Performance of Electric Springs with Multiple Variable Loads

 

ABSTRACT:

Electric Spring is an emerging smart grid technology, which can provide voltage support to weakly regulated system. This paper studies the effect of load variation on the performance of electric springs. Two different single phase circuits with intermittent power supply have been simulated for the study – with one electric spring and with two electric springs. The loads considered are linear and are identical. Results obtained in MATLAB/Simulink environment show that line voltage is regulated by electric spring irrespective of variation in load. A brief comparative study is done between the simulation results obtained from the two circuits to observe the effect of the additional electric spring. This study tests the effectiveness of electric springs in a circuit designed to be more realistic, i.e., when the loads are not ON all the time and multiple electric springs are distributed all over the grid.

 KEYWORDS:

  1. Demand Side Management
  2. Electric Spring
  3. Renewable Energy Sources

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. Schematic Diagram of Electric Spring connected with Intermittent Renewable Energy Source

 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig. 2. Block Diagram for Circuit with Two Electric Springs

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

 Fig. 3. RMS Voltage for Boosting action in single ES circuit

Fig. 4. Active and Reactive power consumption of ES during Boosting action in single ES circuit

Fig. 5. RMS Voltage for Reduction action in single ES circuit

Fig. 6. Active and Reactive power consumption of ES during Reduction action in single ES circuit

Fig. 7. RMS Voltage for Boosting action in double ES circuit

Fig. 8. Active and Reactive power consumption of ES during Boosting action in double ES circuit

Fig. 9. RMS Voltage for Reduction action in double ES circuit

Fig. 10. Active and Reactive power consumption of ES during Reduction action in double ES circuit

CONCLUSION:

This paper demonstrates the effects of load variation on the performance of ES. From the simulation results, it can be noted that, for boosting mode of operation, the ES can regulate the line voltage at the reference value irrespective of variation in load. However, for reduction mode of operation, the load variation causes fluctuations in the line voltage even when the ES is operating. This might be improved by making the circuit more inductive, which will assist the ES for reduction action. The basic single ES circuit was modified by adding an extra ES to it. It was observed that the reactive power consumption of each ES decreased by almost 50% for both modes of operation. Therefore we can conclude that as the number of ES in the circuit increases by a factor of ‘n’, the reactive power consumed by each ES to carry out the same magnitude of regulation decreases by a factor of ‘n’. This decreases the stress on each ES as well as the inverter rating for ES. For this study, the linear and identical loads have been considered, which can be further extended to non-linear and non-identical loads. Also, the random load profile can be replaced with a real time load profile.

REFERENCES:

[1] IEA, World Energy Outlook 2015: IEA. Available:

http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/media/weowebsite/2015/WEO2015 _Factsheets.pdf

[2] P. P. Varaiya, F. F. Wu and J. W. Bialek, “Smart Operation of Smart Grid: Risk-Limiting Dispatch,” in Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 40-57, Jan. 2011.

[3] D. Westermann and A. John, “Demand Matching Wind Power Generation With Wide-Area Measurement and Demand-Side Management,” in IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 145-149, March 2007.

[4] P. Palensky and D. Dietrich, “Demand Side Management: Demand Response, Intelligent Energy Systems, and Smart Loads,” in IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 381-388, Aug. 2011.

[5] A. Mohsenian-Rad, V. W. S. Wong, J. Jatskevich, R. Schober, and A. Leon-Garcia, “Autonomous demand-side management based on gametheoretic energy consumption scheduling for the future smart grid,” IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 320–331, Dec. 2010.

A Comparison of Half Bridge & Full Bridge Isolated DC-DC Converters for Electrolysis Application

ABSTRACT:

This paper presents a comparison of half bridge and full bridge isolated, soft-switched, DC-DC converters for Electrolysis application. An electrolyser is a part of renewable energy system which generates hydrogen from water electrolysis that used in fuel cells. A DC-DC converter is required to couple electrolyser to system DC bus. The proposed DC-DC converter is realized in both full-bridge and half-bridge topology in order to achieve zero voltage switching for the power switches and to regulate the output voltage. Switching losses are reduced by zero voltage switching. Switching stresses are reduced by using resonant inductor and capacitor. The proposed DC-DC converter has advantages like high power density, low EMI, reduced switching stresses, high circuit efficiency and stable output voltage. The MATLAB simulation results show that the output of converter is free from the ripples and regulated output voltage and this type of converter can be used for electrolyser application. Experimental results are obtained from a MOSFET based DC-DC Converter with LC filter. The simulation results are verified with the experimental results.

KEYWORDS:

  1. DC-DC converter
  2. Electrolyser
  3. Renewable energy sources
  4. Resonant converter
  5. TDR

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

 image001

Fig 1. Half Bridge DC-DC Converter.

image002

Fig 2. Full Bridge DC-DC Converter.

 EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 image003

Fig 3 (b) Driving Pulses

image004

Fig 4 (c) Inverter output voltage with LC filter

image005

Fig 5 (d) Transformer secondary voltages

image006

Fig 6 (e) Output voltage and current

image007

Fig 7 (b) Driving Pulses

image008

Fig 8 (c) Inverter output voltage with LC filter

image009

Fig 9 (d) Transformer secondary voltage

image010

Fig 10 (e) Output voltage and current

 CONCLUSION:

 A comparison of half bridge and full bridge isolated DC-DC converters for Electrolysis application are presented. DC-DC converters for electrolyser system is simulated and tested with LC filter at the output. The electrical performances of the converter have been analyzed. The simulation and experimental results indicate that the output of the inverter is nearly sinusoidal. The output of rectifier is pure DC due to the presence of LC filter at the output. Switching losses are reduced by zero voltage switching. Switching stresses are reduced by using resonant inductor and capacitor The advantages of resonant converter are reduced (di/dt), low switching losses and high efficiency. Switching losses are reduced by zero voltage switching. Switching stresses are reduced by using resonant inductor and capacitor The converter maximizes the efficiency through the zero voltage switching and the use of super-junction MOSFET as switching devices with high dynamic characteristics and low direct voltage drop. Half bridge converter is found to be better than that of full bridge converter.

