An Energy Management Scheme with Power Limit Capability and an Adaptive Maximum Power Point Tracking for Small Standalone PMSG Wind Energy Systems

ABSTRACT:

Due to its high energy generation capability and minimal environmental impact, wind energy is an elegant solution to the growing global energy demand. However, frequent atmospheric changes make it difficult to effectively harness the energy in the wind because maximum power extraction occurs at a different operating point for each wind condition. This paper proposes a parameter independent intelligent power management controller that consists of a slope-assisted maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm and a power limit search (PLS) algorithm for small standalone wind energy systems with permanent synchronous generators. Unlike the parameter independent perturb & observe (P&O) algorithms, the proposed slope-assisted MPPT algorithm preempts logical errors attributed to wind fluctuations by detecting and identifying atmospheric changes. The controller’s PLS is able to minimize the production of surplus energy to minimize the heat dissipation requirements of the energy release mechanism by cooperating with the state observer and using the slope parameter to seek the operating points that result in the desired power rather than the maximum power. The functionality of the proposed energy management control scheme for wind energy systems is verified through simulation results and experimental results.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Wind energy
  2. Maximum power point tracking
  3. Energy management
  4. Power electronics

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig 1 System diagram with the proposed management control algorithm

 EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

 Fig 2 Performance of the standard fixed-step size P&O algorithm (average power captured = 1066 W).

Fig 3 Performance of the standard variable-step size P&O algorithm (average power captured = 1106 W).

Fig 4 Performance of the slope-assisted MPPT algorithm (1238 W).

Fig 5 Power coefficient performance of the fixed-step size P&O, variable step size P&O, and the slope assist MPPT (comparison performed under atmospheric identical conditions as depicted in Fig.20).

CONCLUSION:

In this paper, an intelligent parameter-independent power management controller has been presented for standalone offgrid small wind energy systems. With the state observer presiding over the slope-assisted MPPT and the PLS in the proposed controller, the convergence times to the desired operating points is reduced and the logical errors are minimized by identifying the changes in wind conditions. Being applicable for both grid-connected and standalone wind systems, the slope assist MPPT increases a wind system’s MPP search efficiency and enables the wind system to actively adapt to its changing behavior and wind conditions. The PLS algorithm was designed to complement the slope assist MPPT for standalone wind systems that have limited energy storage and use energy dissipation mechanisms to disperse surplus energy. Rather than focusing on capturing maximum power, the power limit search focuses on reducing the size and heat requirements of the energy dissipation mechanism by minimizing surplus power generation as desired. The operating principles of the proposed PLS and MPPT control techniques have been discussed in this paper. Simulation results on a 3kW system and experimental results on a proof-of-concept prototype with a wind turbine emulator have been provided to highlight the merits of this work.

REFERENCES:

[1] Global Wind Energy Council, “Global Wind Report – Anual Market Update 2012,” 2013.

[2] Global Wind Energy Council, “Global Wind 2011 Report,” 2012.

[3] Canadian Wind Energy Association, “Canadian Wind Energy Association,” [Online]. Available: www.canwea.ca.

[4] Q. Wang and L. Chang, “An Intelligent Maximum Power Extraction Algorithm for Inverter-Based Variable Speed Wind Turbine Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 1, September 2004, pp. 1242-1249.

[5] E. Koutroulis and K. Kalaitzakis, “Design of a Maximum Power Tracking System for Wind Energy Conversion Applications,” IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics, vol. 53, no. 2, April 2006, pp. 486-494.

