This paper presents a modification to the classical Model Predictive Control algorithm, named Modulated Model Predictive Control, and its application to active power filters. The proposed control is able to retain all the advantages of a Finite Control Set Model Predictive Control whilst improving the generated waveforms harmonic spectrum. In fact a modulation algorithm, based on the cost function ratio for different output vectors, is inherently included in the MPC. The cost function based modulator is introduced and its effectiveness on reducing the current ripple is demonstrated. The presented solution provides an effective and straightforward single loop controller, maintaining an excellent dynamic performance despite the modulated output and it is self-synchronizing with the grid. This promising method is applied to the control of a Shunt Active Filter for harmonic content reduction through a reactive power compensation methodology. Significant results obtained by experimental testing are reported and commented, showing that MPC is a viable control solution for active filtering systems.
- Smart Grids
- Power Quality
- Active Filters
- Power Filters
- Harmonic Distortion
- Model Predictive Control
Fig.1: Schematic diagram of a FCS-MPC.
EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:
Fig.2: M2PC sensitivity to filter inductance variation: (a) Lf = 2.375mH (b) Lf = 4.75mH (c) Lf = 9.5mH.
Power quality regulation is a relevant topic in modern electrical networks. Improving the quality of the delivered energy is an important characteristic in the new smart grids where there is an increasing demand of dynamic, efficient and reliable distribution systems. The use of active filters becomes therefore vital for the reduction of harmonic distortions in the power grid. This paper has presented the development and the implementation of a SAF for harmonic distortion reduction regulated by an improved Modulated Model Predictive Controller. Based on the system model, it dynamically predicts the values of all the variable of interest in order to obtain a multiple control target optimization by minimizing a user defined cost function. Moreover the higher current ripple typical of MPC has been considerably reduced by introducing a cost function based modulation strategy without compromising the dynamic performances. A SAF prototype implementing the proposed solution was then described, finally reporting and commenting the promising experimental tests results both in transient conditions and steady-state. It was hence demonstrated that FCS-M2PC is a viable and effective solution for control of active power compensators, where different systems variables can be regulated with the aid of only a single control loop, with no need for grid synchronization devices.
 P. Salmeron and S. P. Litran, “Improvement of the Electric Power Quality Using Series Active and Shunt Passive Filters,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 1058–1067, 2010.
 H. Johal and D. Divan, “Design Considerations for Series-Connected Distributed FACTS Converters,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1609–1618, 2007.
 D. Divan and H. Johal, “Distributed FACTS—A New Concept for Realizing Grid Power Flow Control,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 6, p. 2253, 2007.
 B. Singh, K. Al-Haddad, and A. Chandra, “A review of active filters for power quality improvement,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 960–971, 1999.
 M. L. Heldwein, H. Ertl, J. Biela, D. Das, R. P. Kandula, J. A. Munoz, D. Divan, R. G. Harley, and J. E. Schatz, “An Integrated Controllable Network Transformer—Hybrid Active Filter System,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 1692–1701, 2015.