An Energy Management Scheme with Power Limit Capability and an Adaptive Maximum Power Point Tracking for Small Standalone PMSG Wind Energy Systems


Because of its high vitality age ability and negligible natural effect, wind vitality is an exquisite answer for the developing worldwide vitality request. In any case, visit environmental changes make it hard to adequately bridle the vitality in the breeze since greatest power extraction happens at an alternate working point for each wind condition. This paper proposes a parameter autonomous astute power the executives controller that comprises of an incline helped most extreme power point following (MPPT) calculation and a power limit look (PLS) calculation for little independent breeze vitality frameworks with perpetual synchronous generators. Dissimilar to the parameter free irritate and watch (P&O) calculations, the proposed incline helped MPPT calculation appropriates consistent blunders credited to twist vacillations by distinguishing and recognizing air changes. The controller’s PLS can limit the generation of surplus vitality to limit the warmth scattering prerequisites of the vitality discharge instrument by collaborating with the state spectator and utilizing the slant parameter to look for the working focuses that outcome in the ideal power instead of the greatest power. The usefulness of the proposed vitality the executives control conspire for wind vitality frameworks is confirmed through reproduction results and exploratory outcomes.



Fig 1 System diagram with the proposed management control algorithm



 Fig 2 Performance of the standard fixed-step size P&O algorithm (average power captured = 1066 W).

Fig 3 Performance of the standard variable-step size P&O algorithm (average power captured = 1106 W).

Fig 4 Performance of the slope-assisted MPPT algorithm (1238 W).

Fig 5 Power coefficient performance of the fixed-step size P&O, variable step size P&O, and the slope assist MPPT (comparison performed under atmospheric identical conditions as depicted in Fig.20).


In this paper, a keen parameter-autonomous power the executives controller has been displayed for independent offgrid little wind vitality frameworks. With the state eyewitness directing the incline helped MPPT and the PLS in the proposed controller, the union occasions to the ideal working focuses is decreased and the legitimate mistakes are limited by distinguishing the adjustments in wind conditions. Being pertinent for both matrix associated and independent breeze frameworks, the slant help MPPT expands a breeze framework’s MPP seek effectiveness and empowers the breeze framework to effectively adjust to its changing conduct and wind conditions. The PLS calculation was intended to supplement the slant help MPPT for independent breeze frameworks that have restricted vitality stockpiling and use vitality dissemination systems to scatter surplus vitality. Instead of concentrating on catching greatest power, as far as possible inquiry centers around decreasing the size and warmth necessities of the vitality dissemination component by limiting surplus power age as wanted. The working standards of the proposed PLS and MPPT control systems have been talked about in this paper. Reproduction results on a 3kW framework and test results on a proof-of-idea model with a breeze turbine emulator have been given to feature the benefits of this work.

An Autonomous Wind Energy Conversion System with Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator


This paper manages a lasting magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based variable speed self-governing breeze vitality transformation framework (AWECS). Back associated voltage source converter (VSC) and a voltage source inverter (VSI) with a battery vitality stockpiling framework (BESS) at the middle dc connect are utilized to understand the voltage and recurrence controller (VFC). The BESS is utilized for load leveling and to guarantee the unwavering quality of the supply to customers associated at load transport under change in wind speed. The generator-side converter worked in vector control mode for accomplishing most extreme power point following (MPPT) and to accomplish solidarity control factor activity at PMSG terminals. The heap side converter is worked to manage plentifulness of the heap voltage and recurrence under change in load conditions. The three-stage four wire buyer loads are nourished with a non-separated star-delta transformer associated at the heap transport to give stable nonpartisan terminal. The proposed AWECS is displayed, plan and mimicked utilizing MATLAB R2007b simulink with its sim control framework tool kit and discrete advance solver.




Fig. 1 Proposed control scheme of VFC for PMSG based AWECS



 Fig. 2 Performance of Controller during fall in wind speed

Fig. 3 Performance of Controller during rise in wind speed

Fig. 4 Performance of Controller at fixed wind speed and balanced/unbalanced non-linear loads


Another arrangement of voltage and recurrence controller for a perpetual magnet synchronous generator based variable speed self-governing breeze vitality transformation framework has been planned demonstrated and its execution is reenacted. The VFC has utilized two back-back associated VSC’s and BESS at halfway dc connect. The GSC has been controlled in vector controlled to accomplish MPPT, solidarity control factor activity of PMSG. The LSI has been controlled to keep up abundancy of load voltage and its recurrence. The VFC has played out the capacity of a heap leveler, a heap balancer, and a consonant eliminator.

