Compact Regenerative Braking Scheme for a PM BLDC Motor Driven Electric Two-Wheeler


This Paper presents compact regenerative braking scheme for a PM BLDC motor driven electric two wheeler. Electric vehicles have been attracting unprecedented attention in light of the volatile market prices and prospect of diminishing supplies of fuel. Advances in battery technology and significant improvements in electrical motor efficiency have made electric vehicles an attractive alternative, especially for short distance commuting.


This paper describes the application of Brushless DC (BLDC) motor technology in an electric vehicle with special operation on regenerative braking. BLDC motors are frequently used for electric vehicle due to its high efficiency & robustness. In an electric vehicle, regenerative breaking helps to conserve energy by charging the battery, thus extending the driving range of the vehicle.


  1. Regenerative braking
  2. BLDC Motor
  3. Electric vehicle



Fig. 1 Equivalent circuit of an inverter driven 3- phase PM BLDC motor


Fig. 2. Drive cycle with maximum vehicle speed of 25 kmph (corresponding motor speed 330 rpm)

Fig. 3. Battery power and current during combination of regenerative braking and mechanical braking.

Fig.4. Acceleration signal, brake signal, vehicle speed and distance travelled.

Fig.5. Comparision of SOC for different braking methods


In this paper, the line back –EMF based regeneration Technique is used. The performance presented in this paper gives better than conventional mechanical braking in two wheeler EVs.Ultra capacitor is used as secondary energy storage, with regards to its remarkable properties, has used to improve the acceleration performance and regenerative braking efficiency.


Further, the presented method is the simplest one among the known regenerative methods in terms of the simplicity of the system, ease of implementation. This control system developed higher braking BLDC Motor torque than conventional mechanical braking. The proposed control strategy also gives a higher electric regenerative braking efficiency and better control performance.


In an BLDC Motor electric vehicle, regenerative breaking helps to conserve energy by charging the battery, thus extending the driving range of the vehicle.


[1]Cody J, 2008, “Regenerative Braking Control for a BLDC Motor in Electric Vehicle Applications”, Honours Paper in Bachelor of Engineering degree, University of South Australia, School of Electrical and Information Engineering.

[2] Ehsani, M.; Falahi, M.; Lotfifard, S. Vehicle to grid services: Potential and applications. Energies 2012, 5, 4076–4090.

[3] Falahi, M.; Chou, H.M.; Ehsani, M.; Xie, L.; Butler-Purry, K.L. “Potential power quality benefits of electric vehicles”. IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy 2013, 4, 1016–1023.

[4]J. Shen, X.J.; Chen, S.; Li, G.; Zhang, Y.; Jiang, X.; Lie, T.T. “Configure methodology of onboard super capacitor array for recycling regenerative braking energy of URT vehicles”. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 2013, 49, 1678–1686.

[5]. Yang, M.-J.; Jhou, H.-L.; Ma, B.-Y.; Shyu, K.-K. “A costeffective method of electric brake with energy regeneration for electric vehicles”. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 2009, 56, 2203– 2212.

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