Research on Anti DC Bias and High Order Harmonics of Fifth Order Flux Observer for IEEE Electrical Projects

ABSTRACT:

DC Bias Due to various nonideal factors, including the motor parameter mismatches, detection errors, converter nonlinearities, noise, etc. and high order harmonics exist in flux model, which make the traditional flux observer estimation inaccurate. In order to suppress DC bias and high order harmonics, an interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) sensorless drive method based on a fifth order flux observer (FOFO) is proposed in this paper.

DC Bias

DC Bias The proposed FOFO can completely remove DC bias and has strong filtering ability for high order harmonics. Additionally, the parameters of the FOFO are set through s-domain analysis. Then, the discrete FOFO is obtained to better implementation in digital systems. The proposed FOFO is verified by experiments on a 2.0-kW IPMSM drive platform.

KEYWORDS

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. The block diagram of IPMSM sensorless drive based on the FOFO.

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Fig. 2. Estimated rotor flux and position estimation error at 1000 r/min. (a) SOFO. (b) FOFO.

Fig. 3. Eestimated rotor flux and position estimation error at 1800 r/min. (a) SOFO. (b) FOFO.

Fig. 4. Estimated rotor flux and position estimation error at 50 r/min. (a) SOFO. (b) FOFO.

CONCLUSION:

DC Bias In this paper, to further improve the performance of the flux observer to suppress DC bias and high order harmonics, a FOFO is proposed. Theoretical analysis shows that proposed FOFO has strong attenuation ability against the DC bias and harmonics, and motor parameters mismatch and additional interference can be avoided.

IPMSM

DC Bias Additionally, the parameters of FOFO are set through s-domain analysis. Moreover, for better implementation in digital systems, the structure of discrete FOFO is obtained. The effectiveness of the proposed FOFO has been verified at a 2.0-kW IPMSM sensorless drive. Compared with the SOFO sensorless drive

FOFO

the proposed FOFO method has strong performance of suppressing stator voltage DC bias and stator current DC bias, and the proposed method has better suppression of stator resistance mismatch and q-axis inductance mismatch under the condition of stator current DC bias.

DC

DC Bias The main advantages of the proposed FOFO are: 1) it is insensitive to DC bias; 2) it has strong suppression ability to high order harmonics; 3) it has high rotor position estimation accuracy. Our future research work will further study the application of FOFO in synchronous reluctance motors.

REFERENCES:

[1] S. Kim, J. Im, E. Song, and R. Kim, “A new rotor position estimation method of IPMSM using all-pass filter on high-frequency rotating voltage signal injection,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 63, no. 10, pp. 6499-6509, Oct. 2016.

[2] H, Zhang, W. Liu, Z. Chen, S. Mao, T. Meng, J. Peng, and N. Jiao, “A time-delay compensation method for IPMSM hybrid sensorless drives in rail transit applications,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol.66, no. 9, pp. 6715-6726, Sept. 2019.

[3] R. Antonello, L. Ortombina, F. Tinazzi, and M. Zigliotto, “Enhanced low-speed operations for sensorless anisotropic PM synchronous motor drives by a modified back-EKF observer,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 3069-3076, Apr. 2018.

[4] C. Li, G.Wang, G. Zhang, N. Zhao, and D. Xu, “Adaptive pseudorandom high-frequency square-wave voltage injection based sensorless control for SynRM drives,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 3200-3210, Mar. 2021.

[5] G. Zhang, G. Wang, H. Zhang, H. Wang, G. Bi, X. Zhang, and D. Xu, “Pseudo-random-frequency sinusoidal injection for position sensorless IPMSM drives considering sample and hold effect,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 9929-9941, Oct. 2019.

PMSM System Reduced-Order Feedback Linearization for Independent Torque Control electrical projects

ABSTRACT:

PMSM System in parallel to a 2-level 3-leg inverter gives a way to build up a high power-density driving system using existing electronic devices. But this type of system has a nature of nonlinearity that creates an obstacle in high performance control and the original system cannot be feedback-linearized directly.

Controller

This article presents a reduced-order feedback-linearization method. In the first place, an extra order-reducing step that separates the system as a main system and an auxiliary system is applied. Then a feedback-linearization method is applied to the reduced-order system. With these effort, the original system can be converted into a linear time-invariant system bringing the controller design problem into the linear domain.

Load torque

In the last step, a linear robust state-feedback controller is used to achieve the speed control as well as compensate the unmeasurable external load torque. An extensive experiment is given to verify the feasibility and good performance in a highly unbalanced load torque situation of the designed controller.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Parallel PMSM
  2.  Robust control
  3.  Feedback-linearization

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Figure 1. Proposed Controller Scheme.

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Figure 2. Speed And _D Response Of Speed Command Experiment.

Figure 3. Current Response Of Speed Command Experiment.

Figure 4. Speed And _D Response Of _D Command Experiment.

Figure 5. Current Response Of _D Command Experiment.

