Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Based Wind Energy and DG Hybrid System


This paper examines the utilization of changeless magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs) for a breeze vitality transformation framework (WECS) and a diesel motor driven generator (DG hybrid system) set of an independent cross breed framework with a battery vitality stockpiling framework (BESS). For voltage control at the purpose of normal coupling (PCC) and adjusted supply at terminals of DG hybrid system set, a solitary stage D-Q hypothesis based control calculation is connected for the exchanging of voltage source converter (VSC) of BESS and the greatest power point following (MPPT) is accomplished for WECS with a gradual conductance procedure for the exchanging of a dc-dc help converter. Recreation aftereffects of created model of proposed independent mixture framework, which is produced in MATLAB show execution of both the controllers and power quality enhancement of the half breed framework.




Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of Wind-Diesel hybrid configuration


Fig. 2 (a) Characteristics of the system with constant wind speed under varying loads.

Fig. 3 (b) Estimation of supply currents and voltages using control algorithm

Fig.4 (c) dynamic Performance of controller of hybrid system under varying linear loads at 10 m/s wind speed

Fig. 5(a) Characteristics of the system with constant wind speed under varying loads.

Fig. 6(b) Estimation of supply currents and voltages using control algorithm

Fig.7(c) dynamic Performance of controller of hybrid system under varying nonlinear loads at 10 m/s wind speed.

Fig. 8 waveforms and harmonic spectra (a) Phase ‘a’ supply voltage of at PCC (b) Phase ‘a’ supply current under nonlinear unbalanced loads.

Fig. 9 Controllers’ performance under wind speed reduction (11 m/s-8 m/s)

Fig. 10  Controllers’ performance under rise in wind speed (8 m/s-11 m/s)


A 3-φ independent breeze diesel half breed framework utilizing PMSG alongside BESS has been recreated in MATLAB utilizing Simpower framework tool compartments. Different parts have been intended for the cross breed framework and controller’s acceptable execution has been delineated utilizing 1-φ-D-Q hypothesis with SOGI channels for different loads under unique conditions while keeping up consistent voltage at PCC and adjusted source flows of diesel generator and furthermore for music concealment according to rules of IEEE-519-1992 standard. A mechanical sensor less methodology has been utilized for accomplishing MPPT through gradual conductance procedure.


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Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator-Based Standalone Wind Energy Supply System


In this paper, a novel calculation, in view of dc interface voltage, is proposed for successful vitality the executives of an independent permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG)- based variable speed wind vitality transformation framework comprising of battery, energy unit, and dump stack (i.e., electrolyzer). Additionally, by keeping up the dc connect voltage at its reference esteem, the yield air conditioning voltage of the inverter can be kept consistent regardless of varieties in the breeze speed and load. A compelling control system for the inverter, in view of the beat width adjustment (PWM) conspire, has been created to make the line voltages at the purpose of basic coupling (PCC) adjusted when the heap is uneven. Thus, an appropriate control of battery flow through dc– dc converter has been completed to diminish the electrical torque throb of the PMSG under an uneven load situation. In light of broad reproduction results utilizing MATLAB/SIMULINK, it has been set up that the execution of the controllers both in transient just as in relentless state is very palatable and I can likewise keep up most extreme power point following.




Fig. 1. PMSG-based standalone wind turbine with energy storage and dump load.



Fig. 2. Response of mechanical torque for change in wind velocity.

 Fig. 3. (a) Load current; (b) wind speed.

Fig. 4. DC link voltage.

Fig. 5. RMS output voltage (PCC voltage).

Fig. 6. Instantaneous output voltage at s.

Fig. 7. Instantaneous output line current.

Fig. 8. Powers.

Fig.9. Powers.

Fig. 10. DC link voltage.

Fig. 11. Powers.

Fig. 12. DC link voltage.


Fig. 13. Response of controllers.

Fig. 14. Three phase currents for unbalanced load.

Fig. 15. Electrical torque of PMSG with and without dc–dc converter controller.

Fig. 16. Instantaneous line voltages at PCC for unbalanced load.


Fig. 17. (a) RMS value of line voltages at PCC after compensation; (b) modulation indexes.

Fig. 18. Instantaneous line voltages at PCC after compensation.