An Autonomous Wind Energy Conversion System with Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

ABSTRACT:

This paper deals with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based variable speed autonomous wind energy conversion system (AWECS). Back back connected voltage source converter (VSC) and a voltage source inverter (VSI) with a battery energy storage system (BESS) at the intermediate dc link are used to realize the voltage and frequency controller (VFC). The BESS is used for load leveling and to ensure the reliability of the supply to consumers connected at load bus under change in wind speed. The generator-side converter operated in vector control mode for achieving maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and to achieve unity power factor operation at PMSG terminals. The load-side converter is operated to regulate amplitude of the load voltage and frequency under change in load conditions. The three-phase four wire consumer loads are fed with a non-isolated star-delta transformer connected at the load bus to provide stable neutral terminal. The proposed AWECS is modeled, design and simulated using MATLAB R2007b simulink with its sim power system toolbox and discrete step solver.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Battery
  2. Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator
  3. Star-delta Transformer
  4. Voltage Source Converters
  5. Maximum Power Point Tracking
  6. Wind Energy

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

 

Fig. 1 Proposed control scheme of VFC for PMSG based AWECS

 EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

 Fig. 2 Performance of Controller during fall in wind speed

Fig. 3 Performance of Controller during rise in wind speed

Fig. 4 Performance of Controller at fixed wind speed and balanced/unbalanced non-linear loads

CONCLUSION:

 A new configuration of voltage and frequency controller for a permanent magnet synchronous generator based variable speed autonomous wind energy conversion system has been designed modeled and its performance is simulated. The VFC has used two back-back connected VSC’s and BESS at intermediate dc link. The GSC has been controlled in vector controlled to achieve MPPT, unity power factor operation of PMSG. The LSI has been controlled to maintain amplitude of load voltage and its frequency. The VFC has performed the function of a load leveler, a load balancer, and a harmonic eliminator.

REFERENCES:

[1] J. F. Gieras and M. Wing, Permanent Magnet Motor Technology – Design and Application, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 2002.

[2] M. Kimura, H. Koharagi, K. Imaie, S. Dodo, H. Arita and K. Tsubouchi, “A permanent magnet synchronous generator with variable speed input for co-generation system,” IEEE Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting, 2001, vol. 3, 28 Jan.-1 Feb. 2001, pp. 1419 – 1424.

[3] T.F. Chan, L.L. Lai, Yan Lie-Tong, “Performance of a three-phase AC generator with inset NdFeB permanent-magnet rotor,” IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol.19, no.1, pp. 88- 94, March 2004.

[4] T.F. Chan, W. Wang, L.L. Lai, “Analysis and performance of a permanent-magnet synchronous generator supplying an isolated load,” IET, Electric Power Applications, vol. 4, no. 3, pp.169-176, March 2010.

[5] K. Amei, Y. Takayasu, T. Ohji and M. Sakui, “A maximum power control of wind generator system using a permanent magnet synchronous generator and a boost chopper circuit,” Proc. of the Power Conversion Conference, PCC Osaka 2002, vol. 3, 2-5 April 2002, pp. 1447 – 1452.

Renewable Energy and Systems Projects for MTech using Matlab/Simulink in yadadri bhuvangiri

Renewable Energy and Systems Projects for MTech using Matlab/Simulink in yadadri bhuvangiri.

Software Used: Matlab/Simulink
Areas : Power Electronics and Drives, Power Systems, Renewable Energy and sources, etc
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Asoka technologies provide Power Electronics, Power Systems Projects for MTech using Matlab/Simulink in yadadri bhuvangiri.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING is a field of engineering that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electro magnetism. This field first became an identifiable occupation in the later half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone, and electric power distribution and use. Subsequently, broad casting and recording media made electronics part of daily life. The invention of the transistor, and later the integrated circuit, brought down the cost of electronics to the point they can be used in almost any household object.
Electrical engineering has now subdivided into a wide range of sub fields including electronics, digital computers, power engineering, tele communications, control systems, radio-frequency engineering, signal processing, instrumentation, and microelectronics. Many of these sub disciplines overlap and also overlap with other engineering branches, spanning a huge number of specializations such as hardware engineering, power electronics, electro magnetics & waves, microwave engineering, nanotechnology, electro chemistry, renewable energies, mechatronics, electrical materials science, and many more.
POWER ELECTRONICS is the application of solid-state electronics to the control and conversion of electric power. The first high power electronic devices were mercury-arc valves. In modern systems the conversion is performed with semiconductor switching devices such as diodes, thyristors and transistors, pioneered by R. D. Middlebrook and others beginning in the 1950s. In contrast to electronic systems concerned with transmission and processing of signals and data, in power electronics substantial amounts of electrical energy are processed. An AC/DC converter (rectifier) is the most typical power electronics device found in many consumer electronic devices, e.g. television sets, personal computers, battery chargers, etc. The power range is typically from tens of watts to several hundred watts. In industry a common application is the variable speed drive (VSD) that is used to control an induction motor. The power range of VSDs start from a few hundred watts and end at tens of megawatts.