CONCLUSION:

In this article, we have presented a two-step state-feedback controller for the MIDPMSM system such that the two machines are carried out in closed-loop systems for handling the highly unbalanced load torque situation. This article proposes a new way to linearize a nonlinear system if feedback-linearization cannot be applied directly.

PMSM

The major contribution can be summarized in three aspects. First of all, a state-space description for the MID PMSM system is set up, and it is an affine nonlinear system with unknown inputs. And then, the original affine nonlinear system is linearized through two steps: order reducing and state-feedback linearization. With these two steps, the controller design problem is brought into the LTI system domain.

Polynomial

Secondly, in the state-feedback linearization stage, the stability of the constrained two-dimensional subsystem (7) is fully considered and dealt with. Indeed, in order to keep its stability, the calculation of the disturbance compensation gain k is given by analyzing eigenvalue constraints through solving its characteristic polynomial. Thirdly, based on the reduced-order linearized system, a state feedback controller together with an integrator is designed.

Loop

In this way, both goals, closed-loop stability and reference tracking, are reached. The experiment also proves that an open-loop machine can have the risk of becoming unstable when the “master-slave” method is used. The proposed controller can avoid this situation by putting both machines under closed-loop control. Although the proposed controller design method has shown its great advantages, at least one drawback of the controller is also left. This controller can hardly handle the singularity point of the system, which creates an obstacle. How to overcome the drawback becomes one of our next considerations.

REFERENCES:

 [1] Z. Deng and X. Nian, “Robust control of two parallel-connected permanent magnet synchronous motors fed by a single inverter,” IET Power Electron., vol. 9, no. 15, pp. 2833_2845, Dec. 2016.

[2] J. M. Lazi, Z. Ibrahim, M. H. N. Talib, and R. Mustafa, “Dual motor drives for PMSM using average phase current technique,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Power Energy, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Nov. 2010, pp. 786_790.

[3] A. A. A. Samat, D. Ishak, P. Saedin, and S. Iqbal, “Speed-sensorless control of parallel-connected PMSM fed by a single inverter using MRAS,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Power Eng. Optim. Conf., Melaka, Malaysia, Jun. 2012, pp. 35_39.

[4] A. Del Pizzo, D. Iannuzzi, and I. Spina, “High performance control technique for unbalanced operations of single-vsi dual-PM brushles motor drives,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Ind. Electron., Bari, Italy, Jul. 2010, pp. 1302_1307.

[5] J. M. Lazi, Z. Ibrahim, M. Sulaiman, I. W. Jamaludin, and M. Y. Lada, “Performance comparison of SVPWM and hysteresis current control for dual motor drives,” in Proc. IEEE Appl. Power Electron. Colloq. (IAPEC), Johor Bahru, Malaysia, Apr. 2011, pp. 75_80.

Peak Current Detection Starting based Position Sensorless Control of BLDC Motor Drive Academic

ABSTRACT:

Peak Current Detection a single stage position sensorless control based solar power fed PMBLDC (Permanent Magnet Brushless DC) motor drive scheme for irrigation pump is proposed in this paper. The proposed system is designed without using any mechanical sensor to reduce the cost along with the complexity of the system with optimum utilization of the solar Photovoltaic (PV) power.

PMBLDC

Peak Current Detection The proposed system integrated with a PMBLDC motor drive coupled to a water pump is controlled by an inverter input voltage sensing based position sensorless control with high current detection and commutation point estimation based starting to wide speed range control .Elimination of position sensor, makes the system control compact and cheaper.

CURRENT

Peak Current Detection The peak current estimation based starting in sensorless mode, enables soft starting restricting high starting current with reliability like sensor based operation. The proposed drive is tested and validated on a developed laboratory prototype and its suitability is justified with different test results under steady state and dynamic operating conditions.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Peak Current detection based starting
  2.  Position sensorless control
  3. Incremental Conductance MPPT Algorithm
  4. PMBLDC motor drive
  5. Water pumping

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig.1 System configuration of position sensorless brushless DC motor drive operated aqua pumping

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULT:

Fig.2 Solar PV Array Performance (a) Steady-state and Starting performance at 1000 W/m2 insolation (b) Dynamic performance varying from 500 W/m2 to 1000 W/m2

Fig. 3 BLDC motor performance at sensorless scheme(a)Zero starting and steady state performance at 1000W/m2 irradiance(b)Dynamic performance varying from 500 W/m2 to 1000 W/m2 irradiance

CONCLUSION:

Peak Current DetectionPosition sensorless control scheme of the BLDC motor has been presented for irrigation pump application. Sensorless control scheme has been justified for adverse environment application especially for rural areas. The performance of the proposed configuration has been evaluated satisfactory for water pumping application at different weather conditions.

REFERENCES:

[1] S. Jain, A. K. Thopukara, R. Karampuri and V. T. Somasekhar, “A Single-Stage Photovoltaic System for a Dual-Inverter-Fed Open-End Winding Induction Motor Drive for Pumping Applications, ” in IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 4809-4818, Sept. 2015

[2] L. An and D. D. Lu, “ Design of a Single-Switch DC/DC Converter for a PV-Battery-Powered Pump System With PFM+PWM Control, ” in IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 910- 921, Feb. 2015.

