Harmonics Reduction And Power Quality Improvement By Using DPFC

 

ABSTRACT:

The DPFC is derived from the unified power-flow controller (UPFC). The DPFC can be considered as a UPFC with an eliminated common dc link. The active power exchange between the shunt and series converters which is through the common dc link in the UPFC is now through the transmission lines at the third-harmonic frequency. The DPFC employs the distributed concept, in which the common dc-link between the shunt and series converters are eliminated and three-phase series converter is divided to several single-phase series distributed converters through the line. According to the growth of electricity demand and the increased number of non-linear loads in power grids harmonics, voltage sag and swell are the major power quality problems. DPFC is used to mitigate the voltage deviation and improve power quality. Simulations are carried out in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The presented simulation results validate the DPFC ability to improve the power quality.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Load flow control
  2. FACTS
  3. Power Quality
  4. Harmonics
  5. Sag and Swell Mitigation
  6. Distributed Power Flow Controller
  7. Y–Δ transformer

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. DPFC configuration

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

Fig 2. three phase voltage sag waveform without DPFC

 

Fig. 3 three phase voltage sag waveform with DPFC

 Fig.4 3-ϕ load current swell waveform without DPFC

Fig.5 Mitigation of 3-ϕ load current swell with DPFC

             

Fig.6 Total harmonic distortion of load voltage without DPFC

.Fig.7 Total harmonic distortion of load voltage with DPFC

 CONCLUSION:

This paper has presented a new concept called DPFC. The DPFC emerges from the UPFC and inherits the control capability of the UPFC, which is the simultaneous adjustment of the line impedance, the transmission angle, and the bus voltage magnitude. The common dc link between the shunt and series converters, which is used for exchanging active power in the UPFC, is eliminated. This power is now transmitted through the transmission line at the third-harmonic frequency. The series converter of the DPFC employs the DFACTS concept, which uses multiple small single-phase converters instead of one large-size converter. The reliability of the DPFC is greatly increased because of the redundancy of the series converters. The total cost of the DPFC is also much lower than the UPFC, because no high-voltage isolation is required at the series-converter part and the rating of the components of is low. To improve power quality in the power transmission system, the harmonics due to nonlinear loads, voltage sag and swell are mitigated. To simulate the dynamic performance, a three-phase fault is considered near the load. It is shown that the DPFC gives an acceptable performance in power quality improvement and power flow control.

 REFERENCES:

[1] S.Masoud Barakati Arash Khoshkbar sadigh and Mokhtarpour.Voltage Sag and Swell Compensation with DVR Based on Asymmetrical Cascade Multicell Converter North American Power Symposium (NAPS),pp.1-7,2011.

[2] Zhihui Yuan, Sjoerd W.H de Haan, Braham Frreira and Dalibor Cevoric “A FACTS Device: Distributed Power Flow Controller (DPFC)” IEEE Transaction on Power Electronics, vol.25, no.10, October 2010.

[3] Zhihui Yuan, Sjoerd W.H de Haan and Braham Frreira “DPFC control during shunt converter failure” IEEE Transaction on Power Electronics 2009.

[4] M. D. Deepak, E. B. William, S. S. Robert, K. Bill, W. G. Randal, T. B. Dale, R. I. Michael, and S. G. Ian, “A distributed static series compensator system for realizing active power flow control on existing power lines,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 642–649, Jan. 2007.

[5] D. Divan and H. Johal, “Distributed facts—A new concept for realizing grid power flow control,” in Proc. IEEE 36th Power Electron. Spec. Conf. (PESC), 2005, pp. 8–14.

Harmonics Reduction And Power Quality Improvement By Using DPFC

 

ABSTRACT:

The DPFC is derived from the unified power-flow controller (UPFC). The DPFC can be considered as a UPFC with an eliminated common dc link. The active power exchange between the shunt and series converters which is through the common dc link in the UPFC is now through the transmission lines at the third-harmonic frequency. The DPFC employs the distributed concept, in which the common dc-link between the shunt and series converters are eliminated and three-phase series converter is divided to several single-phase series distributed converters through the line. According to the growth of electricity demand and the increased number of non-linear loads in power grids harmonics, voltage sag and swell are the major power quality problems. DPFC is used to mitigate the voltage deviation and improve power quality. Simulations are carried out in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The presented simulation results validate the DPFC ability to improve the power quality.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Load flow control
  2. FACTS
  3. Power Quality
  4. Harmonics
  5. Sag and Swell Mitigation
  6. Distributed Power Flow Controller
  7. Y–Δ transformer

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. DPFC configuration

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

Fig 2. three phase voltage sag waveform without DPFC

 

