Matrix Converters: A Technology Review


The matrix converter is an array of controlled semiconductor switches that connects directly the three-phase source to the three-phase load. This converter has several attractive features that have been investigated in the last two decades. In the last few years, an increase in research work has been observed, bringing this topology closer to the industrial application. This paper presents the state-of-the-art view in the development of this converter, starting with a brief historical review. An important part of the paper is dedicated to a discussion of the most important modulation and control strategies developed recently. Special attention is given to present modern methods developed to solve the commutation problem. Some new arrays of power bidirectional switches integrated in a single module are also presented. Finally, this paper includes some practical issues related to the practical application of this technology, like overvoltage protection, use of filters, and ride-through capability.


  1. AC–AC power conversion
  2. Converters
  3. Matrix




 matrix converter

Fig. 1. Simplified circuit of a 3 x 3 matrix converter



Phase output voltage

Fig. 2. Typical waveforms. (a) Phase output voltage. (b) Load current.

maximum voltage ratio

Fig. 3. Illustrating maximum voltage ratio of 50%.

voltage ratio improvement
Fig. 4. Illustrating voltage ratio improvement to 87%.

Line-to-line voltage and current

Fig. 5. Line-to-line voltage and current in the load with the indirect method. Output frequency of 50 Hz.


 After two decades of research effort, several modulation and control methods have been developed for the matrix converter, allowing the generation of sinusoidal input and output currents, operating with unity power factor using standard processors. The most important practical implementation problem in the matrix converter circuit, the commutation problem between two controlled bidirectional switches, has been solved with the development of highly intelligent multistep commutation strategies. The solution to this problem has been made possible by using powerful digital devices that are now readily available in the market.



 Gyugi and B. Pelly, Static Power Frequency Changers: Theory, Performance and Applications. New York: Wiley, 1976.

  • Brandt, “Der Netztaktumrichter,” Bull. ASE, vol. 62, no. 15, pp. 714–727, July 1971.
  • Popov, “Der Direktumrichter mit zyklischer Steuerung,” Elektrie, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 372– 376, 1975.
  • Stacey, “An unrestricted frequency changer employing force commutated thyristors,” in Proc. IEEE PESC’76, 1976, pp. 165–173.
  • Jones and B. Bose, “A frequency step-up cycloconverter using power transistors in inverse-series mode,” Int. J. Electron., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 573–587, 1976.
  • MATRIX Converter

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.