[3] J. V. M. Caracas, G. d. C. Farias, L. F. M. Teixeira and L. A. d. S. Ribeiro, “ Implementation of a High-Efficiency, High-Lifetime, and Low-Cost Converter for an Autonomous Photovoltaic Water Pumping System, ” in IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 631-641, Jan.-Feb. 2014.

[4] Tae-Hyung Kim and M. Ehsani, “Sensorless control of the BLDC motors from near-zero to high speeds, ” in IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1635-1645, Nov. 2004.

[5] S. Dusmez, A. Khaligh, M. Krishnamurthy, E. Ugur and M. Uzunoglu, “Sensorless control of BLDCs for all speed ranges with minimal components, ”International Aegean Conference on Electrical Machines and Power Electronics and Electromotion, Joint Conference, Istanbul, 2011, pp. 626-631

Online Estimation Method of DC-Link Capacitors for Reduced DC-Link Capacitance IPMSM EEE

ABSTRACT:

DC-Link Capacitance In order to extend the lifetime and save the system cost, the film capacitor is applied in the DC-link of IPMSM drives. Many active damping control methods have been carried out to improve the drive system stability, which need the accurate value of the DC-link film capacitor.

DC-link

DC-Link Capacitance In this letter, an online DC-link capacitance estimation method is investigated for reduced capacitance IPMSM drives, which does not need any additional signal injection or sensor. The power coupling characteristics are analyzed to obtain the instantaneous power of the DC-link capacitor from the inverter and the grid sides.

Voltage

DC-Link Capacitance The band-pass filter is applied to extract the DC-link voltage and capacitor power with twice the frequency of the grid voltage. The DC-link capacitance could be estimated by the fundamental component of the DC-link voltage. The proposed method can be used for different kinds of load types and motor types of the drive system. Experimental results are performed to verify the estimation method, and the estimation error is within 1%.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Online capacitance estimation
  2. Motor drive
  3. Online capacitance estimation
  4. Reduced DC-link capacitance

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. Block diagram of DC-link capacitance estimation.

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Fig. 2. Experimental results when the motor operates at 1800rpm. (a) Waveforms of grid power, inverter power, capacitor power and its fundamental component. (b) Waveforms of the DC-link voltage, the product of DC-link voltage and its derivative, and the fundamental component of the product M. (c) Detailed waveform of the fundamental component of capacitor power, M, and the estimated DC-link capacitance.

Fig. 3. Experimental results when the motor operates at 4800rpm. (a) Waveforms of grid power, inverter power, capacitor power, and its fundamental component. (b) Waveforms of the DC-link voltage, the product of DC-link voltage and its derivative, and the fundamental component of the product M. (c) Detailed waveform of the fundamental component of capacitor power, M, and the estimated DC-link capacitance.

Fig. 4. Experimental results when the motor operates at 3000rpm and the DC-link capacitance is 59.5μF. (a) Waveforms of grid power, inverter power, capacitor power and its fundamental component. (b) Waveforms of the DC-link voltage, the product of DC-link voltage and its derivative, and the fundamental component of the product M. (c) Detailed waveform of the fundamental component of capacitor power, M, and the estimated DC-link capacitance.

CONCLUSION:

DC-Link Capacitance As for the reduced DC-link capacitance IPMSM drive system, a real-online DC-link capacitance estimation method is investigated in this letter, which does not need an additional signal injection. The power coupling characteristics are analyzed, and the instantaneous DC-link capacitor power is obtained.

Capacitance

DC-Link Capacitance The DC-link capacitance could be estimated by the ratio of the fundamental component of DC-link capacitor power and that of the product between DC-link voltage and its derivative term. Moreover, the proposed method only depends on the DC-link voltage and the instantaneous DC-link capacitor power,

Motor

DC-Link Capacitance which benefits its application in other motor type and load type reduced DC-link capacitance motor drive system. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed DC-link capacitance estimation method, which could realize the estimation precision within an error of 1% for the several tens micro far ad of DC-link capacitance.

REFERENCES:

[1] Y. Zhang, Z. Yin, J. Liu, R. Zhang and X. Sun, “IPMSM Sensorless Control Using High-Frequency Voltage Injection Method With Random Switching Frequency for Audible Noise Improvement,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 67, no. 7, pp. 6019-6030, Jul. 2020.

[2] K. Liu and Z. Zhu, “Fast Determination of Moment of Inertia of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine Drives for Design of Speed Loop Regulator,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 1816-1824, Sept. 2017.

[3] J. Hang, H. Wu, S. Ding, Y. Huang and W. Hua, “Improved Loss Minimization Control for IPMSM Using Equivalent Conversion Method,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 1931-1940, Feb. 2021

[4] K. Abe, H. Haga, K. Ohishi and Y. Yokokura, “Current ripple suppression control based on prediction of resonance cancellation voltage for electrolytic-capacitor-less inverter,” IEEJ J. Ind. Appl., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1-11, 2017.

