Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control for Photovoltaic System


In this study, a fuzzy sliding mode control (FSMC) based maximum power point tracking strategy has been applied for photovoltaic (PV) system. The key idea of the proposed technique is to combine the performances of the fuzzy logic and the sliding mode control in order to improve the generated power for a given set of climatic conditions.

Different from traditional sliding mode control, the developed FSMC integrates two parts. The first part uses a fuzzy logic controller with two inputs and 25 rules as an equivalent controller while the second part is designed for an online adjusting of the switching controller’s gain using a fuzzy tuner with one input and one output.

Simulation results showed the effectiveness of the proposed approach achieving maximum power point. The fuzzy sliding mode (FSM) controller takes less time to track the maximum power point, reduced the oscillation around the operating point and also removed the chattering phenomena that could lead to decrease the efficiency of the photovoltaic system.


  1. DC-DC converter
  2. Fuzzy sliding mode control
  3. photovoltaic system
  4. MPPT
  5. Solar energy



In this paper, a fuzzy sliding mode controller based MPPT technique was developed and tested. The proposed controller is designed by combining the fuzzy logic and sliding mode control to guarantee the stability and the tracking performance and also to avoid the drawbacks of the traditional SM and FL controllers.

A Matlab/Simulink based simulation of a stand-alone PV system under varying climatic conditions and two levels of load was carried out to validate the proposed controller.

Simulation results demonstrate that the designed FSMC-MPPT exhibits good responses as it successfully and accurately achieved the maximum power point with a significantly higher performance than the P&O, SM and FLC strategies. The proposed approach provides a feasible approach to control PV power systems.


[1] Dounis, A.I., Kofinas, P., Alafodimos, C., &Tseles, D. (2013). Adaptive fuzzy gain scheduling PID controller for maximum power point tracking of photovoltaic system. Renewable energy, 60, 202-214.

[2] Bhatnagar, P., & Nema, R.K. (2013). Maximum power point tracking control techniques: State-of-the-art in photovoltaic applications. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 23, 224-241.

[3] Farhat, M., Barambones, O., & Sbita, L. (2015). Efficiency optimization of a DSP-based standalone PV system using a stable single input fuzzy logic controller. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 49, 907-920.

[4] Kalashani, Mostafa Barzegar et Farsadi, Murtaza. New Structure for Photovoltaic Systems with Maximum Power Point Tracking Ability. International Journal of Power Electronics and Drive Systems, 2014, vol. 4, no 4, p. 489.

[5] Liu, F., Kang, Y., Zhang, Y., & Duan, S. (2008, June). Comparison of P&O and hill climbing MPPT methods for grid-connected PV converter. In Industrial Electronics and Applications, 2008. ICIEA 2008. 3rd IEEE Conference on (pp. 804-807). IEEE.

Fuzzy Logic Based MPPT Control for a PV/Wind Hybrid Energy System


In this paper, we present a modeling and simulation of a standalone hybrid energy system which combines two renewable energy sources, solar and wind, with an intelligent MPPT control based on fuzzy logic to extract the maximum energy produced by the two PV and Wind systems. Moreover, other classical MPPT methods were simulated and evaluated to compare with the FLC method in order to deduce the most efficient in terms of rapidity and oscillations around the  maximum power point, namely Perturb and Observe (P&O),  Incremental Conductance (INC) for the PV system and Hill  Climbing Search (HCS) for the Wind generator. The simulation results show that the fuzzy logic technique has a better performance and more efficient compared to other methods due to its fast response, the good energy efficiency of the PV/Wind system and low oscillations during different weather conditions.


  1. Hybrid energy system
  2. MPPT
  3. Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC)
  4. Wind system
  5. Photovoltaic system
  6. PMSG



In this work, an intelligent control based on fuzzy logic is developed to improve the performance and reliability of a PV/Wind hybrid energy system, also the implementation of the other conventional MPPT algorithms for compared with the FLC technique. For a best performance analysis of MPPT techniques on the system, the simulations are carried out under different operating conditions. Simulation results show that the fuzzy controller has a better performance because it allows with a fast response and high accuracy to achieve and track the maximum power point than the P&O, INC and HCS methods for the PV and Wind generators respectively.


