purry, K.L. “Potential power quality benefits of electric vehicles”. IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy 2013, 4, 1016–1023.

[4]J. Shen, X.J.; Chen, S.; Li, G.; Zhang, Y.; Jiang, X.; Lie, T.T. “Configure methodology of onboard super capacitor array for recycling regenerative braking energy of URT vehicles”. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 2013, 49, 1678–1686.

[5]. Yang, M.-J.; Jhou, H.-L.; Ma, B.-Y.; Shyu, K.-K. “A costeffective method of electric brake with energy regeneration for electric vehicles”. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 2009, 56, 2203– 2212.

A variable speed wind generator maximum power tracking based on adaptative neuro-fuzzy inference system


The power from wind varies depending on the environmental factors. Many methods have been proposed to locate and track the maximum power point (MPPT) of the wind, such as the fuzzy logic (FL), artificial neural network (ANN) and neuro-fuzzy. In this paper, a variable-speed wind-generator maximum power- point-tracking (MPPT) based on adaptative neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is presented. It is designed as a combination of the Sugeno fuzzy model and neural network. The ANFIS model is used to predict the optimal speed rotation using the variation of the wind speed as the input. The wind energy conversion system (WECS) employing a permanent magnet synchronous generator connected to a DC bus using a power converter is presented. A wind speed step model was used in the design phase. The performance of the WECS with the proposed ANFIS controller is tested for fast wind speed variation. Simulation results showed the possibility of achieving maximum power tracking for the wind and output voltage regulation for the DC bus simultaneously with the ANFIS controller. The results also proved the good response and robustness of the control system proposed.

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Robust Repetitive Control Design for 3P4W Shunt Active Power Filter


This paper presents a discrete repetitive control technique for three phase four wire (3P4W) shunt active power filter (SAPF). Generally, the control design for power electronics devices involves two control loops: slow acting outer voltage loop and fast acting inner current control loop. The reference for inner current loop is periodic in nature and cannot be easily tracked by PI regulator. The repetitive controllers (RC) are well known for their tracking ability of periodic signals and offers high gain at all the frequencies. The high gain in higher frequency range may leads towards instability. Therefore, in proposed work, the regular RC is modified by squaring its sensitivity function. This approach results in low amplitude of sensitivity function while offering deep notches at low to mid frequencies range and smaller notches at higher frequencies. This control approach has been simulated and implemented on 3P4W SAPF.

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Voltage Sag Enhancement of Grid Connected Hybrid PV-Wind Power System Using Battery and SMES Based Dynamic Voltage Restorer


Renewable energy sources; which are abundant in nature and climate friendly are the only preferable choice of the world to provide green energy. The limitation of most renewable energy sources specifically wind and solar PV is its intermittent nature which are depend on wind speed and solar irradiance respectively and this leads to power fluctuations. To compensate and protect sensitive loads from being affected by the power distribution side fluctuations and faults, dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) is commonly used. This research work attempts to withstand and secure the effect of voltage fluctuation of grid connected hybrid PV-wind power system. To do so battery and super magnetic energy storage (SMES) based DVR is used as a compensating device in case of voltage sag condition. The compensation method used is a pre-sag compensation which locks the instantaneous real time three phase voltage magnitude and angle in normal condition at the point of common coupling (PCC) and stores independently so that during a disturbance it used for compensation. Symmetrical and asymmetrical voltage sags scenario are considered and compensation is carried out using Power System Computer Aided Design or Electro Magnetic Transient Design and Control (PSCAD/EMTDC) software.

