A Hybrid PV-Wind-Diesel System for Optimal Performance in Microgrid


The PV-Hydro Diesel technology can be made attractive option because the features various merits like as low maintenance requirement, environmental friendliness and absence of fuel cost. The efficiency of energy conversion a PV generation system may low because sun power cell exhibits to the nonlinear voltage and current and power versus voltage characteristics.


The recent advancements in the technology and the reduction of fossil fuel resources have further contributed to the cause. But still, there lies several challenges to it. The paper proposes a novel approach of hybridization of renewable sources using Maximum Peak Power Transfer technique and optimal control. The performance of our approach is quite better than its other counterparts in terms of transient state and the magnitude of voltage obtained.


  1. MPPT
  2. PV- Hydro – Diesel
  3. Perturb and observe




Fig. 1: Representing the overall proposed model


Fig. 2 Representing The FFT analysis of the voltage waveform at the load end. when the FFT analysis of the wave form is done the THD value is found to be 0.17 %.

Fig.3: The THD of the output


This paper proposed a novel approach of utilising a New Hybrid Technique approach to solve the MPPT problem in microgrid consisting of PV-Hydro Diesel cell connected to a grid using three phase inverter. The solar cell model was designed and given to boost converter. The converter output was analysed. An incremental conductance technique was also implemented for comparison purpose. The result of hybrid model was found to be quite better than the incremental conductance technique in terms of output voltage magnitude and THD content.


The THD content reduces using our proposed approach. Also when the current is compared, the oscillations die out very fast in case of hybrid model while in I&C approach it is more or less sustained. In future this algorithm can be improved using other techniques and approaches. Also real time implementation of the algorithms can be done and hardware testing can be done. Hybrid with other algorithms can be utilised and the performances can be compared. Also clustering and other gradient learning methods can be utilised and the model can be tested for grid connection.


[1] Reddy, K. Pavankumar, and M. Venu Gopala Rao. “Modelling and Simulation of Hybrid Wind Solar Energy System using MPPT.” Indian Journal of Science and Technology 8, no. 23 (2015).

[2] Dalala, Zakariya M., Zaka Ullah Zahid, Wensong Yu, Younghoon Cho, and Jih-Sheng Lai. “Design and analysis of an MPPT technique for small-scale wind energy conversion systems.” Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on 28, no. 3 (2013): 756-767.

[3] Jain, S., Agarwal, V., 2004. A new algorithm for rapid tracking of approximate maximum power point in PV-Hydro systems. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 2, 16–19.

[4] Bhandari, Binayak, Shiva Raj Poudel, Kyung-Tae Lee, and Sung-Hoon Ahn. “Mathematical modeling of hybrid renewable energy system: A review on small hydro-solar-wind power generation.” international journal of precision engineering and manufacturing-green technology 1, no. 2 (2014): 157-173.

[5] S. Yuvarajan and JulineShoeb, “A Fast and Accurate Maximum Power Point Tracker for PV Systems,” IEEE, 2008.

Solar Photovoltaic Array Fed Luo Converter Based BLDC Motor Driven Water Pumping System


This paper deals with the solar photovoltaic (SPV) array fed water- pumping system using a Luo converter as an intermediate DC-DC converter and a permanent magnet brushless DC (BLDC) motor to drive a centrifugal water pump. Among the different types of DC-DC converters, an elementary Luo converter is selected in order to extract the maximum power available from the SPV array and for safe starting of BLDC motor. The elementary Luo converter with reduced components and single semiconductor switch has basic features of reducing the ripples in its output current and possessing a unlimited region for maximum power point tracking (MPPT).

bldc motor

The electronically changed BLDC motor is used with a voltage source inverter (VSI) operated at fundamental frequency switching so avoiding the high frequency switching losses resulting in a high efficiency of the system. The SPV array is designed such that the power at rated DC voltage is supplied to the BLDC motor-pump under standard test condition and maximum switch utilization of Luo converter is obtain which results in efficiency improvement of the converter. Performances at various operating conditions such as starting, dynamic and steady state behavior are consider and suitability of the proposed system is demonstrated using MATLAB/Simulink based simulation results.


  1. SPV array
  2. Luo converter
  3. BLDC motor
  4. Centrifugal water pump
  5. MPPT
  6. Switch utilization



Fig. 1 Configuration of proposed SPV array-Luo converter fed BLDC motor drive for water pumping system.



Fig. 2 Performances of SPV array of the proposed SPV array-Luo converter

fed BLDC motor drive for water pumping system.

