Simulation and Comparison of SPWM and SVPWM Control for Three Phase Inverter


A voltage source inverter is commonly used to supply a three-phase induction motor with variable frequency and variable voltage for variable speed applications. A suitable pulse width modulation (PWM) technique is employed to obtain the required output voltage in the line side of the inverter. The different methods for PWM generation can be broadly classified into Triangle comparison based PWM (TCPWM) and Space Vector based PWM (SVPWM). In TCPWM methods such as sine-triangle PWM, three phase reference modulating signals are compared against a common triangular carrier to generate the PWM signals for the three phases. In SVPWM methods, a revolving reference voltage vector is provided as voltage reference instead of three phase modulating waves. The magnitude and frequency of the fundamental component in the line side are controlled by the magnitude and frequency, respectively, of the reference vector. The highest possible peak phase fundamental is very less in sine triangle PWM when compared with space vector PWM. Space Vector Modulation (SVM) Technique has become the important PWM technique for three phase Voltage Source Inverters for the control of AC Induction, Brushless DC, Switched Reluctance and Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors. The study of space vector modulation technique reveals that space vector modulation technique utilizes DC bus voltage more efficiently and generates less harmonic distortion when compared with Sinusoidal PWM (SPWM) technique. In this paper first a model for Space vector PWM is made and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK software and its performance is compared with Sinusoidal PWM. The simulation study reveals that Space vector PWM utilizes dc bus voltage more effectively and generates less THD when compared with sine PWM.


  1. PWM
  2. SVPWM
  3. Three phase inverter
  4. Total harmonic distortion



Figure-1. Block diagram of SPWM inverter fed induction motor.


Figure-2a. Response of line voltage in SPWM.

Figure-3. Response of line voltage in SPWM.

Figure-4a. Response of line current in SPWM.

Figure-5b. Response of line current in SPWM.

Figure-6. Response of rotor speed in SPWM.

Figure.7. Response of torque in SPWM.

Figure-8. Response of line voltage in SVPWM.

Figure-9. Response of line current in SVPWM.

Figure-10. Response of rotor speed in SVPWM.

Figure-11. Response of torque in SVPWM.


Space vector Modulation Technique has become the most popular and important PWM technique for Three Phase Voltage Source Inverters for the control of AC Induction, Brushless DC, Switched Reluctance and Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors. In this paper first comparative analysis of Space Vector PWM with conventional SPWM for a two level Inverter is carried out. The Simulation study reveals that SVPWM gives 15% enhanced fundamental output with better quality i.e. lesser THD compared to SPWM. PWM strategies viz. SPWM and SVPWM are implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK software and its performance is compared with conventional PWM techniques. Owing to their fixed carrier frequencies cfin conventional PWM strategies, there are cluster harmonics around the multiples of carrier frequency. PWM strategies viz. Sinusoidal PWM and SVPWM utilize a changing carrier frequency to spread the harmonics continuously to a wideband area so that the peak harmonics are reduced greatly.


Zhenyu Yu, Arefeen Mohammed, Issa Panahi. 1997. A Review of Three PWM Techniques. Proceedings of the American Control Conference Albuquerque, New Mexico. pp. 257-261.

  1. G. Holmes and T. A. Lipo. 2003. Pulse Width Modulation for Power Converters: Principles and Practice. M.E. El-Hawary, Ed. New Jersey: IEEE Press, Wiley- Interscience. pp. 215-313.
  2. Erfidan, S. Urugun, Y. Karabag and B. Cakir. 2004. New Software implementation of the Space Vector Modulation. Proceedings of IEEE Conference. pp.1113-1115.
  3. Rathnakumar, J. Lakshmana Perumal and T. Srinivasan. 2005. A New software implementation of space vector PWM. Proceedings of IEEE Southeast conference. pp.131-136.
  4. Hariram and N. S. Marimuthu. 2005. Space vector switching patterns for different applications- A comparative analysis. Proceedings of IEEE conference. pp. 1444-1449.

Design and Simulation of three phase Inverter for grid connected Photovoltaic systems


Grid connected photovoltaic (PV) systems feed electricity directly to the electrical network operating parallel to the conventional source. This paper deals with design and simulation of a three phase inverter in MATLAB SIMULINK environment which can be a part of photovoltaic grid connected systems. The converter used is a Voltage source inverter (VSI) which is controlled using synchronous d-q reference frame to inject a controlled current into the grid. Phase lock loop (PLL) is used to lock grid frequency and phase. The design of low pass filter used at the inverter output to remove the high frequency ripple is also discussed and the obtained simulation results are presented.



