Integration of Super capacitor in Photovoltaic Energy Storage: Modelling and Control


Due to the variable characteristics of photovoltaic energy production or the variation of the load, batteries used in storage systems renewable power can undergo many irregular cycles of charge 1 discharge. In turn, this can also have a detrimental effect on the life of the battery and can increase project costs. This paper presents an embedded energy share method between the energy storage system (battery) and the auxiliary energy storage system such as super capacitors (SC). Super capacitors are used to improve batteries life and reduce their stresses by providing or absorbing peaks currents as demanded by the load.


The photovoltaic cells are connected to DC bus with boost converter and controlled with MPPT algorithm, Super capacitors and batteries are linked to the DC bus through the buck-boost converter. The inductive load is connected to the DC bus by a DC-AC converter. The static converters associated with batteries and super capacitors are controlled by current. The components of the systems are supervised through a block of energy management. The complete model of the system is implemented in MATLAB/Simulink environment. Simulation results are given to show the performance of the proposed control strategy, for the overall system.


  1. Photovoltaic
  2. Batteries
  3. Super capacitors
  4. DC bus
  5. Energy storage
  6. Energy management
  7. Converters control



Figure 1. Schematic diagram of photovoltaic energy storage.


Figure 2. Solar irradianee.

Figure 3. Simulation of ip,’ and itoadwith variable solar irradianee.

Figure 4. Simulation of isc and hal with variable solar irradianee.

Figure 5. Simulation of hood and fpv with variable load.

Figure 6. Simulation of isc and hal with variable load.

Figure 7. Simulation of Vdc with variable load.

Figure 8. Simulation of TLoad and [bat with null photovoltaic current.

Figure 9. Simulation of Iscd 1 with null photovoltaic current.


In this paper, the storage photovoltaic energy by using a combination of Battery-Supercapacitor has been presented. First, the modeling of different components of the system has been addressed. A comparison of different model of SCs is given. Second, a strategy of control and regulation of the DC bus voltage was proposed, to deal with the variation of solar irradiation and/or the variation of the load.


This controller gives the better an effIcient energy management and ensures continuity of supply by using the methodology that involves a reversible chopper between the batteries and the DC bus and another between the SC and the DC bus to ensure stable voltage on the DC bus of 400V. The three operating scenarios show that the proposed control and management strategies of DC bus are effective and able to supply desired power. It is also shown that SCs can absorb rapid changes in current to reduce the stress on batteries.


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