[1] A.V. Pavan Kumar, A.M. Parimi and K. Uma Rao, “Implementation of MPPT control using fuzzy logic in solar-wind hybrid power system,” IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing, Informatics, Communication and Energy Systems (SPICES), India, 19-21 February, 2015.

[2] C. Marisarla and K.R. Kumar, “A hybrid wind and solar energy system with battery energy storage for an isolated system,” International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology, vol. 3, n°3, pp. 99-104, ISSN 2277-3754, September 2013.

[3] L. Qin and X. Lu, “Matlab/Simulink-based research on maximum power point tracking of photovoltaic generation,” Physics Procedia, 24, pp.10- 18, 2012.

[4] B. Bendib, F. Krim, H. Belmili, M. F. Almi and S. Boulouma, “Advanced fuzzy MPPT controller for a stand-alone PV system,” Energy Procedia, 50, pp.383-392, 2014.

[5] H. Bounechba, A. Bouzid, K. Nabti and H. Benalla, “Comparison of perturb & observe and fuzzy logic in maximum power point tracker for pv systems,” Energy Procedia, 50, pp.677-684, 2014.

Design and Hardware Implementation Considerations of Modified Multilevel Cascaded H-Bridge Inverter for Photovoltaic System


Inverters are an essential part in many applications including photovoltaic generation. With the increasing penetration of renewable energy sources, the drive for efficient inverters is gaining more and more momentum. In this work, output power quality, power loss, implementation complexity, cost, and relative advantages of the popular cascaded multilevel H-bridge inverter, and a modified version of it are explored. Optimal number of levels, and the optimal switching frequency for such inverters are investigated, and a 5-level architecture is chosen considering the trade-offs. This inverter is driven by level shifted in-phase disposition pulse width modulation technique to reduce harmonics, which is chosen through deliberate testing of other advanced disposition pulse width modulation techniques. To reduce the harmonics further, the application of filters is investigated, and an LC filter is applied which provided appreciable results. This system is tested in MATLAB/Simulink, and then implemented in hardware after design and testing in Proteus ISIS. The general cascaded multilevel H-bridge inverter design is also implemented in hardware to demonstrate a novel low-cost MOSFET driver build for this study. The hardware setups use MOSFETs as switching devices and low-cost ATmega microcontrollers for generating the switching pulses via level shifted in-phase disposition pulse width modulation. This implementation substantiated the effectiveness of the proposed design.


  1. Inverter
  2. Multilevel Inverter
  3. Cascaded H-Bridge
  4. Modified Cascaded H-Bridge
  5. Advanced PWM Techniques
  6. MOSFET Driving Technique
  7. Level Shifted In-Phase Disposition Pulse Width Modulation



In this work, a single phase modified 5-level symmetric cascaded multilevel H-bridge (CHB) inverter with 6 switches has been presented. This reduction in switches has reduced the cost, complexity, area requirement, and losses, while improving efficiency. The CHB architecture has been chosen over other designs because of its unique advantages. These benefits of CHB- namely, the optimum number of levels in the CHB, and the optimum switching frequency – have been investigated thoroughly. A 7-level CHB with 6 kHz switching frequency has appeared as the best performing system in this study. However, this performance has been achieved for unfiltered outputs. In this paper, an LC filter has been used to reduce THD in the output significantly. When this filter is used, both 5-level and 7-level CHBs have demonstrated almost equal THD levels. Thus the less complex, and hence more practical, 5-level design has been chosen. Also, advanced PWM techniques have been investigated to determine their effectiveness in reducing the THD, and level shifted in-phase disposition PWM technique has been selected to be used in the proposed system as it has provided the best performance. Because of the use of PWM switching, the switching frequency has also been much higher than 7 kHz – which has increased the switching losses, but the resulting reduction in THD has immensely improved the inverter performance. As a result, the increased switching losses can be safely neglected. After obtaining satisfactory simulation results in MATLAB/Simulink, this system has been designed and tested in Proteus for hardware implementation, and then implemented in hardware using MOSFETs and ATmega microcontrollers. The hardware outputs have deviated a bit from the simulation results, and the use of transformers to aid in measurement has been identified as the reason. A use-case of the proposed inverter has also been presented. Future expansion of this work can focus on applying this design in real-life standalone and/or grid-connected PV system.