[5] Y. Zhou, W. Huang, and F. Hong, “Single-phase input variable-speed AC motor system based on electrolytic capacitor-less single-stage boost three-phase inverter,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 7043-7052, Oct. 2016.

Grid-Connected Induction Motor Using a Floating DC-Link Converter Under Unbalanced Voltage sag BTech/Mtech Final Year Electrical Projects

ABSTRACT:

Voltage sag This article proposes a series compensator with unbalanced voltage sag ride-through capability applied to grid connected induction motors. A conventional three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) is intended to regulate the motor voltages. The VSI is connected in series with the grid and a three-phase machine with open-ended windings.

VSI

Voltage sag The proposed system is suitable for applications in which no frequency variation is required, like large pumps or fans. The VSI dc-link voltage operates as a floating capacitor through the energy minimized compensation (EMC) technique, in which there is no dc source or injection transformer. The motor load condition determines the minimum grid voltage positive component (sag severity) to keep EMC operation.

THD

Voltage sag Meanwhile, a voltage unbalance may increase the dc-link voltage requirements. A 1.5-hp four-pole induction motor has been used to verify the ride-through capability of the proposed compensator under grid voltage disturbances. A total harmonic distortion (THD) analysis of grid currents demonstrates that the proposed system provides low THD even if no passive filter is used.

CONTROL

Voltage sag The operating principle, converter output voltage analysis, pulse width modulation technique, control strategy, and components ratings are discussed as well. Simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the system.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Floating capacitor
  2. Induction motor
  3. Series compensator
  4. Unbalanced voltage sag

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. Block diagram of feedback small-signal model.

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Fig. 2. Simulation waveforms at the steady state and half load with perphase grid (vga ) and load (vla ) voltages, as well as the converter’s line-to-line voltage (vcab ).

Fig. 3. Simulation waveforms with the proposed series compensator under balanced voltage sag at half load. (a) Rated grid voltages. (b) Three-phase voltage sag of 80%.

Fig. 4. Simulation waveforms with the proposed series compensator under unbalanced voltage sag:Fd = 15%and half load. (a) Grid voltages and currents. (b) DC-link voltage, torque, and speed.

CONCLUSION:

Voltage sag The proposed system has unbalanced voltage sag ride-through capability, being suitable for grid-connected induction motors applications. Indeed, the simulation and experimental results supported the theoretical analysis. A conventional three-phase VSI using a floating dc-link capacitor has been applied as a series compensator.

H-BRIDGE

Voltage sag Besides that, the proposed system does not require any additional passive filter, injection transformer, or extra power supply. A conventional three-phase H-bridge converter to compensate balanced grid voltage disturbances has recently been proposed in the literature. Compared to the conventional solution, the proposed one has a lower number of components, a single dc link, and can deal with unbalanced voltages without a complex control strategy.

MOTORS

Voltage sag The higher dc-link voltage requirement of the proposed series compensator was highlighted as its main drawback. Although the proposed solution provided higher THD of grid currents, its levels were acceptable. Hence, the proposed system can be easily integrated along with standard squirrel-cage induction motors when no frequency variation is required.

REFERENCES:

[1] H. G. Sarmiento and E. Estrada, “A voltage sag study in an industry with adjustable speed drives,” IEEE Ind. Appl. Mag., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 16–19, Jan. 1996.

[2] K. Pietilainen, L. Harnefors, A. Petersson, and H. Nee, “DC-link stabilization and voltage sag ride-through of inverter drives,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 1261–1268, Jun. 2006.

[3] A. H. Bonnett and H.M. Glatt, “Ten things you should know about electric motors: Their installation, operation, and maintenance,” IEEE Ind. Appl. Mag., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 25–36, Nov. 2018.

[4] G.C. Jaiswal, M. S. Ballal, D. R. Tutakne, and H. M. Suryawanshi, “Impact of power quality on the performance of distribution transformers: A fuzzy logic approach to assessing power quality,” IEEE Ind. Appl.Mag., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 8–17, Sep. 2019.

[5] “IEEE Recommended Practice for Monitoring Electric Power Quality”, IEEE Std 1159-2009 (Revision of IEEE Std 1159-1995), pp. c 1–81, Jun. 2009.

Current and Speed Sensor Fault Diagnosis Method Applied to Induction Motor Drive BTech/Mtech Final Year

ABSTRACT:

Induction Motor The paper proposes a novel approach based on a current space vector derived from measured stator currents to diagnose speed and current sensor failures in the field-oriented control of induction motor drives. A comparison algorithm between the reference and measured rotor speed is used to detect the speed sensor faults.

FTC

Induction Motor A counter is added to eliminate the influence of the encoder noise in the diagnosis method. In this approach, estimated quantities are not used in the proposed speed sensor fault diagnosis strategy, which increases the independence between the diagnosis stages in the fault-tolerant control (FTC) method.