Power Quality Improvement Using UPQC Integrated with Distributed Generation Network

International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering Vol:8, No:7, 2014

 ABSTRACT  The increasing demand of electric power is giving an emphasis on the need for the maximum utilization of renewable energy sources. On the other hand maintaining power quality to satisfaction of utility is an essential requirement. In this paper the design aspects of a Unified Power Quality Conditioner integrated with photovoltaic system in a distributed generation is presented. The proposed system consist of series inverter, shunt inverter are connected back to back on the dc side and share a common dc-link capacitor with Distributed Generation through a boost converter. The primary task of UPQC is to minimize grid voltage and load current disturbances along with reactive and harmonic power compensation. In addition to primary tasks of UPQC, other functionalities such as compensation of voltage interruption and active power transfer to the load and grid in both islanding and interconnected mode have been addressed. The simulation model is design in MATLAB/ Simulation environment and the results are in good agreement with the published work.



  1. Distributed Generation(DG)
  2. Interconnected mode
  3. Islanding mode
  4. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT)
  5. Power Quality (PQ)
  6. Unified power quality conditioner (UPQC)
  7. Photovoltaic array (PV).





 UPQC with DG connected to the DC link

Fig. 1. UPQC with DG connected to the DC link



Fig. 2  Bus voltage, series compensating voltage, and load voltage


Fig. 3 Simulation result for upstream fault on feeder: Bus voltage, compensating voltage, load voltage


Fig. 4 Simulation results for load change: nonlinear load current,Feeder current, load voltage, and dc-link capacitor voltage



The new configuration is named unified power-quality conditioner with Photo Voltaic System (UPQC-PV). Compared to a conventional UPQC, the proposed topology is capable of fully protecting critical and sensitive loads against distortions, sags/swell, and interruption in both islanding and interconnected modes. The performance of the UPQC-PV is evaluated under various disturbance conditions and it offers the following advantages:

1) To regulate the load voltage against sag/swell and disturbances in the system to protect the nonlinear/sensitive load.

2) To compensate for the reactive and harmonic components of nonlinear load current.

3) To compensate voltage interruption and active power transfer to the load and grid in islanding mode to protect sensitive critical load.

4) Depending upon the ratings, the combined system can reduce the cost up to one fifth of the separate system. Capacity enhancement has been achieved using multi-level or multi-module and central control mode, however, the flexibility of UPQC to increase its capacity in future and to cope up with the increase load demand in medium voltage distribution system.



  1. M. Carrasco, L. G. Franquelo, J. T. Bialasiewicz, E. Galván, R. C.P. Guisado, M. Á. M. Prats, J. I. León, and N. M. Alfonso, “Power electronic systems for the grid integration of renewable energy sources: A survey,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 1002–1016, Aug. 2006.
  2. H. R. Enslin and P. J. M. Heskes, “Harmonic interaction betweena large number of distributed power inverters and the distribution network,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1586–1593,
  3. D. Sabin and A. Sundaram, “Quality enhances reliability,” IEEE Spectr., vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 34–41, Feb. 1996.
  4. Rastogi, R. Naik, and N. Mohan, “A comparative evaluation of harmonic reduction techniques in three-phase utility interface of power electronic loads,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 1149–1155, Sep./Oct. 1994.
  5. Ghosh and G. Ledwich, “A unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) for simultaneous voltage and current compensation,” Elect Power Syst. Res., pp. 55–63, 2001.

MPPT Schemes for PV System under Normal and Partial Shading Condition: A Review


The photovoltaic system is one of the renewable energy device, which directly converts solar radiation into electricity. The I-V characteristics of PV system are nonlinear in nature and under variable Irradiance and temperature, PV system has a single operating point where the power output is maximum, known as Maximum Power Point (MPP) and the point varies on changes in atmospheric conditions and electrical load. Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) is used to track MPP of solar PV system for maximum efficiency operation. The various MPPT techniques together with implementation are reported in literature. In order to choose the best technique based upon the requirements, comprehensive and comparative study should be available. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of various MPPT techniques for uniform insolation and partial shading conditions. Furthermore, the comparison of practically accepted and widely used techniques has been made based on features, such as control strategy, type of circuitry, number of control variables and cost. This review work provides a quick analysis and design help for PV systems.