Fig. 3 Performances of Luo converter of the proposed SPV array-Luo

converter fed BLDC motor drive for water pumping system.

Fig. 4 Performances of BLDC motor-pump of the proposed SPV array-Luo

converter fed BLDC motor drive for water pumping system.


A solar photovoltaic array fed Luo converter based BLDC motor has been proposed to drive water-pumping system. The proposed system has been designed, modeled and simulated using MATLAB along with its Simulink and sim-power system toolboxes. Simulated results have demonstrated the suitability of proposed water pumping system. SPV array has been properly sized such that system performance is not influenced by the variation in atmospheric conditions and the associated losses and maximum switch utilization of Luo converter is achieved.

Luo converter

Luo converter has been operated in CCM in order to reduce the stress on power devices. Operating the VSI in 120° conduction mode with fundamental frequency switching eliminates the losses caused by high frequency switching operation. Stable operation of motor pump system and safe starting of BLDC motor are other important features of the proposed system.


[1] Fei Ding, Peng Li, Bibin Huang, Fei Gao, Chengdi Ding and Chengshan Wang, “Modeling and simulation of grid-connected hybrid photovoltaic/battery distributed generation system,” in China Int. Conf. Electricity Distribution (CICED), 13-16 Sept. 2010, pp.1-10.

[2] Zhou Xuesong, Song Daichun, Ma Youjie and Cheng Deshu, “The simulation and design for MPPT of PV System Based on Incremental Conductance Method,” in WASE Int. Conf. Information Eng. (ICIE), vol.2, 14-15 Aug. 2010, pp.314-317.

[3] B. Subudhi and R. Pradhan, “A Comparative Study on Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques for Photovoltaic Power Systems,” IEEE Trans. Sustainable Energ., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 89-98, Jan. 2013.

[4] M. A. Eltawil and Z. Zhao, “MPPT techniques for photovoltaic applications,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 25, pp. 793-813, Sept. 2013.

 Power Quality Improvement in Utility Interactive Based AC-DC Converter Using Harmonic Current Injection Technique


This paper highlights the power quality issues and explains the corrective measures taken by means of hybrid front-end third harmonic current injection rectifiers. Here zig-zag transformer is used as the current injection device so that the advantages related to the zig-zag transformer is effectively utilized. The third harmonic current injection device along with three-level boost converter at the output stage will increase the DC-link voltage.

boost converter

With less boost inductance, generally half of the conventional boost converter inductance is sufficient to implement the proposed converter structure resulting in reduced ripple current and also the device rating is reduced by half of the output voltage. Moreover, the power quality is well improved using third harmonic current modulated front-end structure which is well proper for medium/higher power applications. The experimental prototype of hybrid front-end converter is developed in the laboratory to validate the MATLAB simulation results.


  1. Current modulation circuit
  2. Front-end rectifier
  3. Power quality
  4. PFC
  5. Third harmonic current injection
  6. Three-level boost converter
  7. THD
  8. Zig-zag transformer



Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of proposed front-end AC-DC converter


Fig. 2. Simulation results of input phase voltage, input phase current, input voltage and current, DC-link voltage, and DC current for the proposed front-end converter under load variations.

Fig. 3. Frequency spectrum of input line current ias at (a) Light load condition

(20%) (b) Full load condition (100%).

Fig. 4. Comparison of power quality indices with varying load of front-end AC-DC converter with six-pulse DBR (a) Variation of THD of input current with load and (b) Variation of PF of input current with load.


In this paper, a front-end AC-DC converter employed with third harmonic current injection circuit using a zig-zag transformer and three-level boost converter has implemented for medium and high-power applications. The three-level boost converter has completed with less boost inductance, an only half rating of the conventional boost converter inductance thereby resulting in less ripple current and also the device rating has reduced by half of the output voltage.

zig-zag transformer

The third order current harmonic reduction has achieved by the zig-zag transformer. With less attractive rating, only 20% of the load rating is enough to realize the zig-zag transformer. The proposed converter has modeled, designed and its performance was analyzed by MATLAB simulation under varying load conditions. An experimental setup has been developed, and the performance of the system is confirmed from the hardware results. The proposed scheme resulted in less input current and voltage THD and control PF close to unity. Also, the other power quality parameters such as displacement PF and misuse factor are well within the IEEE standards.


[1] Abraham I. Pressman, “Switching Power Supply Design,” McGraw-Hill, International Editions, New York, 1999.