  • VSI Inverter
  • PLL
  • d-q reference frame
  • Grid connected system.




grid tied pv system

Fig.1 Block diagram of the system



Fig.2 Output frequency obtained from PLL

Fig.3 Sin & Cos wave generated by PLL

Fig.4 Synchronization between reference grid voltage & PLL output voltage


Fig.5 Three phase voltage fed by inverter to grid

Fig .6 Average active power fed to grid is 1000 Watt



The design of the system is carried out for feeding 1KW power to the grid The Inverter is controlled in order to feed active power to the grid, using synchronous d-q transformation. PLL is used to lock grid frequency and phase. The phase detection part of PLL is properly done by using dq transformation in the three phase system. The FFT analysis of the inverter output current shows that the THD is within limits and the controlled injected current generates three phase balance current which controls power at the output of the transformer. To simulate the actual grid connected PV system, the PV model, dc to dc converter model and the control of the dc to dc converter should be included in place of the battery source.



  • Soeren Baekhoej, John K Pedersen & Frede Blaabjerg, ―A Review of single phase grid connected inverter for photovoltaic modules,‖ IEEE transaction on Industry Application , Vol. 41,pp. 55 – 68, Sept 2005
  • Milan Pradanovic& Timothy Green, ―Control and filter design of three phase inverter for high power quality grid connection, ― IEEE transactions on Power Electronics,18. pp.1- 8, January 2003
  • C Y Wang,Zhinhong Ye& G.Sinha, ― Output filter design for a grid connected three phase inverter,‖Power electronics Specialist Conference, pp.779-784,PESE 2003
  • Samul Araujo& Fernando Luiz, ― LCL fiter design for grid connected NPC inverters in offshore wind turbins,‖ 7th International conference on Power Electronics, pp. 1133-1138, October 2007.
  • Frede Blaabjerg , Remus Teodorescu and Marco Liserre, ―Overview of control & grid synchronization for distributed power generation systems,‖ IEEE transaction on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 53, pp. 500 – 513,Oct- 2006


A ZVS Grid-Connected Three-Phase Inverter


A six-switch three-phase inverter is widely used in a high-power grid-connected system. However, the anti parallel diodes in the topology operate in the hard-switching state under the traditional control method causing severe switch loss and high electromagnetic interference problems. In order to solve the problem, this paper proposes a topology of the traditional six-switch three-phase inverter but with an additional switch and gave a new space vector modulation (SVM) scheme. In this way, the inverter can realize zero-voltage switching (ZVS) operation in all switching devices and suppress the reverse recovery current in all anti parallel diodes very well. And all the switches can operate at a fixed frequency with the new SVM scheme and have the same voltage stress as the dc-link voltage. In grid-connected application, the inverter can achieve ZVS in all the switches under the load with unity power factor or less. The aforementioned theory is verified in a 30-kW inverter prototype..


  1. Grid connected
  2. soft switching
  3. space vector modulation (SVM)
  4. three-phase inverter
  5. zero-voltage switching (ZVS)



 Fig. 1. ZVS three-phase inverter.



 Fig. 2. Inverter output current and grid voltage (10 ms/div): (a) φu = φi , (b), φuφi = π/6, (c) φuφi = π/6.

Fig. 3. CE voltage and current of S6 (IGBT on) (5 μs/div).

Fig. 4. CE voltage and current of S6 (diode on) (2.5 μs/div).


 Fig. 5. CE voltage and current of S7 (25 μs/div).

Fig. 6. CE voltage and current of S7 , ibus, and iLr (10 μs/div).


Fig. 7. VCc and iLr (50 μs/div).

Fig. 8. Efficiency curve.


In order to speed up the market acceptance of EVs/HEVs, the capital cost in charging infrastructure needs to lower as much as possible. This paper has presented an improved asymmetric half-bridge converter-fed SRM drive to provide both driving and on-board DC and AC charging functions so that the reliance on off-board charging stations is reduced.  The main contributions of this paper are: (i) it combines the split converter topology with central tapped SRM windings to improve the system reliability. (ii) the developed control strategy enables the vehicle to be charged by both DC and AC power subject to availability of power sources. (iii) the battery energy balance strategy is developed to handle unequal SoC scenarios. Even through a voltage imbalance of up to 20% in the battery occurs, the impact on the driving performance is rather limited. (iv) the state-of-charge of the batteries is coordinated by the hysteresis control to optimize the battery performance; the THD of the grid-side current is 3.7% with a lower switching frequency.  It needs to point out that this is a proof-of-concept study based on a 150 W SRM and low-voltage power for simulation and experiments. In the further work, the test facility will be scaled up to 50 kW.


