Synchronization and Reactive Current Support of PMSG based Wind Farm during Severe Grid Fault


Framework codes require wind ranch to stay on-matrix and infuse explicit responsive current when network blame happens. To fulfill the prerequisites, receptive power gadgets, for example, the static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) are normally utilized in present day wind ranches. So as to create responsive flows, the breeze vitality age framework (WECS) and the STATCOM are regularly controlled with the stage bolted circle (PLL)- situated vector control strategies. Because of the dynamic power unevenness between the age and utilization, the breeze cultivate has the danger of losing synchronization with the framework under serious blame conditions. This paper investigates the dynamic synchronization system and strength criteria of the breeze cultivate and proposes a planned current control plot for the WECS and the STATCOM amid serious lattice blame period. The synchronization strength of both the WECS and the STATCOM is stayed by the dynamic power adjusting control of the breeze cultivate. The control targets of the generator-and matrix side converters for the WECS are swapped to maintain a strategic distance from the communication between the dc-interface voltage control circle and the synchronization circle. The synchronized STATCOM produces extra receptive flows to enable the breeze to cultivate meet the necessities of the network code. Adequacy of the hypothetical examinations and the proposed control technique are checked by recreations.



Fig. 1. Configuration of the PMSG-based wind farm



Fig. 2. System response of the PMSG-based wind farm with conventional control strategy during severe fault

Fig. 3. System response of the PMSG-based wind farm with proposed strategy during severe fault



This paper examined the LOS instrument and the planning LVRT plan of the PMSG based breeze cultivate when extreme lattice voltage plunge happens. The accompanying ends can be gotten from the hypothetical investigations and reproduction check:

(1) Variable-speed wind turbines and STATCOM both have the LOS chance when the matrix voltage plunge is extreme.

(2) The proposed dynamic power adjusting control conspire which depends on the recurrence dynamic of the PLL can accomplish the synchronization strength of the WECS. Be that as it may, receptive current capacity of the WECS would be yielded to actualize such plan.

(3) The organized current control between the PMSG based WECS and the STATCOM can accomplish both the synchronization strength and the responsive current help as indicated by the framework code under extreme matrix blame. The examination results and proposed conspire are likewise accessible for the LVRT of other sustainable power source change frameworks.

(4) It ought to be brought up that this paper centers around the symmetrical blame conditions. In useful applications, unsymmetrical shortcomings happen more frequently than symmetrical ones. Some Europe lattice codes, for example, “VDE-AR-N 4120” code in Germany, are requiring the WECS to give negative succession current remuneration amid unsymmetrical blame period. In such cases, the progressed PLL, for example, the second request summed up integrator (SOGI) PLL, ought to be utilized to isolate the positive and negative succession parts from the lattice voltage. The progressed PLLs have significantly more confounded structures and models contrasted and the regular one as showed in this paper. Likewise the synchronization strength ought to be talked about in both positive and negative groupings. By further considering the coupling of the PLL and control circles amid network blames comparably with the case examined in this paper, the synchronization issue would be progressively confused. More examinations are normal in this issue and would be our future work.

Control of permanent magnet synchronous generator-based stand-alone wind energy conversion system


This investigation manages a usage of a steady speed permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG)- based three-stage remain solitary breeze vitality change framework (SWECS). The voltage and recurrence controller is acknowledged utilizing just a solitary voltage source converter (VSC) and a battery vitality stockpiling framework (BESS). The BESS is utilized to give stack leveling under changing breeze speeds and to control recurrence of SWECS. The voltage of permanent magnet synchronous generator is managed under changing breeze speeds and loads by providing the responsive power from VSC. The execution of SWECS is exhibited as a heap leveler, a heap balancer, a symphonious compensator and a voltage and recurrence controller.



Fig. 1 Proposed system configurations of VFC for PMSG-based SWECS

a System configuration of VFC for PMSG-based 3P3W SWECS

b System configuration of VFC for PMSG-based 3P4W SWECS



Fig. 2 Simulated performance of VFC under fall in wind speed (12 –10 m/s) at fixed balanced linear loads

Fig. 3 Simulated performance of VFC under rise in wind speed (10 –12 m/s) at balanced linear loads



A VFC for a PMSG in remain solitary WECS has been planned, demonstrated and created for bolstering three-stage buyer loads. The VFC has been acknowledged utilizing a VSC and a battery vitality stockpiling framework. Another control procedure for VFC has been acknowledged utilizing IcosF calculation and actualized for PMSG-based SWECS. The execution of VFC has been discovered attractive under fluctuating breeze speeds and loads. The VFC has played out the elements of load leveler, stack balancer and a consonant eliminator alongside VFC.