[1] K. Sano and M. Takasaki, “A transformerless D-STATCOM based on a multivoltage cascade converter requiring no DC sources,” IEEE transactions on power electronics, vol. 27, pp. 2783-2795, 2012.

[2] B. Gultekin and M. Ermis, “Cascaded multilevel converter-based transmission STATCOM: System design methodology and development of a 12 kV±12 MVAr power stage,” IEEE transactions on power electronics, vol. 28, pp. 4930-4950, 2013.

[3] H. Abu-Rub, J. Holtz, J. Rodriguez, and G. Baoming, “Medium-voltage multilevel converters—State of the art, challenges, and requirements in industrial applications,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, pp. 2581-2596, 2010.

[4] A. Balikci and E. Akpinar, “A multilevel converter with reduced number of switches in STATCOM for load balancing,” Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 123, pp. 164-173, 2015.

[5] J. S. Lee, H. W. Sim, J. Kim, and K. B. Lee, “Combination Analysis and Switching Method of a Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter Based on Transformers With the Different Turns Ratio for Increasing the Voltage Level,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 65, pp. 4454-4465, 2018.

Single Phase NPC Inverter Controller with IntegratedMPPT for PV Grid Connection


This paper presents a single-stage three-level Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) inverter for connection to the electrical power grid, with integrated Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm to extract the maximum power available from solar photovoltaic (PV) panels. This single-stage topology is more compact than the traditional topology, it was chosen because with the proper control strategy. It is suitable to connect the PV panels to the power grid.

The paper define the design of a 5 kW NPC inverter for the interface of PV panels with the power grid, presenting the circuit parameters and the description of the control algorithms. A phase locked loop control is used to connect the inverter into the grid. Then, a proposed DC Link voltage control to improve the input voltage of the inverter. Although an MPPT algorithm was used to optimize the energy extraction and the system efficiency. Inverter Output Current control to produce an output current (current injected in the power grid) with low Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) implemented in a DSP. Simulation and experimental results verify the correct operation of the proposed system, even with variation in the solar radiation.

  1. Photovoltaic System
  2. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)
  3. Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) Inverter
  4. Phase-Locked Loop (PLL)



Figure 1. Block diagram of the NPC converter control system.


Figure 2. Block diagram of the E-PLL.

Figure 3. Startup of the proposed system with maximum solar radiation: (a)

PV current (ipanels); (b) PV panels voltage (vpanels);

(c) PV panels power (ppanels).

Figure 4. Operation with fluctuations in the solar radiation, from1000 W/m² to

800 W/m² and to 600 W/m: (a) Maximum theoretical power (pmax); (b)

Extracted power PV panels (ppanels); (c) Inverter output current (iout).

Figure 5. Reference current (iref *) and current injected into the power grid (iout).

Figure 6. Power grid voltage (vgrid) and inverter output current (iout).

Figure 7. Voltages in the two capacitors of the DC-link (vc1, vc2).


This paper presents the design, simulation and experimental results of a 5 kW single-stage three-level Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) inverter for connection to the electrical power grid, with integrated Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm to extract the maximum available power from solar photovoltaic (PV) panels. It also describes the design of the PLL controller, used to track the fundamental power grid voltage in order to synchronize the NPC inverter with the power grid, and to generate a reference for the inverter output current (which consists in the injected power grid current).

All the controllers have been implemented using C code, validated by simulation in PSIM, and executed in a DSP. Experimental results prove that the current injected in the power grid follows the reference, and that the voltages in the two DC-link capacitors are kept balanced. It is shown that the proposed system is able to always extract the maximum power available from the solar PV panels, even when there are solar radiation fluctuations.


[1] S. V. Araújo, S. Member, P. Zacharias, and R. Mallwitz, “Highly Efficient Single-Phase Transformerless Inverters for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems,” Ind. Electron. IEEE Trans., vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 3118–3128, 2010.

[2] S. Saridakis, E. Koutroulis, and F. Blaabjerg, “Optimal  Design of Modern Transformerless PV Inverter Topologies,” Energy Conversion, IEEE Trans., vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 394–404, 2013.

[3] R.Teodorescu, M.Liserre, and P.Rodriguez, Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems. 2011.

[4] S. Busquets-monge, J. Rocabert, P. Rodríguez, P. Alepuz, and J. Bordonau, “Multilevel Diode-Clamped Converter for Photovoltaic Generators With Independent Voltage Control of Each Solar Array,” Ind. Electron. IEEE Trans., vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 2713–2723, 2008.