1.      Renewable Energy System

2.       Solar Photovoltaic

3.       Solar Power Conversion

4.       Maximum Power Point Tracking

5.       Partial Shading

6.      Global MPPT





 Fig. 1 Current feedback methodology for MPPT tracking



 Fig. 2 Irradiance pattern for the testing of MPPT controller

Fig. 3 Power output response for Voltage Fraction MPPT


Fig. 4 Power output response for the P&O and INC controller

Fig. 5 Power output response for Fuzzy Logic MPPT controller

Fig. 6 The P-V curve for the demonstration of Power slope technique algorithm

Fig. 7 The output power of PV array for the Power Curve Scanning technique

Fig. 8 The output power of PV array for the modified Power Slope Detection GMPPT technique


The prominent techniques of MPPT are discussed in this paper. It may be used as tutorial material on solar MPPT. Also, an attempt has been made to describe the important GMPPT techniques with sufficient details. A comprehensive comparative analysis has been contributed in this paper considering performance, cost, complexity of circuit and other parameters of MPPT. The results of this analysis will be helpful for proper selection of MPPT method. The generated power performance through few MPPT controllers has been illustrated with the help of simulation excercise. This also provides better understanding through numerical comparison. This review work has also presented a brief analysis and comparison of MPPT techniques for partial shading conditions. This paper may be useful for solar PV system manufacturer and solar inverter designer.


Abdourraziq, S., & El. Bachtiri Rachid (2014) A perturb and observe method using fuzzy logic control for PV pumping system. International Conference on Multimedia Computation and Systems, Marrakech, 1608-1612.

Adly, M., El-Sherif, H., & Ibrahim, M. (2011) Maximum Power Point Tracker for a PV cell using a fuzzy agent adapted by the Fractional open circuit voltage technique. IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy System, Taipei, 1918-1922.

Ahmad, J. (2010) A fractional open circuit voltage based maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic arrays. International Conference on Soft Technology and Engineering, San Juan, 247-250.

Ahmed, N.A., and Miyatake, M. (2008) A novel maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic applications under partially shaded insolation conditions. Electric Power System Research, 78, 777-784.

Altas, I.H., & Sharaf, A.M. (1996) A novel on-line MPP search algorithm for PV arrays. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversions, 11 (4), 748-754.

Maximum Power Point Tracking Using Fuzzy Logic Controller under Partial Conditions

Scientific Research Publishing, Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, 2015.

Maximum Power Point  ABSTRACT: This study proposes a fuzzy system for tracking the maximum power point of a PV system for solar panel. The solar panel and maximum power point tracker have been modeled using MATLAB/Simulink. A simulation model consists of PV panel, boost converter, and maximum power point tack MPPT algorithm is developed. Three different conditions are simulated: 1) Uniform irradiation; 2) Sudden changing; 3) Partial shading. Results showed that fuzzy controller successfully find MPP for all different weather conditions studied. FLC has excellent ability to track MPP in less than 0.01 second when PV is subjected to sudden changes and partial shading in irradiation.


  • Fuzzy Logic Controller
  • Maximum Power Point
  • Photovoltaic System
  • Partial Shading




Figure 1. Schematic diagram of PV system with MPPT.



Figure 2. P-V characteristics at different irradiations.

Figure 3. P-V characteristics when partial shading from 1000 to 600 Watt/m2.

Figure 4. Output of fuzzy at1000 Watt/m2.

Figure 5. Output of fuzzy controller. (a) Full shading from 600 to 300 Watt/m2; (b) Full shading from 700 to 400 Watt/m2; (c) Full shading from 900 to 400 Watt/m2; (d) Increasing shading from 300 to 800 Watt/m2.

Figure 6. Comparison between fuzzy and P & O partial shading (partial shading 1000 to 800 Watt/m2).


 In this study, FLC has been developed to track the maximum power point of PV system. PV panel, boost converter with FLC connected to a resistive load has been simulated using Matlab/Simulink. Simulation results have been compared to nominal power values. The proposed system showed its ability to reach MMP under uniform irradiation, sudden changes of irradiation, and partial shading. Simulation results have shown that using FLC has great advantages over conventional methods. It is found that Fuzzy controller always finds the global MPP. It is found that fuzzy logic systems are easily implemented with minimal oscillations with fast convergence around the desired MP


 [1] Devabhaktuni, V., Alam, M., Reddy Depuru, S.S.S., Green II, R.C., Nims, D. and Near, C. (2013) Solar Energy: Trends and Enabling Technologies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 19, 555-556.

[2] Bataineh, K.M. and Dalalah, D. (2012) Optimal Configuration for Design of Stand-Alone PV System. Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, 3, 139-147.

