Modelling and Simulation of Standalone PV Systems with Battery super capacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System for a Rural Household


This paper presents the comparison between the standalone photovoltaic (PV) system with battery-super capacitor hybrid energy storage system (BS-HESS) and the conventional standalone PV system with battery-only storage system for a rural household. Standalone PV system with passive BS-HESS and semi-active BS-HESS are presented in this study. Two control strategies, Rule Based Controller (RBC) and Filtration Based Controller (FBC), are developed for the standalone PV system with semi-active BS-HESS with the aim to reduce the battery stress and to extend the battery lifespan. The simulation results show that the system with semi-active BS-HESS prolongs the battery lifespan by significantly reducing the battery peak current up to 8.607% and improving the average SOC of the battery up to 0.34% as compared to the system with battery-only system.


  1. Renewable energy
  2. PV
  3. Hybrid energy storage system
  4. Super capacitor
  5. Battery
  6. Control strategy



Fig. 1. Simulink Models. (a) Standalone PV system with Battery-only Storage. (b) Standalone PV System with Passive BS-HESS. (c) Standalone PV system with Semi-Active BS-HESS.


Fig. 2. 24-hours Profiles. (a) Solar Irradiation Profile. (b) Load Demand (c) PV Power Output.

Fig. 3. Battery Current. (a) Battery-only (b) Passive BS-HESS. (c) Semi-active BS-HESS (RBC). (d) Semi-active BS-HESS (Moving Average).

Fig. 4. Super capacitor Current. (a) Passive BS-HESS. (b) Semi-active BS-HESS (RBC). (c) Semi-active BS-HESS (Moving Average).


The BS-HESS shows the positive impact to the battery and the overall system. The passive BS-HESS is easy to be implemented, but the improvement is not significant as it cannot be controlled. Therefore, semi-active BS-HESS is a better configuration that improves the battery lifespan and maximizes the level of utilization of the super capacitor. The system with semi-active BS-HESS (moving average filter) has significantly smoothened the battery current. The system with semi-active BS-HESS (RBC) shows a great capability in battery peak current reduction and the prevention of battery deep discharge by reducing the peak power demand by 8.607% and improving the average SOC of the battery by 0.34% as compared to the system with battery-only system.


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