[5] P. Panagis, F. Stergiopoulos, P. Marabeas, and S. Manias, “Comparison of State of the Art Multilevel Inverters,” Power Electron. Spec. Conf. 2008. PESC 2008. IEEE, pp. 4296– 4301, 2008.

Three Phase ZVR Topology and Modulation Strategy for Transformerless PV System


Spillage propelled decline is significant for dynamic transformer-less PV systems. In this salute, another three-organize topology and procedure method is proposed. It is gotten from the single-arrange ZVR topology (zero-voltage state rectifier) , all the equivalent the onus framework is without a doubt uncommon. from head to foot side these lines.


another style framework two-sided on the Boolean reason field is required to end the interminable ordinary nature voltage, to annul the spillage current. At get along, the disclose tests are done to peruse the feasibility and reasonability of the normal course of action.



Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of three-phase ZVR topology.



  Fig. 2 Experimental results with the dual-carrier modulation. (a) Grid current; (b) Stray capacitor voltage and leakage current

Fig. 3. Experimental results with proposed modulation. (a) Grid current; (b) Stray capacitor voltage and leakage current

Fig. 4 Dynamic experiments with proposed modulation. (a) Phase_A grid voltage and current, (b) dc-link capacitor voltages, stray capacitor voltage and leakage current

Fig. 5. The current and voltage through the ZVR.



This how might you do has described the cut and endeavor and clear up assertion of another three-sort out ZVR topology and its change reasoning to renounce the spillage advanced for transformerless PV structures.The disclosures uncover that the spillage current can be in an appealing path decreased with a free hand underneath 300mA by picking the exchanging solicitation of shrewd three-arrange ZVR topology.  This how would you do has recounted the cut and attempt and clarify affirmation of another three-organize ZVR topology and its fluctuate philosophy to deny the spillage progressed for transformerless PV systems. The revelations uncover that the spillage cutting edge can be in an acceptable way diminished with a free hand underneath 300mA by picking the trading request of clever three-organize ZVR topology.


along the side of that, the about to be tweak is inconsequential to execute. by its own nature, it is flavorsome for three-stage transformerless PV frameworks.

The infinity research is as the extensive on a long shot examination. the capacitor voltage adjusting appliance of the eventual arrangement.

Grid Connected Wind- Photovoltaic hybrid System


 This paper presents a modeling and control strategies of a grid connected Wind-Photo voltaic hybrid system. This proposed system consists of two renewable energy sources in order to increase the system efficiency. The Maximum Power Point Tracking (MP PT) algorithm is applied to the P V system and the wind system to obtain the maximum power for any given external weather conditions. The Field Oriented Control (F O C) controls the generator side converter, moreover this approach is used to control independently the flux and the torque by applying the d- and q-components of the current motor. The Voltage Oriented Control (V O C) strategy controls the utility grid side converter which is adopted to adjust the DC-link at the desired voltage. The simulation results using mat lab software environment prove the good performance of these used techniques so as to generate sinusoidal current wave forms. This current synchronizes with the grid voltage, Moreover, the DC bus voltage is perfectly constant because only the active power is injected into the grid. Simulations are carried out to validate the effectiveness of the proposed system methods.




Fig. l.The proposed P V -wind hybrid system


Fig. 2 Solar i r radiance changes

Fig. 3 The variation of PY arrays current

Fig. 4 The P Y arrays voltage

Fig. 5 The P Y arrays power and reference

Fig. 6 Duty cycle

Fig. 7 Wind speed profile

Fig. 8 Electrical angular speed of the SC I G and its reference

Fig. 9 The active power injected into the grid

Fig. 10 The Reactive power injected into the grid

Fig. 11 The wave forms of the current

Fig. 12 The three phase current and voltage wave forms

Fig. 13. DC link voltage.


This paper investigated the Wind-Photo voltaic hybrid system control which included an MP PT method. Different solar irradiation and wind speed environments has been simulated in order to maximize the output power of the proposed system . Two control techniques  improved the hybrid system usefulness. The Field Oriented Control (F O C) controlled the controlled rectifier connected to the squirrel-cage induction generator (SCI G) to reach the optimal rotational speed. The Voltage Oriented Control (V O C) method controlled the grid-side invert er in order to keep the dc-link voltage at the desired value. Mat lab / Sim u link software implemented the hybrid system simulation and its performances proved when the solar i r radiance change or the wind speed occurs.