[3] Bataineh, K. and Dalalah, D. (2013) Assessment of Wind Energy Potential for Selected Areas in Jordan. Journal of Renewable Energy, 59, 75-81.

[4] Bataineh, K.M. and Hamzeh, A. (2014) Efficient Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithm for PV Application under Rapid Changing Weather Condition. ISRN Renewable Energy, 2014, Article ID: 673840.

[5] International Energy Agency (2010) Trends in Photovoltaic Applications. Survey Report of Selected IEA Countries between 1992 and 2009. Photovoltaic_2010.pdf

Maximum Power Point

A Function Based Maximum Power Point Tracking Method for Photovoltaic Systems


In this paper a novel maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm based on introducing a complex function for photovoltaic systems is proposed. This function is used for determination of the duty cycle of the DC-DC converter in PV systems to track the maximum power point (MPP) in any environment and load condition. It has been suggested based on analyzing the expected behavior of converter controller. The function is formed by a two-dimensional Gaussian function and an Arctangent function. It has been shown that contrary to many algorithms which produce wrong duty-cycles in abrupt irradiance changes, the proposed algorithm is able to behave correctly in these situations. In order to evaluate the performance of method, various simulations and experimental tests have been carried out. The method has been compared with some major MPPT techniques with regard to start-up, steady state and dynamic performance. The results reveal that the proposed method can effectively improve the dynamic performance and steady state performance simultaneously.



  1. Gaussian-Arctangent Function Based MPPT
  2. Maximum Power Point Tracking
  3. Photovoltaic Systems
  4. Variable Perturbation Frequency



Fig. 1. Electrical scheme of the system under test.



Fig. 2. Output power of PV for battery load in startup test.





Fig. 3. The output power and duty cycle in step irradiance change for: (a) VSSINC, (b) LCASF method (c) Fuzzy method and (d) Proposed method.

Fig. 4. Response of algorithms to load change.





Fig. 5. Response of GAF-VPF algorithm to changes in (a) , (b) , (c) and (d) k.


In this paper a new MPPT algorithm named Gaussian-Arctangent Function-Based (GAF) method was proposed. The method is based on introducing a complex function formed by multiplying a two-dimensional Gaussian function with an Arctangent function. This function is used for generating an adaptive perturbation size. In addition, variable perturbation frequency has been utilized for computing the time of applying the next duty cycle. Simulation results and experimental measurements confirm the attractiveness and superiority of the proposed method with respect to some well-known MPPT methods such as variable step-size Incremental Conductance, load-current adaptive step-size and perturbation frequency (LCASF) and Fuzzy method. The algorithm behaves robustly in case of load variation and measurement noise. The other advantage of proposed method is its simplicity of design. It does not require exact tuning of so many parameters. The only system-dependent constants required for controller setup are open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current and standard condition. Although, the computational cost of proposed method is higher than methods like P&O and Incremental Conductance, it can be easily implemented in low cost micro-controllers. All in all, these features make it well-suited for tracking uncommonly fast irradiance variations like mobile solar applications.


[1] Moacyr Aureliano Gomes de Brito, Luigi Galotto, Jr., Leonardo Poltronieri Sampaio, Guilherme de Azevedo e Melo, and Carlos Alberto Canesin, „Evaluation of the Main MPPT Techniques for Photovoltaic Applications”, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 1156-1167, March 2013.

[2] C. Hua, J. Lin, and C. Shen, “Implementation of a DSP-controlled photovoltaic system with peak power tracking,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 99–107, Feb. 1998.

[3] A.R Reisi, M.H.Moradi, S.Jamasb, “Classification and comparison of maximum power point tracking techniques for photovoltaic system: A review”, Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 19, pp. 433-443, March 2013.

[4] Qiang Mei, Mingwei Shan, Liying Liu, and Josep M. Guerrero, “A Novel Improved Variable Step Size Incremental-Resistance MPPT Method for PV Systems”, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 2427-2434, June 2011.

[5] N. Femia, G. Petrone, G. Spagnuolo, and M. Vitelli, “Optimization of perturb and observe maximum power point tracking method,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 963–973, July 2005.