MATLAB

Induction Motor Moreover, in order to discriminate between the speed sensor faults and the current sensor faults, a new approach combining the current space vector and a delay function is proposed to reliably determine the current sensor failures. The MATLAB-Simulink software was used to verify the idea of the proposed method.

DSP

Induction Motor Practical experiments with an induction motor drive controlled by DSP TMS320F28335 were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of this method in practice. The simulation and experimental results prove the effectiveness of the proposed diagnosis method for induction motor drives.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Fault-tolerant control
  2. Diagnosis
  3.  Induction motor
  4.  FOC
  5. Sensorless control

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Figure 1. Block Diagram of FTC Unit.

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Figure 2. Simulation Results – Speed Sensor Fault _ FTC.

Figure 3. Simulation Results _ Scaling Current Sensor Fault _ FTC.

Figure 4. Simulation Results _ Total Current Sensor Fault _ FTC.

CONCLUSION:

Induction Motor This paper presents a novel diagnosis method for the speed and current sensor fault-tolerant control of induction motor drives. The proposed method has proven its effectiveness in dealing with multi-type sensor failures. The speed sensor fault diagnosis algorithm can reliably detect the inaccuracy of the speed sensor signals without interference by random pulse noises.

FAULT

Induction Motor The loss of the current sensor signals, which is the most severe current sensor fault, is quickly detected by the delay-algorithm. Other types of current sensor failures is reliably identified without misunderstanding with a speed sensor fault. The proposed diagnosis algorithm is simpler than other existing detection methods, and thus

SENSER

the computational hardware system executes faster as well as cheaper due to the lower calculation burden for the same operating conditions. The simulation and experimental results have demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed method. Further research can be implemented to improve the diagnosis of the sensor faults in transient states.

REFERENCES:

[1] A. Gouichiche, A. Safa, A. Chibani, and M. Tadjine, “Global fault-tolerant control approach for vector control of an induction motor,” Int. Trans. Electr. Energy Syst., vol. 30, no. 8, Aug. 2020, Art. no. e12440, doi: 10.1002/2050-7038.12440.

[2] D. Diallo, M. E. H. Benbouzid, and M. A. Masrur, “Special section on condition monitoring and fault accommodation in electric and hybrid propulsion systems,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 962_964, Mar. 2013, doi: 10.1109/TVT.2013.2245731.

[3] A. A. Amin and K. M. Hasan, “A review of fault tolerant control systems: Advancements and applications,” Measurement, vol. 143, pp. 58_68, Sep. 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.measurement.2019.04.083.

[4] A. Raisemche, M. Boukhnifer, C. Larouci, and D. Diallo, “Two active fault-tolerant control schemes of induction-motor drive in EV or HEV,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 19_29, Jan. 2014, doi:  10.1109/TVT.2013.2272182.

[5] Y. Azzoug, A. Menacer, R. Pusca, R. Romary, T. Ameid, and A. Ammar, “Fault tolerant control for speed sensor failure in induction motor drive based on direct torque control and adaptive stator _ux observer,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Appl. Theor. Electr. (ICATE), Oct. 2018, pp. 1_6.

Combined Speed and Current Terminal Sliding Mode Control with Nonlinear Disturbance Observer for PMSM

ABSTRACT:

Speed and Current A terminal sliding mode control method based on nonlinear disturbance observer is investigated to realize the speed and current tracking control for PMSM drive system in this paper. The proposed method adopts the speed-current single-loop control structure instead of the traditional cascade control in the vector control of PMSM.

PMSM

Speed and Current Firstly, considering the nonlinear and the coupling characteristic, a single-loop terminal sliding mode controller is designed for PMSM drive system through feedback linearization technology. This method can make the motor speed and current reach the reference value in finite time, which can realize the fast transient response.

SLIDING MODE

Speed and Current Although the sliding mode control is less sensitive to parameter uncertainties and external disturbance, it may produce a large switching gain, which may cause the undesired chattering. Meanwhile, the sliding mode control cannot keep the property of invariance in the presence of unmatched uncertainties. Then, a nonlinear disturbance observer is proposed to the estimate the lump disturbance

CONTROL

Speed and Current which is used in the feed-forward compensation control. Thus, a composite control scheme is developed for the PMSM drive system. The results show that the motor control system based on the proposed method has good speed and current tracking performance and strong robustness.

KEYWORDS:

  1. PMSM drive
  2. Terminal sliding mode control
  3. Feedback linearization
  4. Nonlinear disturbance observer

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Figure 1: Block Diagram Of PMSM Control System

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Figure 2: The Motor Response Waveforms Of The Proposed Method: (A) Motor Speed (B) Dq-Axes Current (C) Phase Current

Figure 3: The Speed Waveforms Of Three Methods: (A) The Speed When The Motor Starts (B) The Speed With Load Disturbance

Figure 4: The Motor Waveforms With The Parameter Disturbance. (A) Motor Speed (B) Dq-Axes Current

Figure 5: The Contrastive Results With The Common Sliding Mode Control Method. (A) D-Axes Current (B) Q-Axes Current

CONCLUSION:

Speed and Current In this paper, a novel control method based on terminal sliding mode control through feedback linearization technology has been studied for PMSM drive system. The controller adopts the speed-current single-loop structure, which has the fast transient response.

