Improving the Performance of Cascaded H-bridge based Interline Dynamic Voltage Restorer

ABSTRACT:

An interline dynamic voltage restorer (IDVR) is another gadget for list relief which is made of a few unique voltage restorers (DVRs) with a typical DC interface, where each DVR is associated in arrangement with a circulation feeder. Amid droop period, dynamic power can be exchanged from a feeder to another and voltage hangs with long terms can be moderated. IDVR pay limit, be that as it may, depends incredibly on the heap control factor and a higher load control factor causes bring down execution of IDVR. To beat this confinement, another thought is displayed in this paper which permits to lessen the heap control factor under hang condition, and hence, the pay limit is expanded. The proposed IDVR utilizes two fell H-connect staggered converters to infuse AC voltage with lower THD and takes out need to low-recurrence disengagement transformers in a single side. The legitimacy of the proposed setup is checked by reproductions in the PSCAD/EMTDC condition. At that point, test results on a downsized IDVR are exhibited to affirm the hypothetical and reproduction results.

  

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1 Power circuit schematic of the IDVR with active power exchanging capability.

Fig.2 Proposed IDVR structure.

  

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Fig 3. Investigating the IDVR performance when the proposed method is applied for a sag with depth of 0.4p.u.

Fig 4. Investigating the IDVR performance when the proposed method is applied for a sag with depth of 0.6p.u.

 

CONCLUSION:

In this paper, another setup has been proposed which not just enhances the remuneration limit of the IDVR at high power factors, yet in addition builds the execution of the compensator to relieve profound droops at genuinely moderate power factors. These points of interest were accomplished by diminishing the heap control factor amid list condition. In this strategy, the source voltages are detected consistently and when the voltage list is recognized, the shunt reactances are exchanged into the circuit and decline the heap control variables to enhance IDVR execution. At last, the recreation and functional outcomes on the CHB based IDVR affirmed the adequacy of the proposed arrangement and control conspire.

 

Evaluation of DVR Capability Enhancement -Zero Active Power Tracking Technique

IEEE, 2016

ABSTRACT:

This paper presents a utilization technique for enhancing the capabilities of dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs). This study aims to enhance the abilities of DVRs to maintain acceptable voltages and last longer during compensation. Both the magnitude and phase displacement angle of the synthesized DVR voltage are precisely adjusted to achieve lower power utilization. The real and reactive powers are calculated in real time in the tracking loop to achieve better conditions. This technique results in less energy being taken out of the DC-link capacitor, resulting in smaller size requirements. The results from both the simulation and experimental tests illustrate that the proposed technique clearly achieved superior performance. The DVR’s active action period was considerably longer, with nearly 5 times the energy left in the DC-link capacitor for further compensation compared to the traditional technique. This technical merit demonstrates that DVRs could cover a wider range of voltage sags; the practicality of this idea for better utilization is better than that of existing installed DVRs.

 

KEYWORDS:

  1. DVR capability
  2. Energy optimized
  3. Energy source
  4. Series compensator
  5. Voltage stability

 

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

 

Fig 1: Single-line diagram of a power system with the DVR connected at PCC.

 

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Fig.2. D-axis voltages at the system (VSd), DVR (VDVRd), and load (VLd). during in-phase compensation (simulation).

Fig. 3. Q-axis voltages at the system (VSq), DVR (VDVRq), and load (VLq) during in-phase compensation (simulation).

Fig. 4. The overall three-phase voltage signals during in-phase compensation (simulation).

Fig.5 Real power at source (PS), the DVR (PDVR) and load (PL) during in- phase compensation (simulation).

Fig. 6 The DVR DC-side voltage (VDC) during in-phase compensation (simulation).

.

Fig. 7. D-axis voltages at the system(VSd), DVR (VDVRd), and load (VLd) during zero-real power tracking compensation (simulation).

Fig. 8.. Q-axis voltages at the system (VSq), DVR (VDVRq), and load (VLq) during zero-real power tracking compensation (simulation).

Fig. 9. The overall three-phase voltage signals during zero-real power tracking compensation (simulation).

Fig. 10. Real power at source (PS), the DVR (PDVR) and load (PL) zero-real power tracking compensation (simulation).

 

CONCLUSION:

It is clear from both the simulation and experimental results illustrated in this paper that the proposed zero-real power tracking technique applied to DVR-based compensation can result in superior performance compared to the traditional in-phase technique. The experimental test results match those proposed using simulation, although some discrepancies due to the imperfect nature of the test circuit components were seen.

With the traditional in-phase technique, the compensation was performed and depended on the real power injected to the system. Then, more of the energy stored in the DC-link capacitor was utilized quickly, reaching its limitation within a shorter period. The compensation was eventually forced to stop before the entire voltage sag period was finished. When the compensation was conducted using the proposed technique, less energy was used for the converter basic switching process.

The clear advantage in terms of the voltage level at the DC-link capacitor indicates that with the proposed technique, more energy remains in the DVR (67% to 14% in the traditional in-phase technique), which guarantees the correct compensating voltage will be provided for longer periods of compensation. With this technique, none (or less) of the real power will be transferred to the system, which provides more for the DVR to cover a wider range of voltage sags, adding more flexible adaptive control to the solution of sag voltage disturbances.

