Single Stage PV System based Direct Torque Controlled PMSM Drive for Pump Load Application

ABSTRACT:

 This paper presents design and modelling of single stage standalone PV based PMSM (Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor) drive. Standalone power supply system is more feasible and convenient option for water pumping applications in irrigation. Three phase DTC (Direct Torque Control) VSI (Voltage Source Inverter) is presented for supplying the PMSM for variation in solar irradiation to control the flow of water in pumping application. MATLAB/SIMULINK environment is used for modeled the proposed single stage standalone PV system based PMSM drive and performance is investigated under change in solar irradiation.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Direct Torque Control
  2. PMSM Drive
  3. Solar PV
  4. Water Discharge System

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

 BLOCK DIAGRAM:


Fig. 1 System configuration of Single stage sensor less standalone solar PV based PMSM drive.

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:


Fig.2 Steady state performance for single stage standalone PV based permanent magnet synchronous motor drive

Fig.3 Transient performance under change in irradiation

CONCLUSION:

 A single stage off-grid solar photo voltaic system has been modeled using the PMSM employed for centrifugal pump load application. The proposed single stage standalone PV system reduces component count, eliminates intermediate power conversion stage and achieves high conversion efficiency for pumping application. The proposed single stage system gives adequate control on PMSM speed under wide variation in solar irradiation and employing DTC control using three-phase VSl.

REFERENCES:

[1] A. Khaligh and O.C. Onar , Energy harvesting solar, wind, and ocean energy conversion systems, CRC Press, New York, 20 I O.

[2] R. Teodorescu, M. Liserre and P. Rodriguez, Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems, I st edition, John Wiley, United Kingdom, 2011.

[3] M. G Villalva, 1. R. Gazoli and E.R. Filho, “Comprehensive Approach to Modeling and Simulation of Photovoltaic Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 1198-1208, Mar. 2009.

[4] M. Matsui, T. Kitano, D. H. Xu and Z. Q. Yang, “A new maximum photovoltaic power tracking control scheme based on power equilibrium at dc link,” Proc. IEEE Industry Application Con!, Oct. 1999, vol. 2, pp. 804-809.

[5].T. K. Mikihiko and M. De-H. Xu, “Power sensor-less MPPT control scheme utilizing power balance at dc link – system design to ensure stability and response,” Proc IEEE IECON Con!, Dec. 200 I, pp. 1309-1314.

Design and Performance Analysis of Three-Phase Solar PV Integrated UPQC

IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 2017 IEEE

ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the design and performance analysis of a three-phase single stage solar photovoltaic integrated unified power quality conditioner (PV-UPQC). The PV-UPQC consists of a shunt and series connected voltage compensators connected back to back with common DC-link.The shunt compensator performs the dual function of extracting power from PV array apart from compensating for load current harmonics. An improved synchronous reference frame control based on moving average filter is used for extraction of load active current component for improved performance of the PVUPQC. The series compensator compensates for the grid side power quality problems such as grid voltage sags/swells. The compensator injects voltage in-phase/out of phase with point of common coupling (PCC) voltage during sag and swell conditions respectively. The proposed system combines both the benefits of clean energy generation along with improving power quality. The steady state and dynamic performance of the system are evaluated by simulating in Matlab-Simulink under a nonlinear load. The system performance is then verified using a scaled down laboratory prototype under a number of disturbances such as load unbalancing, PCC voltage sags/swells and irradiation variation.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Power Quality
  2. Shunt compensator
  3. Series compensator
  4. UPQC
  5. Solar PV
  6. MPPT

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. System Configuration PV-UPQC

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

Fig. 2. Performance of PV-UPQC under Voltage Sag and Swell Conditions

Fig. 3. Performance PV-UPQC during Load Unbalance Condition

Fig. 4. Performance PV-UPQC at Varying Irradiation Condition

Fig. 5. Load Current Harmonic Spectrum and THD

Fig. 6. Grid Current Harmonic Spectrum and THD

CONCLUSION:

The design and dynamic performance of three-phase PVUPQC have been analyzed under conditions of variable irradiation and grid voltage sags/swells. The performance of the system has been validated through experimentation on scaled down laboratory prototype. It is observed that PVUPQC mitigates the harmonics caused by nonlinear load and maintains the THD of grid current under limits of IEEE-519 standard. The system is found to be stable under variation of irradiation, voltage sags/swell and load unbalance. The performance of d-q control particularly in load unbalanced condition has been improved through the use of moving average filter. It can be seen that PV-UPQC is a good solution for modern distribution system by integrating distributed generation with power quality improvement.

REFERENCES:

[1] B. Mountain and P. Szuster, “Solar, solar everywhere: Opportunities and challenges for australia’s rooftop pv systems,” IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 53–60, July 2015.

[2] A. R. Malekpour, A. Pahwa, A. Malekpour, and B. Natarajan, “Hierarchical architecture for integration of rooftop pv in smart distribution systems,” IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. PP, no. 99, pp. 1–1, 2017.

[3] Y. Yang, P. Enjeti, F. Blaabjerg, and H. Wang, “Wide-scale adoption of photovoltaic energy: Grid code modifications are explored in the distribution grid,” IEEE Ind. Appl. Mag., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 21–31, Sept 2015.