SPEED

Speed and Current With the designed terminal sliding mode controller, the speed and current stabilizing control is achieved. Then, considering the lump disturbance in the drive system, a nonlinear disturbance observer is designed to deal with the mismatched disturbance, and it is used for the feed-forward compensation, and the robustness is improved effectively.

CURRENT

Speed and Current Simulation results have proved that the controller has good robust performance and speed tracking performance under various conditions. But the speed and current control problems in the flux-weakening control areas are not considered at present, which will be the future research emphases.

REFERENCES:

 [1] J. Yu, P. Shi and L. Zhao, “Finite-time command filtered backstepping control for a class of nonlinear systems,” Automatica, vol. 2018, no. 92, pp. 173–180, Jun. 2018.

[2] T. Li and Y. V. Rogovchenko, “Oscillation criteria for second-order superlinear Emden–Fowler neutral differential equations,” Monatshefte f´l´zr Mathematik, vol. 184, no. 3, pp. 489–500, Apr. 2018.

[3] A. Darba, F. D. Belie and P. D. Haese, “Improved dynamic behavior in BLDC drives using model predictive speed and current control,” IEEE Trans. On Industrial Electronics, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 728–740, Sep. 2016.

[4] X. Lang, M. Yang and J. Long, “A novel direct predictive speed and current controller for PMSM drive,” Proceedings of 8th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, Hefei, China, pp. 2551–2556, May. 2016.

[5] S. Katsuji, M. Yoshitaka and I. Toshiyuki, “Singularity-free adaptive speed tracking control for uncertain permanent magnet synchronous motor,” IEEE Trans. On Power Electronics, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 1692–1701, Apr. 2015.

Bidirectional Power Flow Control Integrated With Pulse Latest Electrical projects and Sinusoidal-Ripple-Current Charging Strategies for Three-Phase Grid-Tied Converters

ABSTRACT:

Power Flow The objective of this paper is to propose bidirectional charging/discharging strategies for three-phase grid-tied converters. The bidirectional power flow control feature of the converter is able to realize both charging and discharging capability. Besides, in order to achieve high charging efficiency as well as extend the life of the battery, five charging strategies are adopted and developed:

SRC

Power Flow 1) the constant current (CC) charging, 2) the pulse-ripple-current (PRC) charging, 3) the sinusoidal-ripple-current (SRC) charging, 4) the bidirectional pulse-ripple-current (BPRC) charging and 5) the bidirectional sinusoidal ripple- current (BSRC) charging. The direct quadrature (d-q) transformation is utilized for the converter to realize different charging methods.

DSP

Power Flow These methods can be achieved by the digital signal processor (DSP) without adding extra circuit components. In addition, the charging power differences between each strategy are considered and analyzed in this paper. Finally, both simulation and experimental results obtained from a 5-kW prototype circuit verify the performance and feasibility of the proposed bidirectional charger.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Three-phase grid-tied converter
  2. Bidirectional chargers
  3. Energy storage system

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Figure 1. The Circuit Diagram And Control Blocks.

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Figure 2. Simulation Waveforms Of The Vbat , Ibat , Id;Cmd , Iac And Vac With Different Charging Strategies (A) The CC Charging (B) The PRC Charging (C) The SRC Charging (D) The BPRC Charging (E) The BSRC Charging.

CONCLUSION:

Power Flow This paper proposes a bidirectional three-phase grid-tied converter with charging/discharging strategies. The converter is able to be operated in the AC-DC (PFC) mode and the DC-AC (inverter) mode to realize the bidirectional power flow control feature.

AC-DC

Power Flow In order to increase the charging efficiency as well as extend the battery life, five charging strategies are considered and developed. Main contributions of this paper can be concluded as: 1) a three-phase AC-DC converter with bidirectional power flow control is developed, 2) five charging/ discharging strategies are integrated with the proposed charger, 3) detailed control concepts and operational principles are revealed with mathematical derivations and 4) the charging power analysis of different charging strategies is presented.

D-Q TRANSFORMATION

Power Flow These charging methods can be achieved by the proposed bidirectional converter with the d-q transformation concept. Moreover, comprehensive analysis and mathematical derivations of the charging power differences between each strategy are presented. Finally, both simulation and experimental results obtained from a 5-kW prototype demonstrate the performance and feasibility of the proposed bidirectional charger.

REFERENCES:

[1] K. Thirugnanam, S. K. Kerk, C. Yuen, N. Liu, and M. Zhang, “Energy management for renewable microgrid in reducing diesel generators usage with multiple types of battery,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 65, no. 8, pp. 6772_6786, Aug. 2018.

