Sensorless Brushless DC Motor Drive Based on the Zero-Crossing Detection of Back Electromotive Force (EMF) From the Line Voltage Difference

ABSTRACT:

This paper describes a position sensorless operation of permanent magnet brushless direct current (BLDC) motor. The position sensorless BLDC drive proposed, in this paper, is based on detection of back electromotive force (back EMF) zero crossing from the terminal voltages. The proposed method relies on a difference of line voltages measured at the terminals of the motor. It is shown, in the paper, that this difference of line voltages provides an amplified version of an appropriate back EMF at its zero crossings. The commutation signals are obtained without the motor neutral voltage. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through simulation and experimental results.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Back electromotive force (EMF) detection
  2. Brushless dc (BLDC) motor
  3. Sensorless control
  4. Zero crossing

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

 

Fig. 1. Block diagram of the experimental setup.

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

Fig. 2. Phase current and speed waveform on no-load (experimental).

Fig. 3. Phase current and speed waveform on load (experimental).

Fig. 4. Phase current and speed waveform during loading transient (experimental).

Fig. 5. Phase current, virtual Hall, and real Hall sensor signal for 50% duty ratio PWM switching.

CONCLUSION:

A simple technique to detect back EMF zero crossings for a BLDC motor using the line voltages is proposed. It is shown that the method provides an amplified version of the back EMF. Only three motor terminal voltages need to be measured thus eliminating the need for motor neutral voltage. Running the machine in sensorless mode is then proposed, in this paper, making use of the novel zero-crossing detection algorithm. While starting relies on triggering devices at the zero crossings detected using the proposed algorithm, continuous running is achieved by realizing the correct commutation instants 30delay from the zero crossings. The motor is found to start smoothly and run sensorless even with load and load transients. Simulation and experimental results are shown which validate the suitability of the proposed method.

REFERENCES:

[1] K. Iizuka,H.Uzuhashi, M. Kano, T. Endo, and K.Mohri, “Microcomputer control for sensorless brushless motor,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. IA- 21, no. 4, pp. 595–601, May/Jun. 1985.

[2] J. Shao, D. Nolan,M. Teissier, and D. Swanson, “A novel micro controller based sensorless brushless DC (BLDC) motor drive for automotive fuel pumps,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 1734–1740, Nov./Dec. 2003.

[3] T.-H. Kim and M. Ehsani, “Sensorless control of BLDC motors from near-zero to high speeds,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1635–1645, Nov. 2004.

[4] S. Ogasawara and H. Akagi, “An approach to position sensorless drive for brushless DC motors,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 928–933, Sep./Oct. 1991.

[5] R. C. Becerra, T. M. Jahns, and M. Ehsani, “Four-quadrant sensorless brushless ECM drive,” in Proc. IEEE APEC, Mar. 1991, pp. 202–209.

A New Approach to Sensorless Control Method for Brushless DC Motors

ABSTRACT:

This paper proposes a new position sensorless drive for brushless DC (BLDC) motors. Typical sensorless control methods such as the scheme with the back-EMF detection method show high performance only at a high speed range because the magnitude of the back-EMF is dependent upon the rotor speed. This paper presents a new solution that estimates the rotor position by using an unknown input observer over a full speed range. In the proposed method, a trapezoidal back-EMF is modelled as an unknown input and the proposed unknown input observer estimating a line-to-line back-EMF in real time makes it possible to detect the rotor position. In particular, this observer has high performance at a low speed range in that the information of a rotor position is calculated independently of the rotor speed without an additional circuit or complicated operation process. Simulations and experiments have been carried out for the verification of the proposed control scheme.

KEYWORDS:

  1. BLDC motor
  2. Full speed range
  3. Sensorless control
  4. Unknown input observer

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. Overall structure of the proposed sensorless drive system.

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 Fig. 2. Response waveforms at under step change of load torque. (Speed reference: 50 rpm, Load: 0.2 → 0.5 Nm).

 

Fig. 3. Response waveforms under step change of load torque. (Speed reference: 1650 rpm, Load: 0.75 → 1.5 Nm).

 

Fig. 4. Response waveforms under step change of speed reference. (Load: 0.75 Nm, Speed reference: 50 → 1650 → 50 rpm).

CONCLUSION:

This paper presented a new approach to the sensorless control of the BLDC motor drives using the unknown input observer. This observer can be obtained effectively by using the equation of augmented system and an estimated line-to-line back- EMF that is modelled as an unknown input. As a result, the actual rotor position as well as the machine speed can be estimated strictly even in the transient state from the estimated line-to-line back-EMF.

The novel sensorless method using an unknown input observer can

  • be achieved without additional circuits.
  • estimate a rotor speed in real time for precise control.
  • make a precise commutation pulse even in transient state as well as in steady state.
  • detect the rotor position effectively over a full speed range, especially at a low speed range.
  • calculate commutation function with a noise insensitive.
  • be easily realized for industry application by simple control algorithm.

The simulation and experimental results successfully confirmed the validity of the developed sensorless drive technique using the commutation function.

REFERENCES:

[1] N. Matsui, “Sensorless PM brushless DC motor drives,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 300-308, 1996.

[2] K. Xin, Q. Zhan, and J. Luo, “A new simple sensorless control method for switched reluctance motor drives,” KIEE J. Electr. Eng. Technol., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 52-57, 2006.

[3] S. Ogasawara and H. Akagi, “An approach to position sensorless drive for brushless DC motors,” IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 928-933, 1991.

[4] J. C. Moreira, “Indirect sensing for rotor flux position of permanent magnet AC motors operating over a wide speed range,” IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1394-1401, 1996.

[5] J. X. Shen, Z. Q. Zhu, and D. Howe, “Sensorless flux-weakening control of permanent-magnet brushless machines using third harmonic back EMF,” IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1629-1636, 2004.