[4] M. J. E. Alam, K. M. Muttaqi, and D. Sutanto, “An approach for online assessment of rooftop solar pv impacts on low-voltage distribution networks,” IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, vol. 5, no. 2, pp.663–672, April 2014.

[5] J. Jayachandran and R. M. Sachithanandam, “Neural network-based control algorithm for DSTATCOM under nonideal source voltage and varying load conditions,” Canadian Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 307–317, Fall 2015.

Design and Performance Analysis of Three-Phase Solar PV Integrated UPQC

2016 IEEE

ABSTRACT: In this paper, the design and performance of a threephase solar PV (photovoltaic) integrated UPQC (PV-UPQC) are presented. The proposed system combines both the benefits of distributed generation and active power filtering. The shunt compensator of the PV-UPQC compensates for the load current harmonics and reactive power. The shunt compensator is also extracting maximum power from solar PV array by operating it at its maximum power point (MPP). The series compensator compensates for the grid side power quality problems such as grid voltage sags/swells by injecting appropriate voltage in phase with the grid voltage. The dynamic performance of the proposed system is simulated in Matlab-Simulink under a nonlinear load consisting of a bridge rectifier with voltage-fed load.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Power Quality
  2. DSTATCOM
  3. DVR
  4. UPQC
  5. Solar PV
  6. MPPT

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. System Configuration PV-UPQC

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 Fig. 2. Performance PV-UPQC at steady state condition

Fig. 3. PCC Voltage Harmonic Spectrum and THD

Fig. 4. Load Voltage Harmonic Spectrum and THD

Fig. 5. Load Current Harmonic Spectrum and THD

Fig. 6. Grid Current Harmonic Spectrum and THD

Fig. 7. Performance PV-UPQC at varying irradiation condition

Fig. 8. Performance of PV-UPQC under voltage sag and swell conditions

CONCLUSION:

The dynamic performance of three-phase PV-UPQC has been analyzed under conditions of variable irradiation and grid voltage sags/swells. It is observed that PV-UPQC mitigates the harmonics caused by nonlinear and maintains the THD of grid voltage, load voltage and grid current under limits of IEEE-519 standard. The system is found to be stable under variation of irradiation from 1000𝑊/𝑚2 to 600𝑊/𝑚2. It can be seen that PV-UPQC is a good solution for modern distribution system by integrating distributed generation with power quality improvement.

REFERENCES:

[1] Y. Yang, P. Enjeti, F. Blaabjerg, and H. Wang, “Wide-scale adoption of photovoltaic energy: Grid code modifications are explored in the distribution grid,” IEEE Ind. Appl. Mag., vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 21–31, Sept 2015.

[2] B. Singh, A. Chandra and K. A. Haddad, Power Quality: Problems and Mitigation Techniques. London: Wiley, 2015.

[3] M. Bollen and I. Guo, Signal Processing of Power Quality Disturbances. Hoboken: Johm Wiley, 2006.

[4] P. Jayaprakash, B. Singh, D. Kothari, A. Chandra, and K. Al-Haddad, “Control of reduced-rating dynamic voltage restorer with a battery energy storage system,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 1295– 1303, March 2014.

[5] M. Badoni, A. Singh, and B. Singh, “Variable forgetting factor recursive least square control algorithm for DSTATCOM,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 2353–2361, Oct 2015.

Solar PV Array Fed Brushless DC Motor Driven Water Pump

 

ABSTRACT:

 This work deals with the utilization of solar photovoltaic (SPV) energy in the brushless DC (BLDC) motor driven water pump. A DC-DC boost converter, used as an intermediate power conditioning unit plays a vital role in efficiency enhancement of SPV array and soft starting of the BLDC motor with proper control. The speed control of BLDC motor is performed by PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) control of the voltage source inverter (VSI) using DC link voltage regulator. No additional control or current sensing element is required for speed control. The behavior of proposed pumping system is demonstrated by evaluating its various performances through MATLAB/simulink based simulation study.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Solar PV
  2. BLDC motor
  3. Boost converter
  4. Soft starting
  5. PWM
  6. VSI
  7. Speed control

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig.1 Configuration of PV array fed BLDC motor-pump.

 EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

Fig.2 Starting and steady state performances of solar PV array

Fig.3 Starting and steady state performance of boost DC-DC converter

Fig.4 Starting and steady state performance of brushless DC motor-pump

Fig.5 Dynamic performance of solar PV array.

Fig.6 Dynamic performance of boost DC-DC converter

Fig.7 Dynamic performance of brushless DC motor – pump

CONCLUSION:

The SPV Array fed boost converter based BLDC motor driven water pump has been proposed and its suitability has been demonstrated by analyzing its various performance indices using MATLAB based simulation study. A simple, efficient and economical method for speed control of BLDC motor has been suggested, which has offered absolute elimination of current sensing elements. The proper selection of SPV array has made the boost converter capable of tracking MPP irrespective of weather conditions. An optimum design of the boost converter has been presented. The safe starting of brushless DC motor has been achieved without any additional control. The desired performance of proposed system even at 20% of standard solar irradiance has justified its suitability for solar PV based water pumping.