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Power Quality Improvement and Low Voltage Ride through Capability in Hybrid Wind-PV Farms Grid-Connected Using Dynamic Voltage Restorer


The paper proposes the application of a Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) to enhance the power quality and improve the low voltage ride through (LVRT) capability of a three-phase medium-voltage network connected to a hybrid distribution generation (DG) system. In this system, the photovoltaic (PV) plant and the wind turbine generator (WTG) are connected to the same point of common coupling (PCC) with a sensitive load. The WTG consists of a DFIG generator  connected to the network via a step-up transformer. The PV system is connected to the PCC via a two-stage energy conversion (DC-DC converter and DC-AC inverter). This topology allows, first, the extraction of maximum power based on the incremental inductance technique. Second, it allows the connection of the PV system to the public grid through a step-up transformer. In addition, the DVR based on Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is connected to the same PCC. Different fault condition scenarios are tested for improving the efficiency and the quality of the power supply and compliance with the requirements of the LVRT grid code. The results of the LVRT capability, voltage stability, active power, reactive power, injected current, and DC link voltage, speed of turbine and power factor at the PCC are presented with and without the contribution of the DVR system.

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Fault Detection and Classification In Electrical Power Transmission System Using Artificial Neural Network


This paper focuses on the detection and classification of the faults on electrical power transmission line using artificial neural networks. The three phase currents and voltages of one end are taken as inputs in the proposed scheme. The feed forward neural network along with back propagation algorithm has been employed for detection and classification of the fault for analysis of each of the three phases involved in the process. A detailed analysis with varying number of hidden layers has been performed to validate the choice of the neural network. The simulation results concluded that the present method based on the neural network is efficient in detecting and classifying the faults on transmission lines with satisfactory performances. The different faults are simulated with different parameters to check the versatility of the method. The proposed method can be extended to the Distribution network of the Power System. The various simulations and analysis of signals is done in the MATLAB® environment.

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Control of Solar Photovoltaic Integrated Universal Active Filter Based on Discrete Adaptive Filter


In this work, a novel technique based on adaptive filtering is proposed for the control of three phase universal active power filter with a solar photovoltaic array integrated at its DC bus.  Two adaptive filters along with a zero crossing detection technique, are used to extract the magnitude of fundamental active component of distorted load currents, which is then used in estimation of reference signal for the shunt active filter. This technique enables extraction of active component of all three phases with reduced mathematical computation. The series active filter control is based on synchronous reference frame theory and it regulates load voltage and maintains it in-phase with voltage at point of common coupling under conditions of voltage sag and swell. The performance of the system is evaluated on an experimental prototype in the laboratory under various dynamic conditions such as sag and swell in voltage at point of common coupling, load unbalancing and change in solar irradiation intensity.

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Control and operation of a solar PV-battery grid-tied system in fixed and variable power mode


In this work, a simple phase-locked loop – less control is presented for a single-stage solar photovoltaic (PV) – battery-grid-tied system. As compared to traditional solar PV systems, the system has reduced losses due to the absence of boost converter and a flexible power flow due to the inclusion of a storage source (battery). The synchronous reference frame theory is used to generate the pulses for switching the voltage-source converter (VSC), while maximum power is extracted from the solar PV array by using perturb and observe-based maximum power point tracking technique. The inherent feature of shunt active filtering by the VSC has also been incorporated in this system. Test results for the system operation under fixed power and variable power mode are studied on a prototype developed in the laboratory. During fixed power mode, a fixed amount of power is fed to the grid, whereas in variable power mode the power fed to the grid varies. Test results obtained are in accordance with the IEEE-519 standard. This work is a basis for the upcoming power market, where solar PV consumers can manage the generated electricity and maximise their profit by selling the power to the grid judiciously.

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A Systematic Method for Designing a PR Controller and Active Damping of the LCL Filter for Single-Phase Grid-Connected PV Inverters


The Proportional Resonant (PR) current controller provides gains at a certain frequency (resonant frequency) and eliminates steady state errors. Therefore, the PR controller can be successfully applied to single grid-connected PV inverter current control. On the contrary, a PI controller has steady-state errors and limited disturbance rejection capability. Compared with the L- and LC filters, the LCL filter has excellent harmonic suppression capability, but the inherent resonant peak of the LCL filter may introduce instability in the whole system. Therefore, damping must be introduced to improve the control of the system.


Considering the controller and the LCL filter active damping as a whole system makes the controller design method more complex. In fact, their frequency responses may affect each other. The traditional trial-and-error procedure is too time-consuming and the design process is inefficient. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the frequency response influence between the PR controller and the LCL filter regarded as a whole system.