Control of a Stand Alone Variable Speed Wind Turbine with a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator


A tale control methodology for the activity of a changeless magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based independent variable speed wind turbine is exhibited in this paper,. The immediate drive PMSG is associated with the heap through a switch mode rectifier and a vector controlled heartbeat width regulated (PWM) IGBT-inverter. The generator side switch mode rectifier is controlled to accomplish greatest power from the breeze. The heap side PWM inverter is utilizing a moderately mind boggling vector control plan to control the abundancy and recurrence of the inverter yield voltage. As there is no matrix in an independent framework, the yield voltage must be controlled as far as abundancy and recurrence. The independent control is included with yield voltage and recurrence controller equipped for taking care of variable load. A clammy resistor controller is utilized to disperse abundance control amid blame or over-age. The potential abundance of intensity will be scattered in the moist resistor with the chopper control and the dc interface voltage will be kept up. Broad recreations have been performed utilizing Matlab/Simpower. Reenactment results demonstrate that the controllers can extricate most extreme power and manage the voltage and recurrence under fluctuating burden condition. The controller performs extremely well amid dynamic and relentless state condition.



Figure 1.Control Structure of a PMSG based standalone variable speed wind turbine.



Figure 2. Response of the system for a step change of wind speed from 10 m/s to 12 m/s to 9 m/s to 10 m/s.

Figure 3. Voltage and current responses at a constant load.

Figure 4. Frequency response, DC link voltage and modulation index at a constant load.

Figure 5. Voltage and current responses when load is reduced by 50%.

Figure.6. Frequency response, DC link voltage and modulation index when load is reduced by 50%.



Control methodology for an independent variable speed wind turbine with a PMSG is introduced in this paper. A basic control methodology for the generator side converter to separate greatest power is examined and executed utilizing Simpower dynamic framework reenactment programming. The controller is fit to boost yield of the variable speed wind turbine under fluctuating breeze. The heap side PWM inverter is controlled utilizing vector control plan to keep up the sufficiency and recurrence of the inverter yield voltage. It is seen that the controller can keep up the heap voltage and recurrence great at steady load and under shifting burden condition. The creating framework with the proposed control procedure is appropriate for a little scale independent variable speed wind turbine establishment for remote region control supply. The reenactment results exhibit that the controller works great and shows great dynamic and consistent state execution

Battery Energy Storage System for Variable Speed Driven PMSG for Wind Energy Conversion System


There are numerous heaps, for example, remote towns, islands, and so forth that are situated far from the fundamental matrix. These heaps require remain solitary creating framework, which can give consistent voltage and recurrence to nearby jolt. Locally accessible breeze power can be utilized in such off-framework frameworks. As the breeze speed is variable, an AC-DC-AC transformation framework is required to change over factor voltage and variable recurrence control age to consistent voltage and steady recurrence source.

Further, as the breeze control just as load is variable there is a need of vitality stockpiling gadget that deal with the heap crisscross. In this paper, an independent wind energy conversion system (WECS) utilizing a variable speed permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is proposed with a battery vitality stockpiling framework.


Fig.1 PMSG with PWM rectifier with battery for storing the extra wind energy conversion


 Fig.2. Variation of wind speed, load voltages, load currents, generator power, battery power, load power battery current and DC link voltage.


The disconnected activity of wind energy conversion framework requires AC-DC-AC interface with the capacity of changing over factor voltage variable recurrence to steady voltage consistent recurrence source. What’s more the power adjusting must be finished with some vitality stockpiling framework, According to the proposed topology, battery vitality stockpiling framework gives control balance between the created power and the heap. The power jumble is consumed by the BESS. wind energy conversion system.

An Autonomous Wind Energy Conversion System with Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator


This paper manages a lasting magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based variable speed self-governing breeze vitality transformation framework (AWECS). Back associated voltage source converter (VSC) and a voltage source inverter (VSI) with a battery vitality stockpiling framework (BESS) at the middle dc connect are utilized to understand the voltage and recurrence controller (VFC). The BESS is utilized for load leveling and to guarantee the unwavering quality of the supply to customers associated at load transport under change in wind speed. The generator-side converter worked in vector control mode for accomplishing most extreme power point following (MPPT) and to accomplish solidarity control factor activity at PMSG terminals. The heap side converter is worked to manage plentifulness of the heap voltage and recurrence under change in load conditions. The three-stage four wire buyer loads are nourished with a non-separated star-delta transformer associated at the heap transport to give stable nonpartisan terminal. The proposed AWECS is displayed, plan and mimicked utilizing MATLAB R2007b simulink with its sim control framework tool kit and discrete advance solver.