REFERENCES:

[1] E.J.Miller, “Resonant switching power conversion,”in Power Electronics Specialists Conf.Rec., 1976, pp. 206-211.

[2] V. Volperian and S. Cuk , “A complete DC analysis of the series resonant converter”, in IEEE power electronics specialists conf. Rec. 1982, pp. 85-100.

[3] R.L. Steigerwald, “High-Frequency Resonant Transistor DC-DC Converters”, IEEE Trans. On Industrial Electronics, vol.31, no.2, May1984, pp. 181-191.

[4] D.J. Shortt, W.T. Michael, R.L. Avert, and R.E. Palma, “A 600 W four stage phase-shifted parallel DC-DC converter,”, IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conf., 1985, pp. 136-143.

[5] V. Nguyen, J. Dhayanchand, and P. Thollot, “A multiphase topology series-resonant DC-DC converter,” in Proceedings of Power Conversion International, 1985, pp. 45-53.

A Control Technique for Integration of DG Units to the Electrical Networks

ABSTRACT:

This paper deals with a multi objective control technique for integration of distributed generation (DG) resources to the electrical power network. The proposed strategy provides compensation for active, reactive, and harmonic load current components during connection of DG link to the grid. The dynamic model of the proposed system is first elaborated in the stationary reference frame and then transformed into the synchronous orthogonal reference frame. The transformed variables are used in control of the voltage source converter as the heart of the interfacing system between DG resources and utility grid. By setting an appropriate compensation current references from the sensed load currents in control circuit loop of DG, the active, reactive, and harmonic load current components will be compensated with fast dynamic response, thereby achieving sinusoidal grid currents in phase with load voltages, while required power of the load is more than the maximum injected power of the DG to the grid. In addition, the proposed control method of this paper does not need a phase-locked loop in control circuit and has fast dynamic response in providing active and reactive power components of the grid-connected loads. The effectiveness of the proposed control technique in DG application is demonstrated with injection of maximum available power from the DG to the grid, increased power factor of the utility grid, and reduced total harmonic distortion of grid current through simulation and experimental results under steady-state and dynamic operating conditions.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Digital signal processor
  2. Distributed generation (DG)
  3. Renewable energy sources
  4. Total harmonic distortion (THD)
  5. voltage source converter (VSC)

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

image001

Fig. 1. General schematic diagram of the proposed control strategy for DG system.

 EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

image002

Fig. 2. Load voltage, load, grid, and DG currents before and after connection of DG and before and after connection and disconnection of additional load into the grid.

image003

Fig. 3. Grid, load, DG currents, and load voltage (a) before and after connection of additional load and (b) before and after disconnection of additional load.

image004

Fig. 4. Phase-to-neutral voltage and grid current for phase (a).

image005

Fig. 5. Reference currents track the load current (a) after interconnection of DG resources and (b) after additional load increment.

image006

Fig. 6. Load voltage, load, grid, and DG currents during connection of DG link to the unbalanced grid voltage.

CONCLUSION:

A multi objective control algorithm for the grid-connected converter-based DG interface has been proposed and presented in this paper. Flexibility of the proposed DG in both steady-state and transient operations has been verified through simulation and experimental results.

Due to sensitivity of phase-locked loop to noises and distortion, its elimination can bring benefits for robust control against distortions in DG applications. Also, the problems due to synchronization between DG and grid do not exist, and DG link can be connected to the power grid without any current overshoot. One other advantage of proposed control method is its fast dynamic response in tracking reactive power variations; the control loops of active and reactive power are considered independent. By the use of the proposed control method, DG system is introduced as a new alternative for distributed static compensator in distribution network. The results illustrate that, in all conditions, the load voltage and source current are in phase and so, by improvement of power factor at PCC, DG systems can act as power factor corrector devices. The results indicate that proposed DG system can provide required harmonic load currents in all situations. Thus, by reducing THD of source current, it can act as an active filter. The proposed control technique can be used for different types of DG resources as power quality improvement devices in a customer power distribution network.

REFERENCES:

[1] T. Zhou and B. François, “Energy management and power control of a hybrid active wind generator for distributed power generation and grid integration,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 95–104, Jan. 2011.

[2] M. Singh, V. Khadkikar, A. Chandra, and R. K. Varma, “Grid interconnection of renewable energy sources at the distribution level with power quality improvement features,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 307–315, Jan. 2011.

[3] M. F. Akorede, H. Hizam, and E. Pouresmaeil, “Distributed energy resources and benefits to the environment,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 724–734, Feb. 2010.

[4] C. Mozina, “Impact of green power distributed generation,” IEEE Ind. Appl. Mag., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 55–62, Jun. 2010.

[5] B. Ramachandran, S. K. Srivastava, C. S. Edrington, and D. A. Cartes, “An intelligent auction scheme for smart grid market using a hybrid immune algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 4603–4611, Oct. 2011.

 

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