Modeling and Control of Multi-Terminal HVDC with Offshore Wind Farm Integration and DC Chopper Based Protection Strategies



Multi-Terminal HVDC based on three-level neutral-clamped voltage source converters (VSC) is an ideal approach for the integration of DFIG wind farms to the power grid. However, dc-link faults and ac faults are major concerns for the safety and consistency of VSC-HVDC system. This paper demonstrates methods employing both full bridge and half bridge DC-DC converters for the fast clearance and protection of dc and ac ground faults respectively. In addition, control strategies incorporating decoupling control and feed-forward compensation on both grid side and wind farm side VSCs are also presented. Normal operations are observed to examine the performance of the MT-HVDC system, and also dc-link fault and three-phase ground fault at inverter side are simulated to verify the effectiveness of the approach employing DC-DC converters to suppress dc current overshoot in case of dc-link fault and mitigate dc voltage overshoot during three-phase ac ground fault. This proposed MT-HVDC transmission system and the fault-ride through capabilities provided by the dc choppers is validated by the simulation studies using detailed Matlab/Simulink model for normal operation, dc and ac ground faults.


  2. DFIG
  3. DC chopper
  4. Faults



Fig. 1 Topology of the proposed multi-terminal VSC-HVDC system.



Fig. 2 Simulation results of MT-HVDC during normal operation: (a) active power of wind farm, (b) dc voltage, and (c) ac rms current.

Fig. 3 Simulation results of 6 DFIG units during normal operation: (a) active power, (b) reactive power, (c) ac rms voltage, and (d) back-to-back dc-link voltage of DFIG unit.

Fig. 4 Simulation results of MT-HVDC during dc pole-to-pole fault with and without full bridge dc chopper protection: (a) dc voltage, and (b) dc current.

Fig. 5 Simulation results of MT-HVDC during three-phase ac ground fault at inverter side with and without half bridge dc chopper protection: (a) ac rms voltage at inverter side, (b) dc voltage overshoot without protection measures, and (c) dc voltage with protection measures.


This paper investigates a multi-terminal VSC-HVDC system, which integrates two DFIG wind farms to the ac grid. The control strategies of both WFVSC and GSVSC stations are discussed in detail, and two approaches employing both full bridge and half bridge dc choppers are extended and displayed. Simulation studies are carried out in normal, dc pole-to-pole and ac ground fault operations, and the result verifies the effectiveness of the proposed MT-HVDC system in both the performance of wind power delivery and the protection measures for various fault conditions. Specifically, the dc voltage drop and dc current overshoot are eliminated during dc fault with full bridge dc choppers, while only a 8% voltage overshoot is observed with the implementation of half bridge dc choppers in case of three-phase ac ground fault.


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