Design and Evaluation of a Mini-Size SMES Magnet for Hybrid Energy Storage Application in a kW-Class Dynamic Voltage Restorer Simulation Projects

IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, 2017


This paper presents the design and evaluation of a mini-size GdBCO magnet for hybrid energy storage (HES) application in a kW-class dynamic voltage restorer (DVR). The HES-based DVR concept integrates with one fast-response highpower superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit and one low-cost high-capacity battery energy storage (BES) unit. Structural design, fabrication process and finite-elementmodeling (FEM) simulation of a 3.25 mH/240 A SMES magnet wound by state-of-the-art GdBCO tapes in SuNAM are presented. To avoid the internal soldering junctions and enhance the critical current of the magnet simultaneously, an improved continuous disk winding (CDW) method is proposed by introducing different gaps between adjacent single-pancake coil layers inside the magnet. About 4.41% increment in critical current and about 3.42% increment in energy storage capacity are demonstrated compared to a conventional CDW method. By integrating a 40 V/100 Ah valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery, the SMES magnet is applied to form a laboratory HES device for designing the kW-class DVR. For protecting a 380 V/5 kW sensitive load from 50% voltage sag, the SMES unit in the HES based scheme is demonstrated to avoid an initial discharge time delay of about 2.5 ms and a rushing discharging current of about 149.15 A in the sole BES based scheme, and the BES unit  is more economically feasible than the sole SMES based scheme for extending the compensation time duration.


  1. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES)
  2. SMES magnet design, hybrid energy storage (HES)
  3. Battery energy storage (BES)
  4. Continuous disk winding (CDW)
  5. Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR)
  6. Voltage sag compensation



Fig. 1. Circuit topology of the HES-based DVR.



 Fig. 2. Transient voltage curves: (a) Load voltage before compensation; (b) Compensation voltage from the DVR; (c) Load voltage after compensation.

Fig. 3. Transient voltage curves: (a) Load voltage before compensation; (b) Compensation voltage from the DVR; (c) Load voltage after compensation.


The structural design, fabrication process and FEM simulation of a 3.25 mH/240 A SMES magnet wound by state-of-the-art GdBCO tapes have been presented in this paper. The FEM simulation results have proved the performance enhancements in both the critical current and energy storage capacity by using the improved CDW scheme. Such a mini-size SMES magnet having relatively high power and low energy storage capacity is further applied to combine with a 40 V/100 Ah VRLA battery for developing a laboratory HES device in a kW-class DVR. In a 5 Kw sensitive load applications case, voltage sag compensation characteristics of three different DVR schemes by using a sole SMES system, a sole BES system and a SMES-BES-based HES device have been discussed and compared. With the fast-response high-power SMES, the maximum output current from the BES system is reduced from about 149.15 A in the BES-based DVR to 62.5 A in the HES-based DVR, and the drawback from the initial discharge time delay caused by the inevitable energy conversion process is offset by integrating the SMES system. With the low-cost high-capacity BES, practical compensation time duration is extended from about 32 ms in the SMES-based DVR to a longer duration determined by the BES capacity. Therefore, the proposed HES concept integrated with fast-response high-power SMES unit and low-cost high-capacity BES unit can be well expected to apply in practical large-scale DVR developments and other similar SMES applications.


[1] Mohd. H. Ali, B. Wu, and R. A. Dougal, “An overview of SMES applications in power and energy systems,” IEEE Trans. Sustainable Energy, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 38-47, 2010.

[2] X. Y. Chen et al., “Integrated SMES technology for modern power system and future smart grid,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., vol. 24, no. 5, Oct. 2014, Art. ID 3801605.

[3] IEEE Std 1159-2009, IEEE Recommended Practice for Monitoring Electric Power Quality, 2009.

[4] X. H. Jiang et al., “A 150 kVA/0.3 MJ SMES voltage sag compensation system,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 1903-1906, Jun. 2005.

[5] S. Nagaya et al., “Field test results of the 5 MVA SMES system for bridging instantaneous voltage dips,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 632-635, Jun. 2006.

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