Fig. 3 three phase voltage sag waveform with DPFC

Fig.4 3-ϕ load current swell waveform without DPFC

Fig.5 Mitigation of 3-ϕ load current swell with DPFC

             

Fig.6 Total harmonic distortion of load voltage without DPFC

Fig.7 Total harmonic distortion of load voltage with DPFC

 CONCLUSION:

This paper has presented a new concept called DPFC. The DPFC emerges from the UPFC and inherits the control capability of the UPFC, which is the simultaneous adjustment of the line impedance, the transmission angle, and the bus voltage magnitude. The common dc link between the shunt and series converters, which is used for exchanging active power in the UPFC, is eliminated. This power is now transmitted through the transmission line at the third-harmonic frequency. The series converter of the DPFC employs the DFACTS concept, which uses multiple small single-phase converters instead of one large-size converter. The reliability of the DPFC is greatly increased because of the redundancy of the series converters. The total cost of the DPFC is also much lower than the UPFC, because no high-voltage isolation is required at the series-converter part and the rating of the components of is low. To improve power quality in the power transmission system, the harmonics due to nonlinear loads, voltage sag and swell are mitigated. To simulate the dynamic performance, a three-phase fault is considered near the load. It is shown that the DPFC gives an acceptable performance in power quality improvement and power flow control.

 

REFERENCES:

[1] S.Masoud Barakati Arash Khoshkbar sadigh and Mokhtarpour.Voltage Sag and Swell Compensation with DVR Based on Asymmetrical Cascade Multicell Converter North American Power Symposium (NAPS),pp.1-7,2011.

[2] Zhihui Yuan, Sjoerd W.H de Haan, Braham Frreira and Dalibor Cevoric “A FACTS Device: Distributed Power Flow Controller (DPFC)” IEEE Transaction on Power Electronics, vol.25, no.10, October 2010.

[3] Zhihui Yuan, Sjoerd W.H de Haan and Braham Frreira “DPFC control during shunt converter failure” IEEE Transaction on Power Electronics 2009.

[4] M. D. Deepak, E. B. William, S. S. Robert, K. Bill, W. G. Randal, T. B. Dale, R. I. Michael, and S. G. Ian, “A distributed static series compensator system for realizing active power flow control on existing power lines,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 642–649, Jan. 2007.

[5] D. Divan and H. Johal, “Distributed facts—A new concept for realizing grid power flow control,” in Proc. IEEE 36th Power Electron. Spec. Conf. (PESC), 2005, pp. 8–14.

Power Quality Improvement In Transmission Systems Using DPFC

 

ABSTRACT

The flexible ac-transmission system (FACTS) family called distributed power flow controller (DPFC). The DPFC is derived from the unified power flow controller (UPFC) with eliminated common dc link. The active power exchange between the shunt and series converters, which is through the common dc link in the UPFC, is now through the transmission lines at the third harmonic frequency. The DPFC is to use multiple small size single phase converters instead of large size three phase series converter in the UPFC. The large number of series converters provides redundancy, thereby increasing the system reliability. As the D-FACTS converters are single phase and floating with respect to the ground, there is no high voltage isolation required between the phases. The cost of the DPFC system is lower than the UPFC. The DPFC has the same control capability as the UPFC, which comprises the adjustment of the line impedance, the transmission angle, and the bus voltage. Due to the high control capability DPFC can also be used to improve the power quality and system stability, such as low frequency power oscillation damping, voltage sag restoration or balancing asymmetry.

KEYWORDS

  1. AC–DC power conversion
  2. Load flow control
  3. Power electronics
  4. Power semiconductor devices
  5. Power system control
  6. Power-transmission control

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Figure 1.DPFC configuration

 EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS

Figure 2.Supply voltage during sag condition

Figure 3. Injected voltage during sag condition

Figure 4. Elimination of sag voltage

Figure 5. Supply voltage during swell

Figure 6. Injected voltage for swell

Figure 7. Elimination of swell voltage

CONCLUSION

The series converter of the DPFC employs the DFACTS concept, which uses multiple small single-phase converters instead of one large-size converter. It is proved that the shunt and series converters in the DPFC can exchange active power at the third-harmonic frequency, and the series converters are able to inject controllable active and reactive power at the fundamental frequency. The DPFC is also used to improving power quality problems such as sag and swell. The reliability of the DPFC is greatly increased because of the redundancy of the series converters. The total cost of the DPFC is also much lower than the UPFC, because no high-voltage isolation is required at the series converter part and the rating of the components of is low.

