Performance Analysis of P&O and Incremental Conductance MPPT Algorithms Under Rapidly Changing Weather Conditions


In this paper, the close search of two maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms namely Perturb and Observe (P&O) and Incremental conductance (InC) is given for the Photo-Voltaic (PV) power generation system. The mathematical model of the PV array is grown and transfer into MATLAB/Simulink environment.


This model is used throughout the paper to affect the PV source characteristics equal to that of a 20 Wp PV panel. The MPPT algorithms generate proper duty ratio for integrate dc-dc boost converter driving resistant load. The work of these algorithms are decide at slow and fast changing weather conditions where it is realized that InC method tracks the fast changing solar energy level at a faster rate as compared to P&O.


Depending upon the general environmental conditions the MPPT algorithms finds a unique running point to track the maximum available power. The design find a fixed duty ratio by measure the previous power, voltage and current thereby increase the power output of the panel. The main objective is to compare the tracking efficiency and stability of the algorithms under different environmental situations on par with other real world tests.


  1. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)
  2. Photovoltaic (PV)
  3. DC-DC Boost Converter
  4. Perturb & Observe (P&O)
  5. Incremental Conduction (InC)




Fig. 1. PV Panel Interfaced with Boost Converter for MPP Tracking



 Fig. 2. Experimental Measured PV Characteristics


 Fig. 3. Experimental Results showing Source Voltage, Load Voltage and Duty Ratio


Fig. 4. Performances of P&O and InC under slowly changing climatic conditions (a) Irradiations Levels (b), (c) & (d) Duty ratio (e) Panel Voltage (f) Panel Power (g) Oscillations in Duty by the algorithms


Fig. 5. Performances of P&O and InC under rapidly changing climatic conditions (a) Insolations (b)& (c) Duty ratio (d)&(e) Panel Voltage (f) Panel Power


The presented studies in this paper were the comparative analysis of two MPPT algorithms, Perturb & Observe and Incremental Conductance and conducted through boost converter. The simulation results prove positively that the P&O and the Incremental Conductance MPPTs reach the intended maximum power point. In the slowly changing whether both algorithms perform without significantly changes.


It has observed that the Incremental Conductance reaches at the MPP three times faster than P&O in all cases and shows better performance for rapid changes and a better stability when the MPP is achieved. It has observed that P&O shows oscillations around the MPP when it reaches in steady state position which results in some power loss. But in case of InC there are no additional oscillations at steady state condition.


However the P&O MPPT are mostly used in practice due to their simplicity. The originality and the specificity of the presented results obtain during this research reside in the fact that external parameters as irradiation and fixed temperature were introduced, at first as linear functions (ramp input) and, at second as random (step input) ones describing more closely the actual applicative conditions. The effect of the changing weather on the voltage and power of the PV panel according to change in MPP has shown in the results section.


[1] Tariq, J. Asghar, “Development of an Analog Maximum Power Point Tracker for Photovoltaic Panel”, PEDS. International Conference on, 2005, vol. 1, no., pp. 251, 255.

[2] H. Al-Bahadili, H. Al-Saadi, R. Al-Sayed, M.A.-S. Hasan, “Simulation of maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic systems”, Applications of Information Technology to Renewable Energy Processes and Systems (IT-DREPS), 1st International Conference & Exhibition on the , 2013, vol., no., pp. 79,84.

[3] Lu Yuan, Cui Xingxing, “Study on maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic power generation system”, Computer Science and Information Technology (ICCSIT), 3rd IEEE International Conference on, 2010, vol. 9, pp. 180,183.

[4] G. Walker, “Evaluating MPPT converter topologies using a MATLAB PV model”, Journal of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, 2001, Australia, IEAust, vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 49-56.

[5] Beriber, D.; Talha, A, “MPPT techniques for PV systems,” Power Engineering, Energy and Electrical Drives (POWERENG), 2013 Fourth International Conference on, vol., no., pp.1437, 1442, 13-17 May 2013.

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