[2] P. B. L. Neto, O. R. Saavedra, and L. A. de Souza Ribeiro, “A dual-battery storage bank con_guration for isolated microgrids based on renewable sources,” IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 1618_1626, Oct. 2018.

[3] U. Manandhar, N. R. Tummuru, S. K. Kollimalla, A. Ukil, G. H. Beng, and K. Chaudhari, “Validation of faster joint control strategy for battery- and supercapacitor-based energy storage system,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 3286_3295, Apr. 2018.

[4] F. Wu, X. Li, F. Feng, and H. B. Gooi, “Multi-topology-mode gridconnected inverter to improve comprehensive performance of renewable energy source generation system,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 3623_3633, May 2017.

[5] Z. Zhang, Y.-Y. Cai, Y. Zhang, D.-J. Gu, and Y.-F. Liu, “A distributed architecture based on microbank modules with self-recon_guration control to improve the energy ef_ciency in the battery energy storage system,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 304_317, Jan. 2016.

An Improved Technique for Energy-Efficient Starting and Operating Control of Single Phase Induction

ABSTRACT:

Single Phase The recent increase in electricity prices and the usage of single-phase induction motors (SPIMs) provide a stimulus for a focused research on energy-efficient optimization of SPIM load such as air-conditioners and refrigerators. Variable speed control of SPIM provides a promising way forward to reduce its power consumption.

SPIM

Single Phase However, during variable speed operation under the popular constant V=f method, SPIM is required to operate at non-rated conditions. The operation of SPIM at non-rated conditions disturbs its symmetrical and balanced operation, thus degrading its efficiency. Moreover, soft-starting of SPIM at non-rated conditions is also challenging due to the resulting reduction in starting-torque.

SPEED

Single Phase In this article, after a detailed analysis of SPIM energy-efficiency, an improved sensor-less optimal speed control strategy is developed to enable the symmetrical and balanced operation of SPIM at all the operating points over the entire speed-range to improve its performance. A novel algorithm, termed as the phase-shift algorithm,

OPTIMAL

Single Phase Is also devised for efficient implementation of the proposed optimal speed control strategy. In addition, a unique framework for efficient soft-starting of SPIM at very low frequencies is also developed. The simulation-based results of the motor operated through the proposed phase-shift algorithm validate the energy-saving potential of the proposed control strategy.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Energy-efficient control
  2. Variable speed drives
  3. Speed-sensorless induction motor control
  4. Magnetic field control
  5. Inrush current reduction
  6. Starting torque
  7. Pulsating torque
  8. Energy savings in HVAC

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Figure 1. Switching Pattern Generation Using The Phase-Shift Algorithm For Efficient Variable Speed Operation Of Spim.

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Figure 2. Simulation-Based Results Of Spim Operation Under The Proposed Optimal Control At F D 30 Hz.

Figure 3. Simulation-Based Results Of Spim Operation Under The Constant V =F Control Method At F D 30 Hz.

Figure 4. Simulation-Based Results Of Spim Operation Under The Proposed Optimal Control Strategy At F D 60 Hz.

Figure 5. Simulation-Based Results Of Spim Operation Under The Constant V =F Control Method At F D 60 Hz.

Figure 6. Simulation-Based Results Of Spim Operation Under The Proposed Optimal Control Strategy At F D 10 Hz.

Figure 7. Simulation-Based Results Of Spim Operation Under The Constant V =F Control Method At F D 10 Hz.

Figure 8. Simulation-Based Results Of Spim Soft-Starting At F D 10 Hz Under The Proposed Soft-Starting Strategy.

Figure 9. Simulation-Based Results Of Spim Soft-Starting At F D 10 Hz Under The Constant V =F Control Method.

CONCLUSION:

Single Phase In this article, it is demonstrated that conventional techniques for speed control of SPIMs are inefficient because they cause the formation of elliptical magnetic fields inside them at non-rated starting and operating conditions. After a detailed analysis of SPIM energy-efficiency, a novel sensor-less con- trol strategy was devised to improve the performance at non-rated conditions by enabling the symmetrical and balanced operation of SPIM.

CONTROL

Single Phase Formation of circular magnetic field inside SPIMs over the entire speed range is achieved by dynamically and optimally controlling the auxiliary volt- age and phase-difference between the windings voltages simultaneously with constant V=f control using the developed phase-shift algorithm. Simulation-based evaluation of the optimal control strategy demonstrates an improvement of more than 400% in energy-efficiency

CURRENT

Single Phase as compared to maximum 18% reported in case of conventional SPIM energy-efficiency optimization techniques. The developed control algorithm also enables the soft-starting of SPIM with substantial starting torque at low-frequencies, resulting in a significant reduction in inrush current. Simulation-based results of the proposed sensor-less optimal control strategy confirm an inrush current reduction of more than 84%. This efficient soft-starting results in further energy-savings.

