The proposed converter has the following features: 1) zero current commutation (ZCC) and natural voltage clamping (NVC) eliminate the need for active-clamp circuits or passive snubbers required to absorb surge voltage in conventional current-fed topologies; 2) Switching losses are reduced significantly owing to zero-current switching (ZCS) of primary side devices and zero-voltage switching (ZVS) of secondary side devices. Turn-on switching transition loss of primary devices is also negligible. 3) Soft-switching and NVC are inherent and load independent. 4) The voltage across primary side device is independent of duty cycle with varying input voltage and output power and clamped at rather low reflected output voltage enabling the use of low voltage semiconductor devices. These merits make the converter good candidate for interfacing low voltage dc bus with high voltage dc bus for higher current applications. Steady state, analysis, design, simulation and experimental results are presented.
- Current-fed converter
- DC/DC converter
- Natural clamping
- Zero-current commutation
Fig. 1. Diagram of a FCV propulsion system.
Fig.2. Proposed ZCS current-fed push-pull dc/dc converter.
EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:
Fig. 3. Operating waveforms of proposed ZCS current-fed push-pull converter in the buck mode.
Fig. 4. Simulation results for output power of 250W at 300V. (a) Current through input inductor iL and voltage VAB. (b) Primary switches currents iS1 and iS2 and secondary switches currents iS3 and iS4.
Fig. 5. Experimental results for output power of 250W at 300V(x-axis: 2μs/div): (a) Boost inductor current iL (5A/div), (b) Voltage vAB (100V/div) and voltage across secondary of transformer vsec (500 V/div), (c-d) Gate-to-source voltage Vgs (10V/div) and drain-to-source voltage Vds (50V/div) across the primary side MOSFETs and currents through them (10A/div). (e-f) Gate-to-source voltage Vgs (10V/div) and drain-to-source voltage Vds (200V/div) across the secondary side MOSFETs and currents through them (2A/div).
Fig. 6. Experimental results for output power of 100W at 300V(x-axis: 2μs/div): (a) Boost inductor current iL (5A/div), (b) Voltage vAB (100V/div) and voltage across secondary of transformer vsec (500 V/div), (c-d) Gate-to-source voltage Vgs (10V/div) and drain-to-source voltage Vds (50V/div) across the primary side MOSFETs and currents through them (10A/div). (e-f) Gate-to-source voltage Vgs (10V/div) and drain-to-source voltage Vds (200V/div) across the secondary side MOSFETs and currents through them (2A/div).
This paper presents a novel soft-switching snubberless bidirectional current-fed isolated push-pull dc/dc converter for application of the ESS in FCVs. A novel secondary side modulation method is proposed to eliminate the problem of voltage spike across the semiconductor devices at turn-off. The above claimed ZCC and NVC of primary devices without any snubber are demonstrated and confirmed by the simulation and experimental results. ZCS of primary side devices and ZVS of secondary side devices are achieved, which reduces the switching losses significantly. Soft-switching is inherent and is maintained independent of load. Once ZCC, NVC, and soft-switching are designed to be obtained at rated power, it is guaranteed to happen at reduced load unlike voltage-fed converters. Turn-on switching transition loss of primary devices is also shown to be negligible. Hence maintaining soft-switching of all devices substantially reduces the switching loss and allows higher switching frequency operation for the converter to achieve a more compact and higher power density system. Proposed secondary modulation achieves natural commutation of primary devices and clamps the voltage across them at low voltage (reflected output voltage) independent of duty cycle. It therefore eliminates requirement of active-clamp or passive snubber. Usage of low voltage devices results in low conduction losses in primary devices, which is significant due to higher currents on primary side. The proposed modulation method is simple and easy to implement. These merits make the converter promising for interfacing low voltage dc bus with high voltage dc bus for higher current applications such as FCVs, front-end dc/dc power conversion for renewable (fuel cells/PV) inverters, UPS, microgrid, V2G, and energy storage. The specifications are taken for FCV but the proposed modulation, design, and the demonstrated results are suitable for any general application of current-fed converter (high step-up). Similar merits and performance will be achieved.
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