[1] B. K. Bose, “Global energy scenario and impact of power electronics in 21st Century,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 2638- 2651, Jul. 2013.

[2] J. de Santiago, H. Bernhoff, B. Ekergård, S. Eriksson, S. Ferhatovic, R. Waters, and M. Leijon, “Electrical motor drivelines in commercial all-electric vehicles: a review,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 475-484, Feb. 2012.

[3] A. Chiba, K. Kiyota, N. Hoshi, M. Takemoto, S. Ogasawara, “Development of a rare-earth-free SR motor with high torque density for hybrid vehicles,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 30, no. 1, pp.175-182, Mar. 2015.

[4] K. Kiyota, and A. Chiba, “Design of switched reluctance motor competitive to 60-Kw IPMSM in third-generation hybrid electric vehicle,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 2303-2309, Nov./Dec. 2012.

[5] S. E. Schulz, and K. M. Rahman, “High-performance digital PI current regulator for EV switched reluctance motor drives,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 1118-1126, Jul./Aug. 2003.

Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor With Constant Switching Frequency


Direct Torque Control (DTC) has become a popular technique for the control of induction motor drives as it provides a fast dynamic torque response and robustness to machine parameter variations. Hysteresis band control is the one of the simplest and most popular technique used in DTC of induction motor drives. However the conventional direct torque control has a variable switching frequency which causes serious problems in DTC. This paper presents the DTC of induction motor with a constant switching frequency torque controller. By this method constant switching frequency operation can be achieved for the inverter. Also the torque and flux ripple will get reduced by this technique. The feasibility of this method in minimizing the torque ripple is verified through some simulation results.



  1. Direct torque control(DTC)
  2. Constant switching frequency
  3. Induction motor
  4. Three phase inverter.





Fig. 1. Block diagram of conventional DTC



Fig. 2. Step response of torque (a) hysteresis based (b) modified torque controller

Fig. 3. Response of torque and speed for squre wave torque reference in (a) hysteresis based (b)modified torque controller

Fig. 4.(a) Hysteresis based controller (b) modified torque controller

Fig. 5. flux waveform for (a) hysteresis based (b)modified torque controller

Fig. 6. flux locus for (a) hysteresis based (b)modified torque controller

Fig. 7. Frequency spectrum of the switching pattern Sb for (a) hysteresis based (b) modified torque controller



This paper presents a constant switching frequency torque controller based DTC of induction motor drive. By using the modified torque controller the switching frequency of the inverter also becomes constant at 10 kHz. As a result, the harmonic contents in the phase currents are very much reduced. So the phase current distortion is reduced. The torque ripple is also reduced by replacing the torque hysteresis controller with the modified torque controller. Moreover, with the modified torque controller, an almost circular stator flux locus is obtained. Without sacrificing the dynamic performance of the hysteresis controller, the modified scheme gives constant switching frequency. This work can be implemented using DSP. The work can be extended by increasing the switching frequency above audible range, i.e. more or equal to 20 kHz. This is an effective way to shift the PWM harmonics out of human audible frequency range. With high switching frequency the harmonic content of stator current will be reduced significantly.



  1. John R G Schofield, (1995) “Direct Torque Control – DTC”, IEE, Savoy Place, London WC2R 0BL, UK.
  2. Tang, L.Zhong, M.F.Rahman, Y.Hu,(2002)“An Investigation of a modified Direct Torque Control Strategy for flux and torque ripple reduction for Induction Machine drive system with fixed switching frequency”, 37th IAS Annual Meeting Ind. Appl. Conf. Rec., Vol. 1, pp. 104-111.
  3. J-K. Kang, D-W Chung, S. K. Sul, (2001) “Analysis and prediction of inverter switching frequency in direct torque control of induction machine based on hysteresis bands and machine parameters”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp. 545-553.
  4. Casadei, G.Gandi,G.Serra,A.Tani,(1994)“Switching strategies in direct torque control of induction machines,in Proc. Of ICEM’94, Paris (F), pp. 204-209.
  5. J-K. Kang, D-W Chung and S.K. Sul, (1999) “Direct torque control of induction machine with variable amplitude control of flux and torque hysteresis bands”, International Conference on Electric Machines and Drives IEMD’99, pp. 640-642

A Unified Control Strategy for Three-Phase Inverter in Distributed Generation

This paper presents a unified control strategy that enables both islanded and grid-tied operations of three-phase inverter in distributed generation, with no need for switching between two corresponding controllers or critical islanding detection. The proposed control strategy composes of an inner inductor current loop, and a novel voltage loop in the synchronous reference frame. The inverter is regulated as a current source just by the inner inductor current loop in grid-tied operation, and the voltage controller is automatically activated to regulate the load voltage upon the occurrence of islanding. Furthermore, the waveforms of the grid current in the grid-tied mode and the load voltage in the islanding mode are distorted under nonlinear local load with the conventional strategy. And this issue is addressed by proposing a unified load current feedforward in this paper. Additionally, this paper presents the detailed analysis and the parameter design of the control strategy. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is validated by the simulation results.

