**ABSTRACT:**** **

Battery storage is usually employed in Photovoltaic (PV) system to mitigate the power fluctuations due to the characteristics of PV panels and solar irradiance. Control schemes for PV-battery systems must be able to stabilize the bus voltages as well as to control the power flows flexibly. This paper proposes a comprehensive control and power management system (CAPMS) for PV-battery-based hybrid microgrids with both AC and DC buses, for both grid-connected and islanded modes.

The proposed CAPMS is successful in regulating the DC and AC bus voltages and frequency stably, controlling the voltage and power of each unit flexibly, and balancing the power flows in the systems automatically under different operating circumstances, regardless of disturbances from switching operating modes, fluctuations of irradiance and temperature, and change of loads. Both simulation and experimental case studies are carried out to verify the performance of the proposed method.

**KEYWORDS:**

- Solar PV System
- Battery
- Control and Power Management System
- Distributed Energy Resource
- Microgrid
- Power Electronics
- dSPACE

**SOFTWARE:** MATLAB/SIMULINK

**BLOCK DIAGRAM:**

** **

Fig. 1. The proposed control and power management system (CAPMS) for PV-battery-based hybrid microgrids.

** ****EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:**

Fig.. 2.. (Gb)rid-connected mode Case A-1: (a) power flows and (b) voltage

values of the PV-battery system.

Fig. 3. Grid-connected mode Case A-2: power flows of the PV-battery system.

Fig. 4. Grid-connected mode Case A-3-1: PV array in power-reference mode.

Fig. 5. Grid-connected mode Case A-3-2: DC bus and PV array voltages

during transitions between MPPT and power-reference modes.

Fig. 6. Grid-connected mode Case A-4: the PV-battery system is receiving

power from the grid after 2.2 s.

Fig. 7. Grid-connected mode Case A-5: Reactive power control of the

inverter.

Fig. 8. Grid-connected mode Case A-6: transition from grid-connected to

islanded mode.

Fig. 9. Islanded mode Case B-1: power flows of the PV-battery system with

changing loads.

Fig. 10. Islanded mode Case B-2: battery power changes with PV generation.

Fig. 11. Islanded mode Case B-3: bus voltage control of the PV-battery

system.

Fig. 12. Islanded mode Case B-4: (a) unsynchronized and (b) synchronized

AC bus voltages (displaying phase-a) when closing the breaker at the PCC.

**CONCLUSION:**

** **This paper proposes a control and power management system (CAPMS) for hybrid PV-battery systems with both DC and AC buses and loads, in both grid-connected and islanded modes. The presented CAPMS is able to manage the power flows in the converters of all units flexibly and effectively, and ultimately to realize the power balance between the hybrid microgrid system and the grid.

Furthermore, CAPMS ensures a reliable power supply to the system when PV power fluctuates due to unstable irradiance or when the PV array is shut down due to faults. DC and AC buses are under full control by the CAPMS in both grid-connected and islanded modes, providing a stable voltage environment for electrical loads even during transitions between these two modes. This also allows additional loads to access the system without extra converters, reducing operation and control costs. Numerous simulation and experimental case studies are carried out in Section IV that verifies the satisfactory performance of the proposed CAPMS.

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