Control techniques to direct voltage of an independent variable speed wind turbine with a PMSG, battery, power device, and electrolyzer (goes about as dump stack) are displayed in this paper. By keeping up dc interface voltage at its reference esteem and controlling adjustment records of the PWM inverter, the voltage of inverter yield is kept up consistent at their evaluated qualities. From the reproduction results, it is seen that the controller can keep up the heap voltage great regardless of varieties in wind speed and load.An calculation is created to accomplish clever vitality the executives among the breeze generator, battery, power device, and electrolyzer. The impact of uneven load on the generator is examined and the dc– dc converter control plot is proposed to diminish its impact on the electrical torque of the generator. The dc– dc converter controller not just aides in keeping up the dc voltage steady yet additionally goes about as a dc-side dynamic channel and diminishes the motions in the generator torque which happen because of unequal load. PWM inverter control is consolidated to make the line voltage at PCC adjusted under an uneven load situation. Inverter control additionally helps in decreasing PCC voltage journey emerging because of moderate elements of water elctrolyzer when control goes to it. The complete consonant mutilation (THD) in voltages at PCC is about 5% which portrays the great nature of voltage produced at the client end. The recreation results exhibit that the execution of the controllers is agreeable under unfaltering state just as unique conditions and under adjusted just as lopsided load conditions.

Thermal Stresses Relief Carrier-Based PWM Strategy for Single Phase Multilevel Inverters


Enhancing power cycling capability of power semiconductor devices is highly demanded in order to increase the long term reliability of multilevel inverters. Ageing of power switches and their cooling systems leads to their accelerated damage due to excess power losses and junction temperatures. Therefore, thermal stresses relief (TSR) is the most effective solution for lifetime extension of power semiconductor devices. This paper presents a new thermal stresses relief carrier-based pulse width modulation (TSRPWM) strategy for extending the lifetime of semiconductor switches in single-phase multilevel inverters. The proposed strategy benefits the inherent redundancy among switching states in multilevel inverters to optimally relieve the thermally stressed device. The proposed algorithm maintains the inverter operation without increased stresses on healthy switches and without reduction of the output power ratings. In addition, the proposed algorithm preserves voltage balance of the DC-link capacitors. The proposed strategy is validated on single phase five level T-type inverter system with considering different locations of thermal stresses detection. Experimental prototype of the selected case study is built to verify the results. Moreover, comparisons with the most featured strategies in literature are given in detail.



 Fig. 1. A schematic diagram of PWM controlled full bridge n-level T-type inverter


 Fig. 2. Simulation results of the proposed strategy at TSD in SA11 at mi=0.85.


 Fig. 3. Simulation results of the proposed strategy at TSD in SA11 at mi=0.45.

Fig. 4. Simulation results of the proposed TSRPWM strategy at TSD in SA12 and mi=0.85.


Single Phase Series Active Power Filter Based on 15-Level Cascaded Inverter Topology


A topology of series active power filter (SAP F) based on a single phase half-bridge cascaded multilevel invert er is proposed in order to compensate voltage harmonics of the load connected to the point of common coupling (P CC). This paper presents the main parts of the invert er and The proposed invert er with the simple control easily obtains any voltage reference. Therefore, the invert er acts as a harmonic source when the reference is a non-sinusoidal signal.


A prototype of 15-level invert er based SAP F is manufactured without using a parallel passive filter (PP F) because it is intended to represent the compensation capability of the SAP F by itself. The load connected to P CC whose voltage is non-sinusoidal is filtered both in simulation and experimental studies. The validity of the proposed invert er based SAP F is verified by simulation as well as experimental study. Both simulation and experimental results show that the proposed multilevel invert er is suitable for SAP F applications.



Figure 1. The basic configuration of the proposed system.


Figure 2. Simulation results – Set I a) V p cc and V h P CC before compensation (50 V I div), b) invert er and load voltage after compensation (50 V I div).

Figure 3. Simulation results – Set 2 a) V p cc and V”p cc before compensation (50 V l div), b) invert er and load voltage after compensation (50 V I div).


This paper proposes a single phase half-bridge cascaded multi level invert er based SAP F. The multi level invert er topology and operation principle is introduced and With the proposed topology, the number of output levels can easily be increased. Switching angles of the semiconductor devices used in the invert er are also obtained by a simple method, moreover A SAP F with the proposed invert er topology is simulated under different harmonic distortion levels of P CC.