In addition, the paper presents a systematic method for designing controller parameters and the capacitor current feedback coefficient factor of LCL filter active-damping. The new method relies on meeting the stable margins of the system. Moreover, the paper also clarifies the impact of the grid on the inverter output current. Numerical simulation and a 3 kW laboratory setup assessed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.


  1. Single phase
  2. Grid-connected
  3. LCL filter
  4. Active damping
  5. Proportional resonant (PR) controller




 Figure 1. Two-stage single-phase PV system with LCL-filter control scheme.



Figure 2. Grid voltage and injected current at full load with nominal parameters: simulation results. (a) Grid voltage sag; (b) grid voltage swell.

Figure 3. Grid voltage and injected current at full load with inductor L1 variation: simulation results. (a) Inductor L1 increased by 20%: grid voltage sag; (b) Inductor L1 increased by 20%: grid voltage swell; (c) Inductor L1 decreased by 20%: grid voltage sag; (b) Inductor L1 decreased by 20%: grid voltage swell.

Figure 4. Grid voltage and injected current at full load with inductor L2 variation: simulation results. (a) Inductor L2 increased by 150%: grid voltage sag; (b) inductor L2 increased by 150%: grid voltage swell; (c) inductor L2 decreased by 20%: grid voltage sag; (b) inductor L2 decreased by 20%: grid voltage swell.

Figure 5. Grid voltage and injected current at full load with capacitor C variation: simulation results. (a) Capacitor C increased by 20%: grid voltage sag; (b) capacitor C increased by 20%: grid voltage swell; (c) capacitor C decreased by 20%: grid voltage sag; (b) capacitor C decreased by 20%: grid voltage swell.


The stability analysis of the system composed by a PR controller and an LCL filter together is not easy: the frequency responses may affect each other and the PR controller design becomes complex. The traditional method based on trial-and-error procedures, is too time-consuming, and the design process is inefficient. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the frequency response influence between the PR controller and the LCL filter.


In addition, the paper presents a systematic design method for the PR controller parameters and the capacitor current feedback coefficient, used in the active damping of the LCL filter. Using the new parameters, a numerical simulation shows that the system meets the requirements of stable margins and current tracking steady-state error. The robustness of the current controller is verified through several experimental tests carried out on a 3 kW platform varying the system parameters.


The Bode diagrams of the system varying inductor, capacitor, and grid impedance values confirmed that the controller parameters enhance robustness against the system parameters variation. Moreover, the system remains stable even in case of grid voltage fluctuation. Both the simulation and the experimental results assess the validity of the proposed design method.


  1. Carrasco, J.M.; Franquelo, L.G.; Bialasiewicz, J.T.; Galvan, E.; Guisado, R.C.P.; Prats, A.M.; Leon, J.I.; Moreno-Alfonso, N. Power-electronic systems for the grid integration of renewable energy sources: A survey. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 2006, 53, 1002–1016.
  2. Wessels, C.; Dannehl, J.; Fuchs, F.W. Active Damping of LCL-Filter Resonance based on Virtual Resistor for PWM Rectifiers—Stability Analysis with Different Filter Parameters. In Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, Rhodes, Greece, 15–19 June 2008; pp. 3532–3538.
  3. Castilla, M.; Miret, J.; Matas, J.; de Vicuna, L.G.; Guerrero, J.M. Control design guidelines for single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic inverters with damped resonant harmonic compensators. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 2009, 56, 4492–4501.
  4. Yi, L.; Zhengming, Z.; Fanbo, H.; Sizhao, L.; Lu, Y. An Improved Virtual Resistance Damping Method for Grid-Connected Inverters with LCL Filters. In Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE 2011), Phoenix, AZ, USA, 17–22 September 2011; pp. 3816–3822.
  5. Parker, S.G.; McGrath, B.P.; Holmes, D.G. Regions of Active Damping Control for LCL Filters. In Proceedings of the Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), Raleigh, NC, USA, 15–20 September 2012; pp. 53–60.

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