b.tech ieee electrical projects in mahabubnagar

b.tech ieee electrical projects in mahabubnagar. 
Software Used: Matlab/Simulink
Areas : Power Electronics and Drives, Power Systems, Renewable Energy and sources, etc
Download
Contact us:
email: asokatechnologies@gmail.com
website: www.asokatechnologies.in
Asoka technologies provide b.tech ieee electrical projects in mahabubnagar.
B.TECH IEEE ELECTRICAL PROJECTS IN ENGINEERING is a field of engineering that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electro magnetism. This field first became an identifiable occupation in the later half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone, and electric power distribution and use. Subsequently, broad casting and recording media made electronics part of daily life. The invention of the transistor, and later the integrated circuit, brought down the cost of electronics to the point they can be used in almost any household object.
Electrical engineering has now subdivided into a wide range of sub fields including electronics, digital computers, power engineering, tele communications, control systems, radio-frequency engineering, signal processing, instrumentation, and microelectronics. Many of these sub disciplines overlap and also overlap with other engineering branches, spanning a huge number of specializations such as hardware engineering, power electronics, electro magnetics & waves, microwave engineering, nanotechnology, electro chemistry, renewable energies, mechatronics, electrical materials science, and many more.

b.tech ieee electrical projects We know that electrical projects are used in many cases in our real life and they require more power when compared with electronics projects. Electrical project circuits use only passive components like capacitors, inductors, resistors, etc. As a result, many people like to get an idea about how electrical projects work and which projects may come under this category.

Control system

  • b.tech ieee electrical projects Design of Load Sharing control system using PIC MicrocontrollerThe main aim of this project is to adjust the availability power with consuming load. This system measures the power using current and voltage sensing circuits for every energy source.
  • b.tech ieee electrical projects

Grid-Connected PV-Wind-Battery-Based multi input transformer coupled bidirectional dc-dc converter for household applications

 

ABSTRACT:

 In this paper, a control strategy for power flow management of a grid-connected hybrid photovoltaic (PV)–wind battery- based system with an efficient multi-input transformer coupled bidirectional dc–dc converter is presented. The proposed system aims to satisfy the load demand, manage the power flow from different sources, inject the surplus power into the grid, and charge the battery from the grid as and when required. A transformer-coupled boost half-bridge converter is used to harness power from wind, while a bidirectional buck– boost converter is used to harness power from PV along with battery charging/discharging control. A single-phase full-bridge bidirectional converter is used for feeding ac loads and interaction with the grid. The proposed converter architecture has reduced number of power conversion stages with less component count and reduced losses compared with existing grid-connected hybrid systems. This improves the efficiency and the reliability of the system. Simulation results obtained using MATLAB/Simulink show the performance of the proposed control strategy for power flow management under various modes of operation. The effectiveness of the topology and the efficacy of the proposed control strategy are validated through detailed experimental studies to demonstrate the capability of the system operation in different modes.

 KEYWORDS:

  1. Battery charge control
  2. Bidirectional buck–boost converter
  3. Full-bridge bidirectional converter
  4. Hybrid system
  5. Maximum power-point tracking
  6. Solar photovoltaic (PV)
  7. Transformer-coupled boost dual-half-bridge bidirectional converter
  8. Wind energy

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

image001

Fig. 1. Grid-connected hybrid PV–wind-battery-based system for household applications.

 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

image002image003

Fig 2. Proposed converter configuration.

 EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 image004image005

Fig. 3. Steady-state operation in the MPPT mode.

image006

image007

Fig. 4. Response of the system for changes in an insolation level of source-1 (PV source) during operation in the MPPT mode.

image008

image009

Fig. 5. Response of the system for changes in wind speed level of source-2 (wind source) during operation in the MPPT mode.

image010

image011

Fig. 6. Response of the system in the absence of source-1 (PV source), while source-2 continues to operate at MPPT.

image012

image013

Fig. 7. Response of the system in the absence of source-2 (wind source), while source-1 continues to operate at MPPT.

image014

image015

Fig. 8. Response of the system in the absence of both the sources and charging the battery from the grid.

CONCLUSION:

A grid-connected hybrid PV–wind-battery-based power evacuation scheme for household application is proposed. The proposed hybrid system provides an elegant integration of PV and wind source to extract maximum energy from the two sources. It is realized by a novel multi-input transformer coupled bidirectional dc–dc converter followed by a conventional full-bridge inverter. A versatile control strategy which achieves a better utilization of PV, wind power, battery capacities without effecting life of battery, and power flow management in a grid-connected hybrid PV–wind-battery-based system feeding ac loads is presented. Detailed simulation studies are carried out to ascertain the viability of the scheme. The experimental results obtained are in close agreement with simulations and are supportive in demonstrating the capability of the system to operate either in grid feeding or in stand-alone modes. The proposed configuration is capable of supplying uninterruptible power to ac loads, and ensures the evacuation of surplus PV and wind power into the grid.

 REFERENCES:

[1] F. Valenciaga and P. F. Puleston, “Supervisor control for a stand-alone hybrid generation system using wind and photovoltaic energy,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 398–405, Jun. 2005.

[2] C. Liu, K. T. Chau, and X. Zhang, “An efficient wind–photovoltaic hybrid generation system using doubly excited permanent-magnet brushless machine,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 831–839, Mar. 2010.

[3] W. Qi, J. Liu, X. Chen, and P. D. Christofides, “Supervisory predictive control of standalone wind/solar energy generation systems,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 199–207, Jan. 2011.

[4] F. Giraud and Z. M. Salameh, “Steady-state performance of a grid connected rooftop hybrid wind-photovoltaic power system with battery storage,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 1–7, Mar. 2001.

[5] S.-K. Kim, J.-H. Jeon, C.-H. Cho, J.-B. Ahn, and S.-H. Kwon, “Dynamic modeling and control of a grid-connected hybrid generation system with versatile power transfer,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 1677–1688, Apr. 2008.

 

 

A Multi-Input Bridgeless Resonant AC-DC Converter for Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting

ABSTRACT

Flapping electromagnetic-reed generators are investigated to harvest wind energy, even at low cut-off wind speeds. Power electronic interfaces are intended to address ac-dc conversion and power conditioning for single- or multiple-channel systems. However, the generated voltage of each generator reed at low wind speed is usually below the threshold voltage of power electronic semiconductor devices, increasing the difficulty and inefficiency of rectification, particularly at relatively low output powers. This manuscript proposes a multi-input bridgeless resonant ac-dc converter to achieve ac-dc conversion, step up voltage and match optimal impedance for a multi-channel electromagnetic energy harvesting system. Alternating voltage of each generator is stepped up through the switching LC network and then rectified by a freewheeling diode. Its resonant operation enhances efficiency and enables miniaturization through high frequency switching. The optimal electrical impedance can be adjusted through resonance impedance matching and pulse-frequency-modulation (PFM) control. A 5-cm×3-cm, six-input standalone prototype is fabricated to address power conditioning for a six-channel BreezBee® wind panel.

 KEYWORDS:

AC-DC conversion, electromagnetic energy harvesting, multi-input converter, resonant converter, wind energy.

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

image001

image002

Fig. 1. Multi-channel EMR generators and PEI system: (a) conventional PEI; and (b) proposed multi-input PEI.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

image003

Fig. 2. Illustrative scheme of the proposed multi-input converter (v(i)emf: EMF of #i reed; r(i)EMR: coil resistance; L(i)EMR: self-inductance; i(i)EMR: reed terminal current; v(i)EMR: reed terminal voltage; C(i)r1= C(i)r2: resonant capacitors; Lr: resonant inductor; Q(i)r1, Q(i)r2: MOSFETs; Dr: output diode; Co: output capacitor).