The aim of the simulation is to compensate the load voltage harmonics connected to P Cc. In addition to the simulations, the proposed SAP F prototype is designed and Using this prototype, experimental study is also performed. Microchip d s PIC 30 F 6010 is preferred as a controller in this prototype, because it is commercially available and inexpensive micro controller. The presentable results of the proposed system are summarized as follows;


  • The TH D values obtained from simulation study is similar to experimental results and the results of simulation and experimental studies demonstrate the accuracy of the simulation study.
  • The TH D values after compensation is reduced to 2.88% and 3.07% by using the proposed invert er based SAP F and After compensation, the waveform of load voltage is almost sinusoidal.
  • A highly distorted sinusoidal waveform with a TH D value of 24.12% is compensated with the proposed invert er based SAP F and the TH D value is reduced to 3.07%, with This it is shown that the proposed invert er is suitable for SAP F applications.

Both simulation and experimental studies show the validity of the proposed invert er as a SAP F.


[1] M. 1. M. Mon t e r o, E. R. Ca d a val, F. B. Gonzalez, “Comparison of control strategies for shunt active power filters in three-phase four wire systems”, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., , 22, (I), pp. 229- 236, 2007.

[2] F. Z. P e n g, H. A k a g i, and A. Na b a e, ” A new approach to harmonic compensation in power systems-A combined system of shunt passive and series active filters,” IEEE Trans. Ind. A pp l. , Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 983- 990, N o v.l Dec. 1990.

[3] Z. Wang, Q. Wang, W. Y a o, and 1. Li u, “A series active power filter adopting hybrid control approach,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron. , Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 301- 310, May 2001.

[4] H. Aka g i, ‘Trends in active power line conditioners,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron. , Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 263- 268, May 1994.

[5] M. E I-H ab r o u k, M. K. D a r wish, and P. Me h ta, “Active power filters : A review,” l E E Elect r. Power App l., Vol. 147, No. 5, pp. 403-413, Sep.2000.

Single-Phase Inverter with Energy Buffer and DC-DC Conversion Circuits


This paper proposes a new single-phase invert er topology and describes the control method for the proposed invert er. The invert er consists of an energy buffer circuit, a dc-dc conversion circuit and an H-bridge circuit. The energy buffer circuit and H-bridge circuit enable the proposed invert er to output a multilevel voltage according to the proposed pulse width modulation (P WM) technique. The dc-dc conversion circuit can charge the buffer capacitor continuously because the dc-dc conversion control cooperates with the P WM. Simulation results confirm that the proposed invert er can reduce the voltage harmonics in the output and the dc-dc conversion current in comparison to a conventional invert er consisting of a dc-dc conversion circuit and H-bridge circuit.

Simulation demonstrates that the proposed invert er can output currents of low total harmonic distortion and have higher efficiency than the conventional invert er. In addition, these features of the proposed invert er contribute to the suppression of the circuit volume in spite of the increase in the number of devices in the circuit.



Fig. 1 Configuration of proposed inverter.


Fig. 2 Wave forms for (a) proposed invert er and (b) conventional invert er during dc-ac conversion under conditions of ac = 500 W, vs = 90 V, vb = 70 V and dc link command voltage d cc = 160 V. (The scales for g, vb, dc and o are 80 V/div., and those for c and o are 4.0 A/div.)

Fig. 3 Wave forms of (a) proposed invert er and (b) conventional invert er during ac-dc conversion under conditions of dc = 500 W, vs = 90 V, b c = 70 V and d cc = 160 V. (The scales for g, vb, dc and o are 80 V/div., and those for c and o are 4.0 A/div.)

Fig. 4 Simulated waveforms of (a) proposed inverter and (b) MEB inverter with a buffer capacitance of 1 mF during dc-ac conversion under conditions of Pac = 500 W, vs = 90 V and vbc = 70 V. (The scales for vg, vb and vo are 80 V/div., and those for ic and io are 4.0 A/div.)


In this paper the most common multilevel invert er top o lo g i es were scrutinized to find the more appropriate topology for BESS application. The investigation has been done entitled of quantitative and qualitative studies and the important output parameters of invert er top o l o g i es were investigated as quantitative study, while other features such as reliability, modular it y and functionality were scrutinized in qualitative study. Also, various invert er top o log i es have been evaluated in terms of required capacity in the same operating point. The simulation results proved that the ideal BESS power conversion system, among reviewed multi-level top o log i es, is Cascaded topology.