Control and Performance Analysis of a Single-Stage Utility-Scale Grid-Connected PV System



For utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems, the control objectives, such as maximum power point tracking, synchronization with grid, current control, and harmonic reduction in output current, are realized in single stage for high efficiency and simple power converter topology. This paper considers a highpower three-phase single-stage PV system, which is connected to a distribution network, with a modified control strategy, which includes compensation for grid voltage dip and reactive power injection capability. To regulate the dc-link voltage, a modified voltage controller using feedback linearization scheme with feedforward PV current signal is presented. The real and reactive powers are controlled by using dq components of the grid current. A small-signal stability/eigenvalue analysis of a grid-connected PV system with the complete linearized model is performed to assess the robustness of the controller and the decoupling character of the grid-connected PV system. The dynamic performance is evaluated on a real-time digital simulator.



  1. DC-link voltage control
  2. Feedback linearization (FBL)
  3. Photovoltaic (PV) systems
  4. Reactive power control
  5. Small signal stability analysis
  6. Voltage dip.




One of the four 375-kW subsystems.

Fig. 1. One of the four 375-kW subsystems.



(a) PV array voltage for MPPT. (b) PV array (PPV) and grid injected real power (Pg). (c) Grid injected reactive power (Qg).

Fig. 2. (a) PV array voltage for MPPT. (b) PV array (PPV) and grid injected real power (Pg). (c) Grid injected reactive power (Qg).

Grid injected currents and THD.

Fig. 3. Grid injected currents and THD.

PV system response to voltage dip in grid.

Fig. 4 PV system response to voltage dip in grid.

PV system response to a three-phase fault at bus 3.

Fig. 5. PV system response to a three-phase fault at bus 3.

PV system response to an LG fault.

Fig. 6. PV system response to an LG fault.

Pg  response of the whole 1.5-MW PV system.

Fig. 7. Pg  response of the whole 1.5-MW PV system.



The proposed modified dc-link voltage controller with FBL technique, using INC MPPT, and real and reactive power controls with enhanced filter for compensation for grid voltage dips has been tested at different insolation levels on a real-time digital simulator (RTDS). Small-signal analysis of a PV system connected to an IEEE 33-bus distributed system is performed. The results from simulation and eigenvalue analysis demonstrate the effectiveness of the FBL controller compared with the controller without FBL. It is found that the FBL controller  outperforms the controllerwithout FBL, as the FBL controller’s  performance is linear at different operating conditions. With grid voltage dip compensator filter, the dynamic performance is much improved in terms of less oscillations and distortion in waveforms. In addition, the eigenvalue analysis shows that the effect of the disturbance in distribution system is negligible on PV system stability as the eigenmodes of the PV system are almost independent of the distribution system. This has been also confirmed by three-phase fault analysis of distribution system in RTDS model. The controller performance is also validated on 4×375 kW PV units connected to the distribution system.



  • Oprisan and S. Pneumaticos, “Potential for electricity generation from emerging renewable sources in Canada,” in Proc. IEEE EIC Climate Change Technol. Conf., May 2006, pp. 1–10.
  • Petrone, G. Spagnuolo, R. Teodorescu, M. Veerachary, and M. Vitelli, “Reliability issues in photovoltaic power processing systems,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 2569–2580, Jul. 2008.
  • Jain and V. Agarwal, “A single-stage grid connected inverter topology for solar PV systems with maximum power point tracking,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1928–1940, Jul. 2007.
  • Katiraei and J. Aguero, “Solar PV integration challenges,” IEEE Power Energy Mag., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 62–71, May-Jun. 2011.
  • H. Ko, S. Lee, H. Dehbonei, and C. Nayar, “Application of voltageand current-controlled voltage source inverters for distributed generation systems,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 782–792, Sep. 2006.