REFERENCES:

[1] J. C. Gomez, C. Reineri, G. Campetelli, and M. M. Morcos, “A study of voltage sags generated by induction motor starting,” Electr. Power Compon. Syst., vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 645_653, Jun. 2004.

[2] X. Wang, J. Yong, W. Xu, and W. Freitas, “Practical power quality charts for motor starting assessment,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 799_808, Apr. 2011.

[3] Z. B. Duranay and H. Guldemir, “Selective harmonic eliminated V/f speed control of single-phase induction motor,” IET Power Electron., vol. 11,no. 3, pp. 477_483, Mar. 2018.

[4] A. Sampathkumar, “Speed control of single phase induction motor using V/f technique,” Middle-East J. Sci. Res., vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 1807_1812, 2013.

[5] E. R. Collins, “Torque and slip behavior of single-phase induction motors driven from variable-frequency supplies,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 710_715, May/Jun. 1992.

Voltage Oriented Controller Based Vienna Rectifier for Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Simulation

ABSTRACT:

Electric Vehicle Vienna rectifiers have gained popularity in recent years for AC to DC power conversion for many industrial applications such as welding power supplies, data centers, telecommunication power sources, aircraft systems, and electric vehicle charging stations. The advantages of this converter are low total harmonic distortion (THD), high power density, and high efficiency.

PI

Electric Vehicle Due to the inherent current control loop in the voltage-oriented control strategy proposed in this paper, good steady-state performance and fast transient response can be ensured. The proposed voltage-oriented control of the Vienna rectifier with a PI controller (VOC-VR) has been simulated using MATLAB/Simulink.

THD

Electric Vehicle The simulations indicate that the input current THD of the proposed VOC-VR system was below 3.27% for 650V and 90A output, which is less than 5% to satisfy the IEEE-519 standard. Experimental results from a scaled-down prototype showed that the THD remains below 5% for a wide range of input voltage, output voltage, and loading conditions (up to 2 kW). The results prove that the proposed rectifier system can be applied for high power applications such as DC fast-charging stations and welding power sources.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Front-end converters
  2. High power applications
  3. Power factor
  4. Total harmonic distortion
  5. Vienna rectifier
  6. Voltage oriented controller

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Figure 1. The Proposed Electric Vehicle Charger Is Based On Vienna Rectifier With A Voc Controller (Voc-Vr) System.

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Figure 2. Input Current Waveform Of The Proposed Voc-Vr System With 440 V Rms In And 650 V Dc Out.

Figure 3. Total Harmonic Distortion Of The Proposed Voc-Vr System With 440 V Rms In And 650 V Dc Out.

Figure 4. Dc Output Voltage And Output Current Of The Vienna Rectifier With Voc Controller With 350 V Ac Rms Input And 650 V Dc Output Voltage.

Figure 5. Dc Output Voltage And Output Current Of The Vienna Rectifier

With Voc Controller With 350 V Ac Rms Input And 220 V Dc Output Voltage For Slow Charging Stations.

CONCLUSION:

Electric Vehicle In this research work, a three-level Vienna rectifier based on a voltage-oriented controller (VOC-VR) has been designed and experimentally tested. The proposed system has been simulated using MATLAB Simulink software targeting high power applications such as DC-fast chargers for electric vehicles. The proposed controller for Vienna rectifier focused on combining voltage-oriented controllers with the PWM method.

VOC

Electric Vehicle In proposed design, the reactive and unstable active currents are counteracted by the input and output filters and Voltage Oriented Controller (VOC) with Vienna rectifier. The proposed design also guarantees a sinusoidal current at the input side with minimum ripples and distortions. The system’s power factor is maintained at unity, and total harmonic distortion of the input current is kept less than 5 %, which meets the IEEE-519 standard.

PFC

Electric Vehicle The benefit of the proposed controller over conventional PFC controller has been demonstrated by simulations and experimental results. Low THD, good power factor, and smaller filtering requirements make the voltage-oriented controller-based Vienna rectifier an ideal candidate in electric vehicle charging stations.

REFERENCES:

[1] F. Nejabatkhah, Y. W. Li, and H. Tian, “Power quality control of smart hybrid AC/DC microgrids: An overview,” IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 52295_52318, 2019.

[2] P. Arboleya, G. Diaz, and M. Coto, “Unified AC/DC power flow for traction systems:Anewconcept,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 2421_2430, Jul. 2012.

[3] W. Su, H. Eichi,W. Zeng, and M.-Y. Chow, “A survey on the electrification of transportation in a smart grid environment,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Informat., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1_10, Feb. 2012.

[4] I. Pavi¢, T. Capuder, and I. Kuzle, “Value of flexible electric vehicles in providing spinning reserve services,” Appl. Energy, vol. 157, pp. 60_74, Nov. 2015.

[5] L. Hang, H. Zhang, S. Liu, X. Xie, C. Zhao, and S. Liu, “A novel control strategy based on natural frame for Vienna-type rectifier under light unbalanced-grid conditions,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 1353_1362, Mar. 2015.