Automatic droop control for a low voltage DC Microgrid


A DC microgrid (DC-MG) provides an effective mean to integrate various sources, energy storage units and loads at a common dc-side. The droop-based, in the context of a decentralized control, has been widely used for the control of the DC-MG. However, the conventional droop control cannot achieve both accurate current sharing and desired voltage regulation. This study proposes a new adaptive control method for DC-MG applications which satisfies both accurate current sharing and acceptable voltage regulation depending on the loading condition. At light load conditions where the output currents of the DG units are well below the maximum limits, the accuracy of the current sharing process is not an issue. As the load increases, the output currents of the DG units increase and under heavy load conditions accurate current sharing is necessary. The proposed control method increases the equivalent droop gains as the load level increases and achieves accurate current sharing. This study evaluates the performance and stability of the proposed method based on a linearised model and verifies the results by digital time-domain simulation and hardware-based experiments.





Fig. 1 Simplified DC-MG with two DG units




Fig. 2 Output currents of the DG units obtained in Simulation Results

a Conventional droop control method with small droop gains

b Conventional droop control method with large droop gains

c Proposed method



Fig. 3 Output voltages of the DG units obtained in Simulation Results

a Conventional droop control method with small droop gains

b Conventional droop control method with large droop gains

c Proposed method



This paper presents a new control scheme for DC-MG without using any communication links. In the conventional droop control, small droop gains result in good voltage regulation but inaccurate current sharing, and large droop gains result in accurate current sharing but unacceptable voltage regulation. To overcome this drawback, a new control method is proposed in which the equivalent droop gains automatically change based on the loading condition. The simulation results show and the experimental results verify that by adaptively changing the droop gains according to the load size, both accurate current sharing and desirable voltage regulation are achieved.


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  • Vandoorn, T., De Kooning, J., Meersman, B., et al.: ‘Automatic power-sharing modification of p/v droop controllers in low-voltage resistive microgrids’, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv., 2012, 27, (4), pp. 2318–2325
  • Khorsandi, A., Ashourloo, M., Mokhtari, H.: ‘An adaptive droop control method for low voltage dc microgrids’. 2014 Fifth Power Electronics, Drive Systems and Technologies Conf. (PEDSTC), 2014, pp. 84–89
  • Loh, P.C., Li, D., Chai, Y.K., et al.: ‘Hybrid ac-dc microgrids with energy storages and progressive energy flow tuning’, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., 2013, 28, (4), pp. 1533–1543
  • Loh, P., Li, D., Chai, Y.K., et al.: ‘Autonomous operation of hybrid microgrid with ac and dc subgrids’, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., 2013, 28, (5), pp. 2214–2223

Electrical Engineering Projects

Electrical engineering

Electrical engineering is a field of engineering that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electro magnetism. This field first became an identifiable occupation in the later half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone, and electric power distribution and use. Subsequently, broad casting and recording media made electronics part of daily life. The invention of the transistor, and later the integrated circuit, brought down the cost of electronics to the point they can be used in almost any household object.

Electrical engineering has now subdivided into a wide range of sub fields including electronics, digital computers, power engineering, tele communications, control systems, radio-frequency engineering, signal processing, instrumentation, and microelectronics. Many of these sub disciplines overlap and also overlap with other engineering branches, spanning a huge number of specializations such as hardware engineering, power electronics, electro magnetics & waves, microwave engineering, nanotechnology, electro chemistry, renewable energies, mechatronics, electrical materials science, and many more.

Electrical engineers typically hold a degree in electrical engineering or electronic engineering. Practicing engineers may have professional certification and be members of a professional body. Such bodies include the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the Institution of Engineering and Technology (professional society) (IET).

Electrical engineers work in a very wide range of industries and the skills required are likewise variable. These range from basic circuit theory to the management skills required of a project manager. The tools and equipment that an individual engineer may need are similarly variable, ranging from a simple voltmeter to a top end analyzer to sophisticated design and manufacturing software.