Fig. 1 Proposed control scheme of VFC for PMSG based AWECS



 Fig. 2 Performance of Controller during fall in wind speed

Fig. 3 Performance of Controller during rise in wind speed

Fig. 4 Performance of Controller at fixed wind speed and balanced/unbalanced non-linear loads


Another arrangement of voltage and recurrence controller for a perpetual magnet synchronous generator based variable speed self-governing breeze vitality transformation framework has been planned demonstrated and its execution is reenacted. The VFC has utilized two back-back associated VSC’s and BESS at halfway dc connect. The GSC has been controlled in vector controlled to accomplish MPPT, solidarity control factor activity of PMSG. The LSI has been controlled to keep up abundancy of load voltage and its recurrence. The VFC has played out the capacity of a heap leveler, a heap balancer, and a consonant eliminator.

A Unified Nonlinear Controller Design for On-grid/Off-grid Wind Energy Battery-Storage System


The objective of this paper is to explore the utilization of nonlinear control strategy to a multi-input multi yield (MIMO) nonlinear model of a breeze vitality battery stockpiling framework utilizing a changeless magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). The test is that the framework ought to work in both matrix associated and independent modes while guaranteeing a consistent progress between the two modes and an effective power circulation between the heap, the battery and the network. Our methodology is unique in relation to the regular techniques found in writing, which utilize an alternate controller for every one of the modes. Rather, in this work, a solitary bound unified nonlinear controller is proposed. The proposed unified nonlinear control framework is assessed in recreation. The outcomes demonstrated that the proposed control conspire gives high unique reactions because of network control blackout and load variety just as zero relentless state mistake.




Fig. 1. WECS based permanent magnet synchronous generator.


Fig. 2. Optimum Rotor Speed and Output Power.

Fig. 3. Voltage and current of the load.

Fig. 4. dc-link voltage.

Fig. 5. Wind Turbine Output Power (MW).

Fig. 6. Load Power (MW).

Fig. 7. Charge/discharge of Battery (%).

Fig. 8. Grid Power (MW).


This paper has proposed a nonlinear MIMO controller dependent on the criticism linearization hypothesis to direct the heap voltage in both matrix associated and remain solitary mode while guaranteeing a consistent change between the two modes and an effective power dispersion between the heap, the battery and the network. Our methodology is not quite the same as the regular strategies found in writing, which utilize an alternate controller, PID based, for every method of activity. Rather, in this work, a solitary bound together nonlinear controller is proposed. The execution of the proposed controller has been tried with various breeze speeds just as in the two methods of activity with dynamic load. The recreation results demonstrate that applying nonlinear input linearization based control procedure gives a decent control execution. This execution is portrayed by quick and smooth transient reaction just as great consistent state soundness and reference following quality, even with variable breeze speed and dynamic load activity. Be that as it may, this examination expect that the framework parameters are settled. A future work will be to test the framework when parameters are obscure utilizing versatile control structure hypothesis.

A Modified Active Power Control Scheme for Enhanced Operation of PMSG Based WGs


This paper underlines the improvement of a disentangled dynamic power control plot for upgraded task of network incorporated lasting magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based breeze driven generators (WGs). A functioning force reference age conspire is proposed for the machine side converter (MSC) to infuse dynamic power into the lattice even under matrix unsettling influences, without damaging framework parts rating. In this plan, the controller utilized for MSC changes the dynamic power caught proportionate to the drop in the network voltage after considering wind speed and rotor speed. Moreover, not at all like double vector control plot, the framework side converter (GSC) controller is executed in a positive synchronous edge (PSF) with the proposed current swaying undoing plan to smother the motions in dc-interface voltage, dynamic and responsive intensity of the lattice and to get symmetrical sinusoidal matrix current. Broad scientific reenactment has been done in PSCAD/EMTDC to approve the prevalence of proposed control conspire over the customary plans when WG is exposed to different network unsettling influences. The diminished level of swaying in the framework parameters, for example, dc-interface voltage and lattice dynamic power affirms the viability of the proposed strategy when contrasted and the traditional control procedures.



 Fig.1 PMSG based grid integrated WG.



Fig.2 Behavior of PMSG based WG during step change in wind speed (a) wind speed profile, m/s; (b) rotor speed, rad/s; (c) dc-link voltage, V; (d) grid active power, W; (f) grid current, A.

 Fig.3 Performance evaluation of proposed controller for the voltage profile of IEGC during symmetrical fault: (a) grid phase voltage, V; (b) MSC active power reference and grid power, W; (c) rotor speed, rad/s; (d) electromagnetic torque, N-m; (e) dc-link voltage, V; (f) grid current, A.

Fig.4 Performance of controllers (I, II and proposed controller) during Type – F fault of 50% voltage sag with -12.5o phase-angle jump (a) dc-link voltage, V; (b) grid active power, W; (c) grid current, A. (d) grid current loci in stationary reference frame during fault period

Fig.5 Performance of controllers (I, II and proposed controller) under distorted utility (a) grid active power, W; (b) grid current, A (zoomed in view).