MPPT Schemes for PV System under Normal and Partial Shading Condition: A Review


The photovoltaic system is one of the renewable energy device, which directly converts solar radiation into electricity. The I-V characteristics of PV system are nonlinear in nature and under variable Irradiance and temperature, PV system has a single operating point where the power output is maximum, known as Maximum Power Point (MPP) and the point varies on changes in atmospheric conditions and electrical load. Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) is used to track MPP of solar PV system for maximum efficiency operation. The various MPPT techniques together with implementation are reported in literature. In order to choose the best technique based upon the requirements, comprehensive and comparative study should be available. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of various MPPT techniques for uniform insolation and partial shading conditions. Furthermore, the comparison of practically accepted and widely used techniques has been made based on features, such as control strategy, type of circuitry, number of control variables and cost. This review work provides a quick analysis and design help for PV systems.


1.      Renewable Energy System

2.       Solar Photovoltaic

3.       Solar Power Conversion

4.       Maximum Power Point Tracking

5.       Partial Shading

6.      Global MPPT





 Fig. 1 Current feedback methodology for MPPT tracking



 Fig. 2 Irradiance pattern for the testing of MPPT controller

Fig. 3 Power output response for Voltage Fraction MPPT


Fig. 4 Power output response for the P&O and INC controller

Fig. 5 Power output response for Fuzzy Logic MPPT controller

Fig. 6 The P-V curve for the demonstration of Power slope technique algorithm

Fig. 7 The output power of PV array for the Power Curve Scanning technique

Fig. 8 The output power of PV array for the modified Power Slope Detection GMPPT technique


The prominent techniques of MPPT are discussed in this paper. It may be used as tutorial material on solar MPPT. Also, an attempt has been made to describe the important GMPPT techniques with sufficient details. A comprehensive comparative analysis has been contributed in this paper considering performance, cost, complexity of circuit and other parameters of MPPT. The results of this analysis will be helpful for proper selection of MPPT method. The generated power performance through few MPPT controllers has been illustrated with the help of simulation excercise. This also provides better understanding through numerical comparison. This review work has also presented a brief analysis and comparison of MPPT techniques for partial shading conditions. This paper may be useful for solar PV system manufacturer and solar inverter designer.


Abdourraziq, S., & El. Bachtiri Rachid (2014) A perturb and observe method using fuzzy logic control for PV pumping system. International Conference on Multimedia Computation and Systems, Marrakech, 1608-1612.

Adly, M., El-Sherif, H., & Ibrahim, M. (2011) Maximum Power Point Tracker for a PV cell using a fuzzy agent adapted by the Fractional open circuit voltage technique. IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy System, Taipei, 1918-1922.

Ahmad, J. (2010) A fractional open circuit voltage based maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic arrays. International Conference on Soft Technology and Engineering, San Juan, 247-250.

Ahmed, N.A., and Miyatake, M. (2008) A novel maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic applications under partially shaded insolation conditions. Electric Power System Research, 78, 777-784.

Altas, I.H., & Sharaf, A.M. (1996) A novel on-line MPP search algorithm for PV arrays. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversions, 11 (4), 748-754.

Maximum Power Point Tracking Using Fuzzy Logic Controller under Partial Conditions

Scientific Research Publishing, Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, 2015.

Maximum Power Point  ABSTRACT: This study proposes a fuzzy system for tracking the maximum power point of a PV system for solar panel. The solar panel and maximum power point tracker have been modeled using MATLAB/Simulink. A simulation model consists of PV panel, boost converter, and maximum power point tack MPPT algorithm is developed. Three different conditions are simulated: 1) Uniform irradiation; 2) Sudden changing; 3) Partial shading. Results showed that fuzzy controller successfully find MPP for all different weather conditions studied. FLC has excellent ability to track MPP in less than 0.01 second when PV is subjected to sudden changes and partial shading in irradiation.


  • Fuzzy Logic Controller
  • Maximum Power Point
  • Photovoltaic System
  • Partial Shading




Figure 1. Schematic diagram of PV system with MPPT.



Figure 2. P-V characteristics at different irradiations.

Figure 3. P-V characteristics when partial shading from 1000 to 600 Watt/m2.

Figure 4. Output of fuzzy at1000 Watt/m2.

Figure 5. Output of fuzzy controller. (a) Full shading from 600 to 300 Watt/m2; (b) Full shading from 700 to 400 Watt/m2; (c) Full shading from 900 to 400 Watt/m2; (d) Increasing shading from 300 to 800 Watt/m2.

Figure 6. Comparison between fuzzy and P & O partial shading (partial shading 1000 to 800 Watt/m2).