There are three reasons for choosing this topology, First, the efficiency and reliability studies were conducted, and the C M LI was found to be the most efficient and reliable topology with minimum amount of power loss compared to other top o log i es. Second, it subdivides the battery string and increases the high voltage functionality and Finally, capacitor volume, cost and TH D studies were again confirmed the effectiveness of this topology in battery energy storage systems.


[1] H. Abu-Rub, M. Malinowski, and K. Al-Haddad, Power electronics for renewable energy systems, transportation and industrial applications. John Wiley & Sons, 2014.

[2] T. Soong and P. W. Lehn, “Evaluation of emerging modular multilevel converters for bess applications,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 2086–2094, 2014.

[3] P. Medina, A. Bizuayehu, J. P. Catal˜ao, E. M. Rodrigues, and J. Contreras, “Electrical energy storage systems: Technologies’ state-of-the-art, techno-economic benefits and applications analysis,” in Hawaii IEEE International Conference on System Sciences, 2014, pp. 2295–2304.

[4] E. H. Allen, R. B. Stuart, and T. E. Wiedman, “No light in august: power system restoration following the 2003 north american blackout,” IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 24–33, 2014.

[5] L. Yutian, F. Rui, and V. Terzija, “Power system restoration: a literature review from 2006 to 2016,” Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 332–341, 2016.

Grid Connected Wind- Photovoltaic hybrid System


 This paper presents a modeling and control strategies of a grid connected Wind-Photo voltaic hybrid system. This proposed system consists of two renewable energy sources in order to increase the system efficiency. The Maximum Power Point Tracking (MP PT) algorithm is applied to the P V system and the wind system to obtain the maximum power for any given external weather conditions. The Field Oriented Control (F O C) controls the generator side converter, moreover this approach is used to control independently the flux and the torque by applying the d- and q-components of the current motor. The Voltage Oriented Control (V O C) strategy controls the utility grid side converter which is adopted to adjust the DC-link at the desired voltage. The simulation results using mat lab software environment prove the good performance of these used techniques so as to generate sinusoidal current wave forms. This current synchronizes with the grid voltage, Moreover, the DC bus voltage is perfectly constant because only the active power is injected into the grid. Simulations are carried out to validate the effectiveness of the proposed system methods.




Fig. l.The proposed P V -wind hybrid system


Fig. 2 Solar i r radiance changes

Fig. 3 The variation of PY arrays current

Fig. 4 The P Y arrays voltage

Fig. 5 The P Y arrays power and reference

Fig. 6 Duty cycle

Fig. 7 Wind speed profile

Fig. 8 Electrical angular speed of the SC I G and its reference

Fig. 9 The active power injected into the grid

Fig. 10 The Reactive power injected into the grid

Fig. 11 The wave forms of the current

Fig. 12 The three phase current and voltage wave forms

Fig. 13. DC link voltage.


This paper investigated the Wind-Photo voltaic hybrid system control which included an MP PT method. Different solar irradiation and wind speed environments has been simulated in order to maximize the output power of the proposed system . Two control techniques  improved the hybrid system usefulness. The Field Oriented Control (F O C) controlled the controlled rectifier connected to the squirrel-cage induction generator (SCI G) to reach the optimal rotational speed. The Voltage Oriented Control (V O C) method controlled the grid-side invert er in order to keep the dc-link voltage at the desired value. Mat lab / Sim u link software implemented the hybrid system simulation and its performances proved when the solar i r radiance change or the wind speed occurs.


Single Phase Dynamic Voltage Restorer Topology Based on Five-level Ground point Shifting Inverter


A Single Phase Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) based on five-level ground point shifting multilevel inverter topology has been proposed in this paper. The proposed inverter has a floating ground point. Therefore, by shifting the ground point, it is observed that the inverter circuit gives five output voltage levels from single DC voltage source. This configuration uses less number of switches compared to the existing multilevel inverter topologies. A fast sag swell identification technique using d-q reference frame is also discussed in this paper. This proposed topology of the DVR can compensate voltage sag, swell, flicker and maintain the required voltage at the load bus. The detailed simulation study is carried out using MATLAB/Simulink to validate the result.