[2] B. Singh, B. N. Singh, A. Chandra, K. Al-Haddad, A. Pandey and D. P. Kothari, “A review of single-phase improved power quality AC-DC converters,” IEEE Trans. on Ind. Electron., vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 962-981, Oct. 2003.

[3] J. I. Itoh and I. Ashida, “A Novel Three-Phase PFC Rectifier Using a Harmonic Current Injection Method,” IEEE Trans. on Power Electron., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 715-722, March 2008.

[4] N. Vazquez, H. Rodriguez, C. Hernandez, E. Rodriguez and J. Arau, “Three-Phase Rectifier With Active Current Injection and High Efficiency,” IEEE Trans. on Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 110-119, Jan. 2009.

[5] H. Y. Kanaan and K. Al-Haddad, “Three-Phase Current-Injection Rectifiers: Competitive Topologies for Power Factor Correction,” IEEE Ind. Electron. Magazine, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 24-40, Sept. 2012.

High-Efficiency Asymmetric Forward-Flyback Converter for Wide Output Power Range


This paper proposes an asymmetric forward-flyback dc-dc converter that has high power-conversion efficiency ηe over a wide output power range. To solve the problem of ringing in the voltage of the rectifier diodes and the problem of duty loss in the conventional asymmetric half-bridge (AHB) converter, the proposed converter uses a voltage doubler structure with a forward inductor Lf in the second stage, instead of using the transformer leakage inductance, to control output current. Lf resonates with the capacitors in the voltage doubler to achieve a zero-voltage turn-on of switches and a zero-current turn-off of diodes for a wide output power range. The proposed converter could operate at a wider input voltage range than the other AHB converters. ηe was measured as 95.9% at output power PO = 100 W and as 90% at PO = 10 W, when the converter was operated at input voltage 390 V, output voltage 142 V, and switching frequency 100 kHz.


  1. DC-DC power conversion
  2. Resonance
  3. Stress
  4. Transformer windings



Fig. 1. Circuit structure of the proposed converter.


Fig. 2. Voltage and current waveforms of switches of the proposed converter

at (a) PO = 100 W and (b) PO = 10 W.

Fig. 3. Voltage and current waveforms of D1 and D2 at PO = 100 W: (a) the proposed converter, (b) the conventional AHB converter, and (c) the converter of [20].


The proposed asymmetric forward-flyback dc-dc converter had high power conversion efficiency ηe for a wide range of output power PO. The problems of voltage ringing and duty loss in the conventional AHB converter was solved by adopting a forward inductor Lf in the voltage doubler circuit of the secondary stage. The proposed converter used an unbalanced secondary turns of transformer which allowed it to operate for a much wider range of input voltage than the other converter [20] that uses a voltage doubler structure in the secondary stage. The proposed converter also reduced the voltage stress on switches and the current stress on diodes significantly compared to the dual resonant converter (the converter of [24]). The proposed converter had ηe ≥ 90% for 10 ≤ PO ≤ 100 W at VIN = 390 V, VO = 142 V, and fS = 100 kHz (the highest ηe = 95.9%, at PO = 100 W), and could operate at 330 ≤ VIN ≤ 440 V. The proposed asymmetric forward-flyback dc-dc converter is a good candidate for developing a step-down dc-dc converter for applications that require high power-conversion efficiency over wide ranges of input voltage and output power.


[1] J. B. Lio, M. S. Lin, D. Y. Chen, and W. S. Feng, “Single-switch soft-switching flyback converter,” Electron. Letter, vol. 32, no. 16, pp. 1429-1430, Aug. 1996.

[2] A. Abramovitz, C. S. Liao, and K. Smedley, “State-Plane analysis of regenerative snubber for flyback converters,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 5323-5332, Nov. 2013.

[3] L. Huber, and M. M. Jovanovic, “Evaluation of flyback topologies for notebook AC/DC adapter/charger applications,” in Proc. High Freq. Power Conversion Conf., 1995, pp. 284-294.

[4] S. Du, F. Zhu, and P. Qian, “Primary side control circuit of a flyback converter for HBLED,” in Proc. 2nd IEEE Int. Symp. Power Electron. Distrib. Generation Syst., 2010, pp. 339-342.

[5] E. S. Kim, B. G. Chung, S. H. Jang, M. G. Choi, and M. H. Kye, “A study of novel flyback converter with very low power consumption at the standby operation mode,” in Proc. IEEE Appl. Power Electron. Conf., 2010, pp. 1833-1837