Residential Photovoltaic Energy Storage System



This paper introduces a residential photovoltaic (PV) energy storage system, in which the PV power is controlled by a dc–dc converter and transferred to a small battery energy storage system (BESS). For managing the power, a pattern of daily operation considering the load characteristic of the homeowner, the generation characteristic of the PV power, and the power leveling demand of the utility is prescribed. The system looks up the pattern to select the operation mode, so that powers from the PV array, the batteries, and the utility are utilized in a cost-effective manner. As for the control of the system, a novel control technique for the maximum power-point tracking (MPPT) of the PV array is proposed, in which the state-averaged model of the dc–dc converter, including the dynamic model of the PV array, is derived. Accordingly, a high-performance discrete MPPT controller that tracks the maximum power point with zero-slope regulation and current-mode control is presented. With proposed arrangements on the control of the BESS and the current-to-power scaling factor setting, the dc–dc converter is capable of combining with the BESS for performing the functions of power conditioning and active power filtering. An experimental 600-W system is implemented, and some simulation and experimental results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system.


  1. Active power filtering
  2. Battery energy storage system
  3. Maximum power-point tracking
  4. Power conditioning



Fig. 1. The power circuit of proposed PV energy storage system.



Fig. 2. Simulated results of MPPT control. (a) An increasing step change in Ip. (b) A decreasing step change in Ip.

Fig. 3. Measured waveforms of  , and    in MPPT control.

Fig. 4. System operations. (a) Measured waveforms when system is changed from mode 3 to mode 2, where subscripts o;L; and u are used to represent the BESS, the load, and the utility, respectively. (b) Measured real power waveforms in various operation modes.


This paper has proposed a residential PV energy storage system, where the PV power is controlled by a dc–dc converter and transferred to a small BESS. The proposed system, possessing the functions of power conditioner and active power filter, is capable of providing an optimal interface with the utility. The additional PV power makes the system flexible in power usage, so that all powers in the system can be utilized in a cost-effective manner. Some control techniques for realizing the functions of the proposed system, including the MPPT control of the PV array and control of power flows in the system, have been presented. A prototype 600-W system was implemented, and some simulated and experimental results were provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system. Although the setup cost of the proposed system is high, such that it is hard to compete with the current utility power, we believe that the capital issue will be resolved if there is a political encouragement in the kilowatt price and the market is large enough.


[1] G. J. Jones, “The design of photovoltaic systems for residential applications,” in Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., 1981, pp. 805–810.

[2] G. L. Campen, “An analysis of the harmonics and power factor effects at a utility intertied photovoltaic system,” IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-101, pp. 4632–4639, Dec. 1982.

[3] C. M. Liaw, T. H. Chen, S. J. Chiang, C. M. Lee, and C. T. Wang, “Small battery energy storage system,” Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng., vol. 140, pt. B, no. 1, pp. 7–17, 1993.

[4] S. J. Chiang, “Design and implementation of multi-functional battery energy storage systems,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dep. Elect. Eng., National Tsing Hua University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan, R.O.C., 1994.

[5] Z. Salameh and D. Taylor, “Step-up maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic arrays,” Sol. Energy Proc., vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 57–61, 1990.




This paper presents a new concept of module integrated converters called PV balancers for photovoltaic applications. The proposed concept enables independent maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for each module, and dramatically decreases the requirements for power converters. The power rating of a PV balancer is less than 20% of its counterparts, and the manufacturing cost is thus significantly reduced. In this paper, two architectures of PV balancers are proposed, analyzed, realized, and verified through simulation and experimental results. It is anticipated that the proposed approach will be a low-cost solution for future photovoltaic power systems.





Architecture I of PV balancers

(a) Architecture I of PV balancers

Architecture II of PV balancers

(b) Architecture II of PV balancers

Figure 1. Two possible architectures of PV balancers



Output voltages of PV balancers in Architecture I

Figure 2. Output voltages of PV balancers in Architecture I

Output voltages of PV balancers in Architecture II

Figure 3. Output voltages of PV balancers in Architecture II



A new concept of module-integrated converters called PV balancers has been proposed and verified in this paper. The proposed concept enables independent maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for each module, and dramatically decreases the requirements for power converters. PV balancers may have a significant economic value for photovoltaic systems in the future. Future work will be focused on power converter optimization, dc bus voltage control, and developing a highly efficient inverter for PV balancers.