  1. Voltage sag
  2. Swell
  3. Ground Point Shifting Multilevel Inverter (GPSMI)
  4. Topology
  5. DVR



Fig. 1. General structure of the proposed DVR.


Fig. 2. (a) Grid terminal voltage (vt) and (b) load voltage (vl) during sag


Fig. 3. direct axis value of the d-q reference frame which is used to detect

sag in the system.

Fig. 4. During voltage sag (a) grid terminal voltage (vt), (b) series injected

voltage (vinj) and (c) inverter terminal voltage (vinv).

Fig. 5. FFT analysis of the series injected voltage (vinj).

Fig. 6. (a) Grid terminal voltage and (b) load voltage during Voltage flicker


This paper proposes dynamic voltage restorer based on the ground point shifting multilevel Inverter topology (GPSMI). And explained  the operation of the multilevel inverter and the power circuit diagram. The inverter topology requires less number of switches than conventional multi-level inverter. In this inverter topology, only two switches are active at any instant of time that reduce switch conduction loss. Using this multi-level inverter, reduced the passive filter requirement in the DVR topology. Proper PWM for this proposed inverter has been explained. Instantaneous sag identification technique using d-q reference frame has also been explained. This proposed DVR can mitigate the power quality problem like sag/swell and voltage flicker.


 [1] IEEE Guide for Voltage Sag Indices,” in IEEE Std 1564-2014 , vol., no., pp.1-59, June 20 2014

[2] IEEE Guide for Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems,” in IEEE Std 1250-2011 (Revision of IEEE Std 1250-1995) , vol., no., pp.1-70, March 31 2011

[3] A. G ho sh and G. Led w i ch, ”Structures and control of a dynamic voltage regulator (DVR),” Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting, 2001. IEEE, Columbus, OH, 2001, pp. 1027-1032 vol.3. do i: 10.1109/PE  S W.2001.917209

[4] Hui wen Li u, Bowen Z hen g and X  ion  g Z h an, ”A comparison of two types of storage less DVR with a passive shunt converter,” 2016 IEEE 8th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (I P EM C-EC CE Asia), He f e i, 2016, pp. 1280-1284.

[5] P. C. Lo h, D. M. Vi lath g  a m  u  w  a , S. K. tang, H. L. Long, ”Multilevel dynamic voltage restorer”, IEEE Power Electronic Letters, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 125-130, Dec. 2004.

Simulation of a Single-Phase Five-Level Cascaded H Bridge Inverter with Multicarrier SPWM B-Spline Based Modulation Techniques


 Multilevel Power Inverters are now often used to convert DC to AC voltage waveform. This kind of converter allows high power quality with low output harmonics and lower commutation losses with respect to the traditional ones in order to optimize this aspect. This paper presents a novel simulation analysis of the Multicarrier Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (MC SPWM) techniques B-Spline functions based to control the switches of five-level single-phase cascaded H bridge inverter. In order to verify the performance of the converter, the harmonic content of the voltage due to modulation techniques has been taken into account. Results highlight the comparison between different B-Spline functions.


  1. Multilevel power converter
  2. Multicarrier modulation techniques
  3. B-spline functions



Fig. 1: CHBMI single-phase with 2n+ 1 level



 Fig. 2: Comparison of TH D% versus reference voltage trend for Phase Disposition PD carriers: B 2(t), B  3(t) and B 4(t).

Fig. 3: Comparison TH D% versus reference voltage trend for

Phase Opposition Disposition POD carriers: B  2(t), B  3(t) and B 4(t).

Fig. 4: Comparison TH D% versus reference voltage trend for

Alternative Phase Opposition Disposition AP OD carriers: B 2(t),

B 3(t) and B 4(t).

Fig. 5: Comparison TH D% versus reference voltage trend for

Phase Shifted PS carriers: B  2(t), B 3(t) and B  4

Fig. 6: Comparison Fundamental Amplitude versus reference

voltage trend for Phase Disposition PD carriers: B2(t), B3(t) and


Fig. 7: Comparison Fundamental Amplitude versus reference

voltage trend for Phase Opposition Disposition POD carriers:

B 2(t), B  3(t) and B 4(t).

Fig. 8: Comparison Fundamental Amplitude versus reference

voltage trend for Alternative Phase Opposition Disposition AP OD

carriers: B 2(t), B 3(t) and B 4(t).