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS:

image004

  •                                                             (a)
  • image005                                                                    (b)

Fig. 3. Experimental waveforms of power amplifiers: fin = 20 Hz; X-axis: 10 ms/div; Y-axis: (a) vemf = 3 Vrms; Ch1 = output voltage (Vo), 2.5 V/div; Ch2 = terminal voltage (vEMR) of reed #1, 10 V/div; Ch3 = input current (iEMR) of six reeds, 50 mA/div; and (b) vemf = 0.5 Vrms; Ch1 = output voltage (Vo), 0.5 V/div; Ch2 = terminal voltage (vEMR) of reed #1, 5 V/div; Ch3 = sum of the input currents (iEMR) of six reeds, 10 mA/div.

 image006                                                         (a)

image007

  •                                                           (b)

Fig. 4. Experimental waveforms of power amplifiers with step change: X-axis: 40 ms/div; Y-axis: (a) vemf = from 1 Vrms to 2 Vrms; Ch1 = output voltage (Vo), 1 V/div; Ch2 = terminal voltage (vEMR) of reed #1, 5 V/div; Ch3 = input current (iEMR) of six reeds, 50 mA/div; and (b) fin = from 20 Hz to 50 Hz; Ch1 = output voltage (Vo), 0.5 V/div; Ch2 = terminal voltage (vEMR) of reed #1, 5 V/div; Ch3 = input current (iEMR) of six reeds, 50 mA/div.

image008

(a)

image009

  •                                                                 (b)

Fig. 5. Experimental waveforms of EMR generators: X-axis: (a) 20 ms/div; (b) 100 ms/div; Y-axis: (a) constant wind speed; (b) wind speed step change; Ch1 = terminal voltage (vEMR) of reed #2, 5 V/div; Ch2 = output voltage (Vo), 1 V/div; Ch3 = terminal voltage (vEMR) of reed #1, 10 V/div; Ch4 = input current (iEMR) of reed #1, 10 mA/div.

 CONCLUSION

This manuscript introduces a multi-input bridgeless resonant ac-dc converter suitable for efficient, low-voltage, low-power, ac-dc power conversion of multiple electromagnetic generators. The multi-input single-stage topology is capable of directly converting independent, low-amplitude, alternative voltages of EMR inductive generators to a stepped-up dc output voltage with relatively high efficiency. Low-frequency alternating voltages of EMR generators are first converted into a high-frequency alternating voltage through an LC network and then rectified into a dc output voltage through a soft-switched diode. Optimal electrical impedance matching is achieved through proper LC network design and PFM control to scavenge maximum power of EMR generators. In addition, high-frequency soft-switching increases the potential of size miniaturization without suffering from switching losses. The converter performance is verified through a 5cm×3cm standalone prototype, which converts ac voltages of six-channel generators into a dc output voltage. A maximum PEI conversion efficiency of 86.3% is measured at 27-mW ac-dc power conversion. The topological concept, presented in this manuscript, can be adapted for rectification of any inductive voltage sources or electromagnetic energy-harvesting device.

REFERENCES

[1] A. Khaligh, P. Zeng, and C. Zheng, “Kinetic energy harvesting using piezoelectric and electromagnetic technologies – state of the art,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 850-860, Mar. 2010.

[2] Altenera Technology Inc., accessible online at http://altenera.com/products/.

[3] H. Jung, S. Lee, and D. Jang, “Feasibility study on a new energy harvesting electromagnetic device using aerodynamic instability,” IEEE Trans. on Magnetics, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 4376-4379, Oct. 2009.

[4] A. Bansal, D. A. Howey, and A. S. Holmes, “CM-scale air turbine and generator for energy harvesting from low-speed flows,” in Proc. Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conf., Jun. 2009, pp. 529-532.

[5] D. Rancourt, A. Tabesh, and L. G. Fréchette, “Evaluation of centimeter-scale micro windmills: aerodynamics and electromagnetic power generation,” in Proc. PowerMEMS, 2007, pp. 93-96.