  1. Kjaer, J. Pedersen and F. Blaabjerg, “A review of single-phase grid-connected inverters for photovoltaic modules,” IEEE Trans. Ind. App., vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1292-1306, Sept. 2005.
  2. Linares, R. Erickson, S. MacAlpine, and M. Brandemuehl, “Improved energy capture in series string photovoltaic via smart distributed power electronics,” APEC’09, pp. 904-905, 2009.
  3. “Power circuit design for solar magic sm3320,” Application Note AN-2124, National Semiconductor, 2011.
  4. Trubitsyn, B. Pierquet, A. Hayman, G. Gamache, C. Sullivan, and D. Perreault, “High-efficiency inverter for photovoltaic applications,” ECCE’10, pp. 2803-2810, Sept. 2010.
  5. Pierquet, and D. Perreault, “A single-phase photovoltaic inverter topology with a series-connected power buffer,” ECCE’10, pp. 2811- 2818, Sept. 2010.

Grid-Connected PV-Wind-Battery-Based multi input transformer coupled bidirectional dc-dc converter for household applications



 In this paper, a control strategy for power flow management of a grid-connected hybrid photovoltaic (PV)–wind battery- based system with an efficient multi-input transformer coupled bidirectional dc–dc converter is presented. The proposed system aims to satisfy the load demand, manage the power flow from different sources, inject the surplus power into the grid, and charge the battery from the grid as and when required. A transformer-coupled boost half-bridge converter is used to harness power from wind, while a bidirectional buck– boost converter is used to harness power from PV along with battery charging/discharging control. A single-phase full-bridge bidirectional converter is used for feeding ac loads and interaction with the grid. The proposed converter architecture has reduced number of power conversion stages with less component count and reduced losses compared with existing grid-connected hybrid systems. This improves the efficiency and the reliability of the system. Simulation results obtained using MATLAB/Simulink show the performance of the proposed control strategy for power flow management under various modes of operation. The effectiveness of the topology and the efficacy of the proposed control strategy are validated through detailed experimental studies to demonstrate the capability of the system operation in different modes.


  1. Battery charge control
  2. Bidirectional buck–boost converter
  3. Full-bridge bidirectional converter
  4. Hybrid system
  5. Maximum power-point tracking
  6. Solar photovoltaic (PV)
  7. Transformer-coupled boost dual-half-bridge bidirectional converter
  8. Wind energy




Fig. 1. Grid-connected hybrid PV–wind-battery-based system for household applications.



Fig 2. Proposed converter configuration.



Fig. 3. Steady-state operation in the MPPT mode.



Fig. 4. Response of the system for changes in an insolation level of source-1 (PV source) during operation in the MPPT mode.



Fig. 5. Response of the system for changes in wind speed level of source-2 (wind source) during operation in the MPPT mode.



Fig. 6. Response of the system in the absence of source-1 (PV source), while source-2 continues to operate at MPPT.



Fig. 7. Response of the system in the absence of source-2 (wind source), while source-1 continues to operate at MPPT.



Fig. 8. Response of the system in the absence of both the sources and charging the battery from the grid.


A grid-connected hybrid PV–wind-battery-based power evacuation scheme for household application is proposed. The proposed hybrid system provides an elegant integration of PV and wind source to extract maximum energy from the two sources. It is realized by a novel multi-input transformer coupled bidirectional dc–dc converter followed by a conventional full-bridge inverter. A versatile control strategy which achieves a better utilization of PV, wind power, battery capacities without effecting life of battery, and power flow management in a grid-connected hybrid PV–wind-battery-based system feeding ac loads is presented. Detailed simulation studies are carried out to ascertain the viability of the scheme. The experimental results obtained are in close agreement with simulations and are supportive in demonstrating the capability of the system to operate either in grid feeding or in stand-alone modes. The proposed configuration is capable of supplying uninterruptible power to ac loads, and ensures the evacuation of surplus PV and wind power into the grid.


[1] F. Valenciaga and P. F. Puleston, “Supervisor control for a stand-alone hybrid generation system using wind and photovoltaic energy,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 398–405, Jun. 2005.

[2] C. Liu, K. T. Chau, and X. Zhang, “An efficient wind–photovoltaic hybrid generation system using doubly excited permanent-magnet brushless machine,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 831–839, Mar. 2010.

[3] W. Qi, J. Liu, X. Chen, and P. D. Christofides, “Supervisory predictive control of standalone wind/solar energy generation systems,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 199–207, Jan. 2011.

[4] F. Giraud and Z. M. Salameh, “Steady-state performance of a grid connected rooftop hybrid wind-photovoltaic power system with battery storage,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 1–7, Mar. 2001.

[5] S.-K. Kim, J.-H. Jeon, C.-H. Cho, J.-B. Ahn, and S.-H. Kwon, “Dynamic modeling and control of a grid-connected hybrid generation system with versatile power transfer,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 1677–1688, Apr. 2008.