Small Signal Stability Analysis Oriented Design of Hybrid Anti-Islanding Protection Technique Based on Active Disturbance Injection Major Electrical Projects


The conventional over/under voltage, over/under frequency based anti-islanding protection scheme presents significant nondetection zone (NDZ) under critical loading conditions of distribution networks. To overcome this challenge, a unique hybrid technique has been proposed in this article for the anti-islanding protection of distributed generators (DGs). The algorithm requires the injection of an active oscillatory disturbance signal of very small magnitude through the current control loop along the direct axis of the synchronously rotating reference frame of the converter. Small signal stability analysis of the system is carried out to analyze the effect of such active signal injection having different frequencies. The anti-islanding protection algorithm first involves the superimposition of d-axis voltage. Thereafter, two novel indexes are proposed based on which the trip signal logic is developed for the protection scheme. The methodology has been found to detect an unintentional islanding scenario within 90 ms from the initiation instant. The efficacy of the proposed hybrid anti-islanding protection scheme is tested under various abnormal operating conditions by performing simulations on the CIGRE LVtest system. Experimental validation of the proposed methodology has also been carried out in Controller Hardware-in-the-Loop (CHIL) platform using Typhoon HIL 602+ and Speedgoat baseline real-time target machine.


  1. Active disturbance injection
  2. Anti-islanding protection
  3. Distributed generators (DGs)
  4.  Small signal stability
  5. Superimposition



Fig. 1. Control strategy adopted for the DGs with signal injection through direct axis current control loop.


Fig. 2. Performance of the proposed scheme under zero power mismatch condition.

Fig. 3. Performance of the proposed scheme under different types of load Switching

Fig. 4. Performance of the proposed scheme under unbalanced loading condition


Small signal stability analysis-oriented design of a hybrid real-time anti-islanding protection scheme has been proposed and successfully demonstrated in this article. The prominent features of the proposed method can be listed as follows.

1) Faster detection time of an unintentional islanding event compared to most of the proposed methods in literature even under the worst case scenario.

2) The selection of amplitude of the disturbance signal has been done considering the negative impact on power quality. On the other hand, the frequency of the active disturbance signal has been selected in such a way that it avoids any kind of excitation of the modes of the system thereby causing instability.

3) Due to the superimposition of the d-axis voltage, the effects due to transients are nullified and the methodology preserves both security and dependability attribute.

4) Although the theoretical analysis has been carried out in the standard IEEE 1547 test system, the protection technique proposed in this article is generalized and can be applied for DGs in any distribution networks.

The efficacy of the proposed algorithm is evaluated under various operating conditions by conducting simulations on the CIGRE LV distribution network. Further, the real-time performance evaluation of the proposed algorithm has been carried out in the CHIL platform using Typhoon HIL 602+ and Speed goat baseline real-time target machine on standard IEEE 1547 test system under various operating conditions. It has been observed that the algorithm is robust under different operating scenarios and is able to preserve its desired functionality in most of the cases.


[1] F. Blaabjerg, Y. Yang, D. Yang, and X. Wang, “Distributed power generation systems and protection,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 105, no. 7, pp. 1311–1331, Jul. 2017.

[2] UL Standard for Safety for Inverters, Converters, Controllers, and Interconnection System Equipment for Use with Distributed Energy Resources, UL 1741, 2010.

[3] “Standard for interconnecting distributed resources with electric power systems,” in Proc. IEEE Std. 1547, 2003, pp. 1–28.

[4] F. Noor, R. Arumugam, and M. Y. Vaziri, “Unintentional islanding and comparison of prevention techniques,” in Proc. 37th Annu. North Amer. Power Symp., 2005, pp. 90–96.

[5] S. Dutta et al., “Shifting of research trends in islanding detection method— A comprehensive survey,” Protection Control Modern Power Syst., vol. 3, pp. 1–20, 2018.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.