 In this study, FLC has been developed to track the maximum power point of PV system. PV panel, boost converter with FLC connected to a resistive load has been simulated using Matlab/Simulink. Simulation results have been compared to nominal power values. The proposed system showed its ability to reach MMP under uniform irradiation, sudden changes of irradiation, and partial shading. Simulation results have shown that using FLC has great advantages over conventional methods. It is found that Fuzzy controller always finds the global MPP. It is found that fuzzy logic systems are easily implemented with minimal oscillations with fast convergence around the desired MP


 [1] Devabhaktuni, V., Alam, M., Reddy Depuru, S.S.S., Green II, R.C., Nims, D. and Near, C. (2013) Solar Energy: Trends and Enabling Technologies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 19, 555-556. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.11.024

[2] Bataineh, K.M. and Dalalah, D. (2012) Optimal Configuration for Design of Stand-Alone PV System. Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, 3, 139-147. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/sgre.2012.32020

[3] Bataineh, K. and Dalalah, D. (2013) Assessment of Wind Energy Potential for Selected Areas in Jordan. Journal of Renewable Energy, 59, 75-81.

[4] Bataineh, K.M. and Hamzeh, A. (2014) Efficient Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithm for PV Application under Rapid Changing Weather Condition. ISRN Renewable Energy, 2014, Article ID: 673840. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/673840

[5] International Energy Agency (2010) Trends in Photovoltaic Applications. Survey Report of Selected IEA Countries between 1992 and 2009. http://www.ieapvps.org/products/download/Trends-in Photovoltaic_2010.pdf

Maximum Power Point

An Efficient Modified CUK Converter with Fuzzy based Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller for PV System


To improve the work of photovoltaic system a modified cuk converter with Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) that uses a fuzzy logic control algorithm is given in this research work. In the planned cuk converter, the conduction losses and switching losses are decreased by means of replacing the passive elements with switched capacitors.


These switched capacitors are used to provide smooth transition of voltage and current. So, the conversion ability of the converter is improved and the ability of the PV system is raised. The PV systems use a MPPT to continuously extract the highest possible power and deliver it to the load.


MPPT consists of a dc-dc converter used to find and maintain operation at the maximum power point using a tracking algorithm. The simulated results indicate that a large amount of additional power can be obtain from photovoltaic module using a planned converter with fuzzy logic controller based MPPT


 modified Cuk Converter

Photovoltaic System

Maximum Power Point Tracker

Fuzzy Logic Controller




Figure 1: Simulation diagram for the proposed converter








Figure 2: Output of Solar Irradiation at 500 watts / m2 (a)

Current, (b) Voltage, (c) Power







Figure 3: Output of Solar Irradiation at 1000 watts / m2 (a)

Current, (b) Voltage, (c) Power


The planned modified cuk converter was simulated in MATLAB simulation platform and the output work was decide. Then, the mode of operation of planned converter was consider by the different solar irradiation level. From that, output current, voltage and power were considered. For evaluating the output work, the planned modified cuk converter output was tested with PV system.


From the testing results, the output power of the modified converter ability and the ability deviation were resolve. The analyses showed that the planned modified cuk converter was better when compared to conventional cuk converter and boost converter. Experimental setup has been done to prove the strength of the planned system.


  1. Singh R & Sood Y R, Transmission tariff for restructured Indian power sector with special consideration to promotion of renewable energy sources, IEEE Region 10 Conference, TENCON, (2009), 1 – 7.
  2. Xia Xintao & Xia Junzi, Evaluation of Potential for Developing Renewable Sources of Energy to Facilitate Development in Developing Countries, Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC), (2010), 1 – 3.
  3. Hosseini R & Hosseini N & Khorasanizadeh H, An experimental study of combining a photovoltaic system with a heating system, World Renewable Energy Congress, 8 (2011), 2993-3000.
  4. Shakil Ahamed Khan & Md. Ismail Hossain, Design and Implementation of Microcontroller Based Fuzzy Logic Control for Maximum Power Point Tracking of a Photovoltaic System, IEEE International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dhaka, (2010), 322-325.
  5. Pradeep Kumar Yadav A, Thirumaliah S & Haritha G, Comparison of MPPT Algorithms for DC-DC Converters Based PV Systems, International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, 1 (2012), 18-23.