1. Distributed generation (DG)
2. Islanding
3. Load current
4. Seamless transfer
5. Three-phase inverter
6. Unified control


Fig. 1. Overall block diagram of the proposed unified control strategy.

Fig. 2. Simulation waveforms of load voltage vC a , grid current iga, and inductor current iLa when DG is in the grid-tied mode under condition of the step down of the grid current reference from 9 A to 5 A with: (a) conventional voltage mode control, and (b) proposed unified control strategy.

Fig. 3. Simulation waveforms of load voltage vC a , grid current iga, and inductor current iLa when DG is transferred from the grid-tied mode to the islanded mode with: (a) conventional hybrid voltage and current mode control, and (b) proposed unified control strategy.

A unified control strategy was proposed for three-phase inverter in DG to operate in both islanded and grid-tied modes, with no need for switching between two different control architectures or critical islanding detection. A novel voltage controller was presented. It is inactivated in the grid-tied mode, and the DG operates as a current source with fast dynamic performance. Upon the utility outage, the voltage controller can automatically be activated to regulate the load voltage. Moreover, a novel load current feed forward was proposed, and it can improve the waveform quality of both the grid current in the grid-tied mode and the load voltage in the islanded mode. The proposed unified control strategy was verified by the simulation results.
[1] R. C. Dugan and T. E. McDermott, “Distributed generation,” IEEE Ind. Appl. Mag., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 19–25, Mar./Apr. 2002.
[2] R. H. Lasseter, “Microgrids and distributed generation,” J. Energy Eng., vol. 133, no. 3, pp. 144–149, Sep. 2007.
[3] C. Mozina, “Impact of green power distributed generation,” IEEE Ind. Appl. Mag., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 55–62, Jul./Aug. 2010.
[4] IEEE Recommended Practice for Utility Interface of Photovoltaic(PV) Systems, IEEE Standard 929-2000, 2000.
[5] IEEE Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems, IEEE Standard 1547-2003, 2003.

FPGA-Based Predictive Sliding Mode Controller Of A Three-Phase Inverter

This paper proposed a novel predictive variable structure- switching-based current controller for a three-phase load driven by a power inverter. The design specifications are robustness to load electrical parameters, fast dynamic response, reduced switching frequency, and simple hardware implementation. In order to meet previous specifications, a sliding mode controller has been developed, which is designed as finite-state automata, and implemented with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device. The switching strategy implemented within the state transition diagram provides for a minimum number of switches by the three-phase inverter that is confirmed through simulation and experimental results. Its regulation using the proposed control law provides good transient response by the brushless ac motor control. However, this does not limit the wider applicability of the proposed controller that is suitable for different types of ac loads (rectifier and inverter) and acmotors (induction, synchronous, and reluctance). A new logical FPGA torque and speed controller is developed, analyzed, and experimentally verified.


1. Brushless alternating-current (BLAC) motor
2. field-programmable gate array (FPGA)
3. finite-state machine (FSM)
4. predictive control
5. sliding mode controller (SMC)
6. supervisor
Software: Matlab/Simulink

Block Diagram:

Basic Circuit Of A VSI.

Fig.1. Basic Circuit Of A VSI.


[1] M. P. Kazmierkowski, R. Krishnan, F. Blaabjerg, and J. D. Irwin, Control in Power Electronics: Selected Problems. New York: Academic, 2002.
[2] R. Kennel, A. Linder, and M. Linke, “Generalized predictive control (GPC)—Ready for use in drive applications?” in Proc. IEEE Power Electron. Spec. Conf., 2001, vol. 4, pp. 1839–1844.
[3] A. Malinowski and H. Yu, “Comparison of embedded system design for industrial applications,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Informat., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 244– 254, May 2011.
[4] C. Buccella, C. Cecati, and H. Latafat, “Digital control of power converters—A survey,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Informat., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 437– 447, Aug. 2012.
[5] E. Monmasson and M. N. Cirstea, “FPGA design methodology for industrial control systems—A review,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 1824–1842, Apr. 2007.