Fig. 9: Comparison Fundamental Amplitude versus reference

voltage trend for Phase Shifted PS carriers: B  2(t), B 3(t) and B 4(t).


This paper presents a simulation analysis of the Multi carrier Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation techniques B-Spline functions based for five-level single-phase cascaded H-bridge invert er. The multi carrier modulation techniques taken into account are PD, POD, AP OD and PS using PB 2(t), PB 3(t) and PB  4(t) as carrier signals. In order to verify the performance of converter and harmonic content of the voltage, the used tool for comparison of different modulation techniques is TH D%. The computed TH  D% values versus reference voltage (peak value) for the phase voltage have been presented and the related results have been compared among different carrier signals used. The minimum value of the TH D% has  been obtained by using the PS modulation techniques with PB 4(t) as carrier signal.


 [1] A. Ta k a  ha  s hi I. Nab e and H. Aka  g i, A new neutral-point clamped PW M invert er, IEEE Trans. Ind. A  p pl., 17, 518″ 1981.

[2] .T. Rodriguez, .T.-S. La i, and F. Z. Pen g, Multilevel invert  er s: a survey of top  o l o  g i e s, controls, and applications, Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 724- 738, Aug. 2002.

[3] M. Caruso e t a  l., Design and experimental characterization of a low-cost, real-time, wireless AC monitoring system based on AT mega 328  P-PU micro controller, 2015 A E  IT International Annual Conference (A E IT), Naples, 2015, pp. 1- 6. do i: 1 O  .1 109!A E  IT.  201  5.7 415  267

[4] M. Caruso, V. Ce  c co n i, A. O. Di Tom  mas o, and R. Rocha. A Rotor Flux and Speed Observer for Sensor less Single-Phase Induction Motor Applications. International Journal of Rotating Machinery, vol. 2012, no. 276906, p. 13,2012.

Solar Photovoltaic Powered Sailing Boat Using Buck Converter


 The main objective of this paper is to establish technical and economical aspects of the application of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system in sailing boat using a buck converter in order to enhance the power generation and also to minimize the cost. Performance and control of dc-dc converter, suitable for photovoltaic (PV) applications, is presented here. A buck converter is employed here which extracts complete power from the PV source and feeds into the dc load. The power, which is fed into the load, is sufficient to drive a boat. With the help of matlab simulink software PV module and buck model has been designed and simulated and also compared with theoretical predictions.


  1. Buck Converter
  2. Ideal Switch
  3. Matlab Simulink
  4. PV
  5. Solar Sailing Boat



Figure 1. Schematic Diagram of PV powered Sailing Boat


 Figure 2. Simulation result of maximum voltage, current and power in PV array

Figure 3. Simulation result of Buck converter

Figure 4. Simulation result of PV with Buck


Here proposed a solar PV powered sailing boat using buck converter. And tested the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. This is a new and innovative application which is fully environmental friendly and is almost pollution less. As the upper portion of the boat is unused, solar panels are implemented in that portion quite easily, without requiring extra space. Fuel cost is not required in day time due to the presence of sunlight. lastly, energy pay back period will be lesser than diesel run boat.


 [1] P V or  ob i e  v, Y u. V or ob i  e v. Automatic Sun Tracking Solar Electric Systems for Applications on Transport. 7th International Conference on Electrical Engineering, Computing Science and Automatic Control. 2010.

[2] Nob u  y u l  u K  as a, Ta  k  ah i k o Ii d a, Hide o I w a motto. An invert er using buck-boost type chopper circuits for popular small-scale photo voltaic power system. IEEE. 1999.

[3] Pen g Zhang, Wen yuan Li, S her win Li, Yang Wang, Wei dong Xi a o. Reliability assessment of photo voltaic power systems: Review of current status and future perspectives. Applied Energy. 2013; 104(2013): 822–833,

[4] M Nag a o, H Ho r i k a w a, K Ha r a d a. Photo voltaic System using Buck-Boost PW  M Invert er. Trans. of IE E J. 1994; ll 4(D): 885-892.

[5] A Z e g a o u i, M Ail l e r i e, P Pet it, JP S a wick i, JP Charles, AW Be la r bi. Dynamic behavior of P V generator trackers under irradiation and temperature changes. Solar Energy. 2011; 85(2011): 2953–2964.