REFERENCES:

[1] R. Kumar and B. Singh, “Solar PV array fed Cuk converter-VSI controlled BLDC motor drive for water pumping,” 6th IEEE Power India Int. Conf. (PIICON), 5-7 Dec. 2014, pp. 1-7.

[2] M. A. Elgendy, B. Zahawi and D. J. Atkinson, “Assessment of the Incremental Conductance Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy, vol.4, no.1, pp.108-117, Jan. 2013.

[3] J.V. Mapurunga Caracas, G. De Carvalho Farias, L.F. Moreira Teixeira and L.A. De Souza Ribeiro, “Implementation of a High-Efficiency, High-Lifetime, and Low-Cost Converter for an Autonomous Photovoltaic Water Pumping System,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 631-641, Jan.-Feb. 2014.

[4] N. Mohan, T. M. Undeland and W. P. Robbins, Power Electronics: Converters, Applications and Design, 3rd ed. New Delhi, India: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2010.

[5] M. H. Rashid, Power Electronics Handbook: Devices, Circuits, and Applications,” 3rd ed. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Inc., 2011.

 

A Three-Phase Grid Tied SPV System with Adaptive dc link voltage for CPI voltage variations

 

ABSTRACT:

This paper deals with a three-phase two-stage grid tied SPV (solar photo-voltaic) system. The first stage is a boost converter, which serves the purpose of MPPT (maximum power point tracking) and feeding the extracted solar energy to the DC link of the PV inverter, whereas the second stage is a two-level VSC (voltage source converter) serving as PV inverter which feeds power from a boost converter into the grid. The proposed system uses an adaptive DC link voltage which is made adaptive by adjusting reference DC link voltage according to CPI (common point of interconnection) voltage. The adaptive DC link voltage control helps in the reduction of switching power losses. A feed forward term for solar contribution is used to improve the dynamic response. The system is tested considering realistic grid voltage variations for under voltage and over voltage. The performance improvement is verified experimentally. The proposed system is advantageous not only in cases of frequent and sustained under voltage (as in the cases of far radial ends of Indian grid) but also in case of normal voltages at CPI. The THD (total harmonics distortion) of grid current has been found well under the limit of an IEEE-519 standard.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Adaptive DC link
  2. MPPT
  3. Overvoltage
  4. Solar PV
  5. Two-stage
  6. Three phase
  7. Under voltage

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

 image001

Fig. 1. System configuration.

 CONTROL SYSTEM

image002

Fig. 2. Block diagram for control approach.

 EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 image003

 Fig. 3. Simulated performance for, (a) change in solar insolation without feedforward for PV contribution,

image004

(b) change in solar insolation with feed forward for PV contribution,

image005

(c) normal to under voltage (415 V to 350 V),

image006

(d) CPI voltage variation from normal to over voltage (415 V to 480 V).

CONCLUSION:

A two-stage system has been proposed for three-phase grid connected solar PV generation. A composite InC based MPPT algorithm is used for control of the boost converter. The performance of proposed system has been demonstrated for wide range of CPI voltage variation. A simple and novel adaptive DC link voltage control approach has been proposed for control of grid tied VSC. The DC link voltage is made adaptive with respect to CPI voltage which helps in reduction of losses in the system. Moreover, a PV array feed forward term is used which helps in fast dynamic response. An approximate linear model of DC link voltage control loop has been developed and analyzed considering feed forward compensation. The PV array feed forward term is so selected that it is to accommodate for change in PV power as well as for CPI voltage variation. A full voltage and considerable power level prototype has verified the proposed concept. The concept of adaptive DC link voltage has been proposed for grid tied VSC for PV application however, the same concept can be extended for all shunt connected grid interfaced devices such as, STATCOM, D-STATCOM etc. The proposed system yields increased energy output using the same hardware resources just by virtue of difference in DC link voltage control structure. The THDs of the grid currents and voltages are found less than 5% (within IEEE-519 standard). The simulation and experimental results have confirmed the feasibility of proposed control algorithm.

 REFERENCES:

[1] M. Pavan and V. Lughi, “Grid parity in the Italian commercial and industrial electricity market,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Clean Elect. Power (ICCEP’13), 2013, pp. 332–335.

[2] M. Delfanti, V. Olivieri, B. Erkut, and G. A. Turturro, “Reaching PV grid parity: LCOE analysis for the Italian framework,” in Proc. 22nd Int. Conf. Exhib. Elect. Distrib. (CIRED’13), 2013, pp. 1–4.

[3] H.Wang and D. Zhang, “The stand-alone PV generation system with parallel battery charger,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Elect. Control Eng. (ICECE’10), 2010, pp. 4450–4453.

[4] M. Kolhe, “Techno-economic optimum sizing of a stand-alone solar photovoltaic system,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 511–519, Jun. 2009.

[5] D. Debnath and K. Chatterjee, “A two stage solar photovoltaic based stand alone scheme having battery as energy storage element for rural deployment,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 4148–4157, Jul. 2015.