REFERENCES

[1] D. Divan and H. Johal, “Distributed facts-A new concept for realizing grid power flow control,” in IEEE 36th Power Electron. Spec. Conf. (PESC), 2005, pp. 8–14.

[2] K K. Sen, “Sssc-static synchronous series compensator: Theory, modeling, and application”,IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 13, no. 1, pp 241–246, Jan. 1998.

[3] L.Gyugyi, C.D. Schauder, S. L.Williams, T. R. Rietman, D. R. Torgerson, and A. Edris, “The unified power flow controller: A new approach to power transmission control”, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 1085– 1097, Apr. 1995.

[4] M. D. Deepak, E. B. William, S. S. Robert, K. Bill, W. G. Randal, T. B. Dale, R. I. Michael, and S. G. Ian, “A distributed static series compensator system for realizing active power flow control on existing power lines”, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 642–649, Jan.2007.

[5] M. Mohaddes, A. M. Gole, and S. Elez, “Steady state frequency response of statcom”, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 18–23, Jan. 2001.

Modeling and Control of Flywheel Energy Storage system for Uninterruptible Power Supply

 

ABSTRACT

Flywheel Energy Storage has attracted new research attention recently in applications like power quality, regenerative braking and uninterruptible power supply (UPS). As a sustainable energy storage method, Flywheel Energy Storage has become a direct substitute for batteries in UPS applications. Inner design of the flywheel unit is shown to illustrate the economical way to construct the system. A comprehensive model of Flywheel energy storage system (FESS) that bridges the gap caused by power outage for critical loads in commercial and industrial areas is presented. The basic circuit consists of bidirectional power converter and flywheel unit coupled with interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM). Maximum torque per ampere (MTPA) and flux weakening are used in the control scheme on IPMSM. Detailed block diagrams of the control scheme are given. The FESS for UPS application is modeled, simulated, and analyzed in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.

 

KEYWORDS:

  1. Control systems
  2. DC-AC power conversion
  3. Energy storage
  4. Flywheels
  5. Load flow control
  6. Pulse width modulated power converters
  7. Permanent magnet motors

 

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. Basic circuit diagram of the FESS in UPS.

 

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Flywheel speed in charging mode.

Fig. 2. Flywheel speed in charging mode.

Electromagnetic torque of IPMSM

Fig. 3. Electromagnetic torque of IPMSM.

Power grid voltage sag and outage

Fig. 4. Power grid voltage sag and outage

Power failure detection signal.

Fig. 5. Power failure detection signal.

Flywheel speed in discharging mode.

Fig. 6. Flywheel speed in discharging mode.

 DC bus voltage

Fig. 7. DC bus voltage

3-phase voltage of critical load (phase to ground) without FESS.

Fig. 8. 3-phase voltage of critical load (phase to ground) without FESS.

3-phase voltage of critical load (phase to ground) with FESS

Fig. 9. 3-phase voltage of critical load (phase to ground) with FESS

 

CONCLUSION

This paper presents a modeling and control method of FESS in UPS system. A cost effective and reliable flywheel design is brought forward to prove the possible mass utilization of FESS in industrial applications. The control algorithm of FESS is described with detailed block diagram, including the torque control of IPMSM that driving the flywheel, voltage sags and outage detection and DC bus regulation. Simulation results are presented to validate the control strategy. Future tasks will include control strategy on mitigating unbalanced voltage sags, parameter variation of IPMSM and experiment verification of the control methods.

 

 REFERENCES

  • BROWN Daryl and D. CHVALA William, “Flywheel Energy Storage An alternative to batteries for uninterruptible power supply systems,” Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, ETATS-UNIS, Richland, Washington, US, 2004.
  • Ralph H Jansen. Timothy P Dever, “G2 Flywheel Module Design,” University of Toledo 2801 W. Bancroft St. Toledo, Ohio, US, Tech Rep. NASA/CR-2006-213862, 2006.
  • Active Power Corp. (2008), “Quantitative Reliability Assessment of Ball Bearings versus Active Magnetic Bearings for Flywheel Energy Storage Systems,” [Online] Available: http://www.activepower.com/fileadmin/documents/white_papers/WP_111_Bearing_Assessment.pdf.
  • Morimoto, M. Sanada, and Y. Takeda, “Wide-speed operation of interior permanent magnet synchronous motors with high-performance current regulator,” Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 30, pp. 920-926, 1994.
  • Barbara H Kenny and Peter E Kascak, “DC Bus Regulation with a Flywheel Energy Storage System,” NASA, John H. Glenn Research Center, Lewis Field Cleveland, Ohio, US, Tech Rep. NASA TM-2002-211897-REV102PSC–61, 2003.