A Multi-Cell 21-Level Hybrid Multilevel Inverter synthesizes a reduced number of components with Voltage Boosting Property


A multi-cell hybrid 21-Level multilevel inverter is proposed in this paper. The proposed topology includes two-unit; an H-bridge is cascaded with a modified K-type unit to generate an output voltage waveform with 21 levels based only on two unequal DC suppliers. The proposed topology’s advantage lies in the fine and clear output voltage waveforms with high output efficiency. Meanwhile, the high number of output voltage waveform levels generates a low level of distortion and reduces the level of an electromagnetic interface (EMI). Moreover, it reduces the voltage stress on the switching devices and gives it a long lifetime. Also, the reduction in the number of components has a noticeable role in saving size and cost. Regarding the capacitors charging, the proposed topology presents an online method for charging and balancing the capacitor’s voltage without any auxiliary circuits. The proposed topology can upgrade to a high number of output steps through the cascading connection. Undoubtedly this cascading will increase the power level to medium and high levels and reduce the harmonics content to a neglectable rate. The proposed system has been tested through the simulation results, and an experimental prototype based on the controller dSPACE (DS-1103) hardware unit used to support the simulation results.


  1. 21-Level Multilevel Inverter (MLI)
  2. Hybridization
  3. Modified K-type inverter
  4. Online charging
  5. Self-balancing
  6. Voltage boosting inverter
  7. Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)



Figure.1 Proposed Hybrid MLI Topology


Figure.2 21L MLI output voltage waveform

Figure.3 FFT analysis of the 21L output voltage waveform

Figure.4 Capacitor voltages and the output voltage waveform

Figure.5 Output voltage and load current waveforms

Figure.6 63L cascaded system output voltage and load current

Figure.7 FFT analysis of the 63L output voltage waveform

Figure.8 Output voltages of 2HB+K cascaded system units

Figure.9 147L cascaded system output voltage and load current

Figure.10 FFT analysis of the 147L output voltage waveform

Figure.11 Output voltages of Asymmetrical cascaded system units


The work in this paper presented a hybrid multilevel inverter that consisted of a series connection between two units (an HB unit with a modified K-Type unit). This combination generates an output voltage waveform with 21 steps. This high number steps in the output voltage help in reducing the level of noises in the output voltage and reduced the stress in the switching devices, which on the one hand generating fine and clear waveforms and on the other hand reduces the harmonic content in the waveforms to a deficient level (satisfying the harmonics standard IEEE519). Economically, the structure of the proposed topology presented an optimal design in terms of reducing the number of switches and DC sources which in turn enhancing the system reliability by reducing the inverter cost. For the capacitors charging process, the paper presents an online method for charging and balancing the capacitor voltages without any auxiliary circuits for that. This helps in the continuous operation of the charging and discharging process for the capacitor without disturbing the process of generating the output voltage. The proposed topology supports the modularity process in order to maximize the range of output power to the medium and high level, and the paper presented two scenarios for the series connection 2HB+K and HB+2K both the cases raise the level of the output power and enhances the system performance to achieve high efficiency. Due to the dependence on multi DC sources, this topology is suitable for renewable energy applications; DC sources are abundant. The hybrid renewable energy sources application will be more appropriate between all the renewable energy applications because the proposed topology-based mainly on two unequal DC suppliers, which will be available easily in the hybrid renewable energy sources.


[1] F. Z. Peng, W. Qian, and D. Cao, “Recent advances in multilevel converter/inverter topologies and applications,” in The 2010 International Power Electronics Conference-ECCE ASIA-, 2010, pp. 492-501.

[2] J. Rodriguez, J.-S. Lai, and F. Z. Peng, “Multilevel inverters: a survey of topologies, controls, and applications,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, pp. 724-738, 2002.

[3] L. M. Tolbert and X. Shi, “Multilevel power converters,” in Power Electronics Handbook, ed: Elsevier, 2018, pp. 385-416.

[4] K. K. Gupta, A. Ranjan, P. Bhatnagar, L. K. Sahu, and S. Jain, “Multilevel inverter topologies with reduced device count: A review,” IEEE transactions on power electronics, vol. 31, pp. 135-151, 2015.

[5] P. Omer, J. Kumar, and B. S. Surjan, “A Review on Reduced Switch Count Multilevel Inverter Topologies,” IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 22281-22302, 2020.

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