A Unity Power Factor Converter with Isolation for Electric Vehicle Battery Charger

ABSTRACT:  

This paper deals with a unity power factor (UPF) Cuk converter EV (Electric Vehicle) battery charger having a high frequency transformer isolation alternatively of only a single segment front end converter used in vehicle’s traditional battery chargers. The operation of the proposed converter is defined in a number modes of the converter factors i.e. DCM (Discontinuous Conduction Mode) or CCM (Continuous Conduction Mode) alongside with the best plan equations.

PFC

In this way, this isolated PFC converter makes the input current sinusoidal in structure and improves input power factor to unity. Simulation effects for the proposed converter are proven for charging a lead acid EV battery in regular current constant voltage (CC-CV) mode. The rated full load and various enter supply conditions have been viewed to show the extended power quality indices as compared to conventional battery chargers. These indices observe the global IEC 61000-3-2 general to provide harmonic free input parameters for the proposed  circuit.

KEYWORDS:

  1. UPF Cuk Converter
  2. Battery Charger

  3. Front end converter
  4. CC-CV mode
  5. IEC 61000-3-2 standard

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

 Fig. 1 General Schematic of an EV Battery Charger with PFC CUK Converter

 EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

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Fig.2 Simulated performance of the isolated Cuk converter in rated condition (a) rated input side and output side quantities (b-c) harmonic analysis of the current at source end

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Fig.3 Simulated performance of the isolated Cuk converter while input is varied to 270V (a) rated input side and output side quantities (b-c) harmonic analysis of the current at source end

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Fig.4 Simulated performance of the isolated Cuk converter while input is reduced to 270V (a) rated input side and output side quantities (b-c) harmonic analysis of the current at source end

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 (c)

Fig.5 Simulated performance of the isolated Cuk converter at light load condition (a) rated input side and output side quantities (b-c) harmonic analysis of the current at source end

 

CONCLUSION:

 An isolated Cuk converter based battery charger for EV with remarkably improved PQ indices along with well regulated battery charging voltage and current has been designed and simulated. The converter performance has been found satisfactory and well within standard for rated as well as different varying input rms value of supply voltages. The considerably improved THD in the current at the source end makes the proposed system an attractive solution for efficient charging of EVs at low cost. The proposed UPF converter performance has been tested to show its suitability for improved power quality based charging of an EV battery in CC-CV mode. Moreover, the cascaded dual loop PI controllers are tuned to have the smooth charging characteristics along with maintaining the low THD in mains current.

UPF

The proposed UPF converter topology have the inherent advantage of low ripples in input and output side due to the added input and output side inductors. Therefore, the life cycle of the battery is increased. MATLAB based simulation shows the performance assessment of the proposed charger for the steady state and dynamics condition which clearly state that the proposed charger can sustain the sudden disturbances in supply for charging the rated EV battery load. Moreover, during whole disturbances in supply voltage, the power quality parameters at the input side, are maintained within the IEC 61000-3-2 standard and THD is also very low.

REFERENCES:

[1] Limits for Harmonics Current Emissions (Equipment current ≤ 16A per Phase), International standards IEC 61000-3-2, 2000.

[2] Muhammad H. Rashid, “Power Electronics Handbook, Devices, Circuits, and Applications”, Butterworth-Heinemann, third edition, 2011.

[3] N. Mohan, T. M. Undeland, and W. P. Robbins, Power Electronics: Converters, Applications and Design. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2009.

[4] B. Singh, S. Singh, A. Chandra and K. Al-Haddad, “Comprehensive Study of Single-Phase AC-DC Power Factor Corrected Converters With High-Frequency Isolation”, IEEE Trans. Industrial Informatics, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 540-556, Nov. 2011.

[5] A. Abramovitz K. M. Smedley “Analysis and design of a tapped-inductor buck–boost PFC rectifier with low bus voltage” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 26 no. 9 pp. 2637-2649 Sep. 2011.

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