A changed dynamic power control and current swaying dropping plan are proposed for the MSC and GSC, separately to reinforce the FRT consistence of the PMSG based WG. A 1.5 MW framework is considered to approve the execution of proposed controller. Decreased dynamic power control proportionate to held matrix voltage amid blame conditions ensures the dc-interface voltage and GSC crest current are inside its working points of confinement. Dissimilar to double vector control plot, the GSC is executed in PSF with wavering dropping terms and positive grouping lattice rakish recurrence to smother the swaying in framework parameters and to acquire symmetrical sinusoidal matrix current. The control conspire is approved for different kinds of blame and twisted network conditions. The diminished level of swaying in the framework parameters as recorded in Table I affirms the viability of the proposed strategy when contrasted and the controllers (I) and (II). As a future work, the proposed control plan can be conveyed to address feeble matrix condition with an ad libbed structure.

Power Quality Improvement of PMSG Based DG Set Feeding Three-Phase Loads

IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 2015

ABSTRACT: This paper presents power quality improvement of PMSG (Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator) based DG (Diesel Generator) set feeding three-phase loads using STATCOM (Static Compensator). A 3-leg VSC (Voltage Source Converter) with a capacitor on the DC link is used as STATCOM. The reference source currents for the system are estimated using an Adaline based control algorithm. A PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) current controller is using for generation of gating pulses of IGBTs (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors) of three leg VSC of the STATCOM. The STATCOM is able to provide voltage control, harmonics elimination, power factor improvement, load balancing and load compensation. The performance of the system is experimentally tested on various types of loads under steady state and dynamic conditions. A 3-phase induction motor with variable frequency drive is used as a prototype of diesel engine with the speed regulation. Therefore, the DG set is run at constant speed so that the frequency of supply remains constant irrespective of loading condition.


  2. VSC
  3. IGBTs
  4. PMSG
  5. PWM
  6. DG Set
  7. Power Quality



Fig. 1 Configuration of PMSG based DG set feeding three phase loads.



Fig. 2. Dynamic performance at linear loads (a) vsab, isa,isb and isc ,(b) vsab, iLa,iLb and iLc (c) Vdc, isa,iLa and iCa


The STATCOM has improved the power quality of the PMSG based DG set in terms voltage control, harmonics elimination and load balancing. Under linear loads, there has been negligible voltage variation (From 219.1 V to 220.9 V) and in case of nonlinear load, the voltage increases to 221 V. Thus, the STATCOM has been found capable to maintain the terminal voltage of DG set within ± 0.5% (220 ±1 V) under different linear and nonlinear loads.

Under nonlinear loads, the load current of DG set is a quasi square with a THD of 24.4 %. The STATCOM has been found capable to eliminate these harmonics and thus the THD of source currents has been limited to 3.9 % and the THD of terminal voltage has been observed of the order of 1.8%. Therefore, the THDs of source voltage and currents have been maintained well within limits of IEEE-519 standard under nonlinear load.

It has also been found that the STATCOM maintains balanced source currents when the load is highly unbalanced due to removal of load from phase ‘c’. The load balancing has  also been achieved by proposed system with reduced stress on the winding of the generator.

The proposed system is a constant speed DG set so there is no provision of frequency control in the control algorithm.

However, the speed control mechanism of prototype of the diesel engine is able to maintain the frequency of the supply almost at 50 Hz with small variation of ±0.2 %.

Therefore, the proposed PMSG based DG set along with STATCOM can be used for feeding linear and nonlinear balanced and unbalanced loads. The proposed PMSG based DG set has also inherent advantages of low maintenance, high efficiency and rugged construction over a conventional wound field synchronous generator based DG set.


[1] Xibo Yuan; Fei Wang; Boroyevich, D.; Yongdong Li; Burgos, R., “DC-link Voltage Control of a Full Power Converter for Wind Generator Operating in Weak-Grid Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol.24, no.9, pp.2178-2192, Sept. 2009.

[2] Li Shuhui, T.A. Haskew, R. P. Swatloski and W. Gathings, “Optimal and Direct-Current Vector Control of Direct-Driven PMSG Wind Turbines,” IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, vol.27, no.5, pp.2325-2337, May 2012.

[3] M. Singh and A. Chandra, “Application of Adaptive Network-Based Fuzzy Inference System for Sensorless Control of PMSG-Based Wind Turbine With Nonlinear-Load-Compensation Capabilities,” IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, vol.26, no.1, pp.165-175, Jan. 2011.

[4] A. Rajaei, M. Mohamadian and A. Yazdian Varjani, “Vienna-Rectifier-Based Direct Torque Control of PMSG for Wind Energy Application,” IEEE Trans. Industrial Elect., vol.60, no.7, pp.2919-2929, July 2013.

[5] Mihai Comanescu, A. Keyhani and Dai Min, “Design and analysis of 42-V permanent-magnet generator for automotive applications,” IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol.18, no.1, pp.107-112, Mar 2003.