 

REFERENCES:

  • Bollen, Understanding Power Quality Problems, Voltage Sags and Interruptions. New York: IEEE Press, 1999.
  • Roldán-Pérez, A. García-Cerrada, J. L. Zamora-Macho, P. Roncero-Sánchez, and E. Acha, “Troubleshooting a digital repetitive controller for a versatile dynamic voltage restorer,” Int. J. Elect. Power Energy Syst., vol. 57, pp. 105–115, May 2014.
  • Kanjiya, B. Singh, A. Chandra, and K. Al-Haddad, “SRF theory revisited to control self-supported dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) for unbalanced and nonlinear loads,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 2330–2340, Sep. 2013.
  • Naidu, and D. Fernandes, “Dynamic voltage restorer based on a four-leg voltage source converter,” IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 437–447, May 2009.
  • Jimichi, H. Fujita, and H. Akagi, “A dynamic voltage restorer equipped with a high-frequency isolated dc-dc converter,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 169–175, Jan. 2011.

 

An Enhanced Voltage Sag Compensation Scheme for Dynamic Voltage Restorer

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 2013

ABSTRACT

This paper deals with improving the voltage quality of sensitive loads from voltage sags using dynamic voltage restorer (DVR). The higher active power requirement associated with voltage phase jump compensation has caused a substantial rise in size and cost of dc link energy storage system of DVR. The existing control strategies either mitigate the phase jump or improve the utilization of dc link energy by (i) reducing the amplitude of injected voltage, or (ii) optimizing the dc bus energy support. In this paper, an enhanced sag compensation strategy is proposed that mitigates the phase jump in the load voltage while improving the overall sag compensation time. An analytical study shows that the proposed method significantly increases the DVR sag support time (more than 50%) compared with the existing phase jump compensation methods. This enhancement can also be seen as a considerable reduction in dc link capacitor size for new installation. The performance of proposed method is evaluated using simulation study.

 

KEYWORDS:

  1. Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR)
  2. Voltage source inverter (VSI)
  3. Voltage sag compensation
  4. Voltage phase jump compensation.

 

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

  

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. Basic DVR based system configuration

 

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Fig. 2. Simulation results for the proposed sag compensation method for 50% sag depth. (a) PCC voltage, (b) load voltage, (c) DVR voltage, (d) DVR active and reactive power, and (e) dc link voltage.

Fig. 3. Simulation results for the proposed sag compensation method for 23% sag depth. (a) PCC voltage, (b) load voltage, (c) DVR voltage, (d) DVR active and reactive power, and (e) dc link voltage.

 

CONCLUSION

In this paper an enhanced sag compensation scheme is proposed for capacitor supported DVR. The proposed strategy improves the voltage quality of sensitive loads by protecting them against the grid voltage sags involving the phase jump. It also increases compensation time by operating in minimum active power mode through a controlled transition once the phase jump is compensated. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method an analytical comparison is carried out with the existing phase jump compensation schemes. It is shown that compensation time can be extended from 10 to 25 cycles (considering pre sag injection as the reference method) for the designed limit of 50% sag depth with 450 phase jump. Further extension in compensation time can be achieved for intermediate sag depths. This extended compensation time can be seen as considerable reduction in dc link capacitor size (for the studied case more than 50%) for the new installation. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated through extensive simulations in MATLAB/Simulink and validated on a scaled lab prototype experimentally. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed phase jump compensation method for practical applications.

 

REFERENCES

  • A. Martinez and J.M. Arnedo, “Voltage sag studies in distribution networks- part I: System modeling,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 21,no. 3, pp. 338–345, Jul. 2006.
  • G. Nielsen, F. Blaabjerg and N. Mohan, “Control strategies for dynamic voltage restorer, compensating voltage sags with phase jump,” in Proc. IEEE APEC, 2001, pp. 1267–1273.
  • D. Li, S.S. Choi, and D.M. Vilathgamuwa, “Impact of voltage phase jump on loads and its mitigation,” in Proc. 4th Int. Power Electron. Motion Control Conf., Xian, China, Aug. 14–16, 2004, vol. 3, pp. 1762– 176.
  • Sullivan, T. Vardell, and M. Johnson, “Power interruption costs to industrial and commercial consumers of electricity, IEEE Trans. Ind App., vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1448–1458, Nov. 1997.
  • Kaniewski, Z. Fedyczak and G. Benysek “AC Voltage Sag/Swell Compensator Based on Three-Phase Hybrid Transformer With Buck- Boost Matrix-Reactance Chopper”, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol.61, issue. 8, Aug 2014.

 

An Interline Dynamic Voltage Restoring and Displacement Factor Controlling Device (IVDFC)

IEEE, 2013

ABSTRACT: An interline dynamic voltage restorer (IDVR) is invariably employed in distribution systems to mitigate voltage sag/swell problems. An IDVR merely consists of several dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs) sharing a common dc link connecting independent feeders to secure electric power to critical loads. While one of the DVRs compensates for the local voltage sag in its feeder, the other DVRs replenish the common dc-link voltage. For normal voltage levels, the DVRs should be bypassed. Instead of bypassing the DVRs in normal conditions, this paper proposes operating the DVRs, if needed, to improve the displacement factor (DF) of one of the involved feeders. DF improvement can be achieved via active and reactive power exchange (PQ sharing) between different feeders. To successfully apply this concept, several constraints are addressed throughout the paper. Simulation and experimental results elucidate and substantiate the proposed concept.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Displacement factor improvement
  2. Interline dynamic voltage restorer (IDVR)
  3. Interline dynamic voltage restoring and displacement factor controlling (IVDFC)
  4. PQ sharing mode

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

 Fig. 1. Principle of IVDFC system operation during normal conditions (PQ sharing mode).

 EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

Fig. 2. Per-phase PQ sharing mode simulation results: (a)–(c) for first case and (d)–(f) for the second case.

Fig. 3. Per-phase simulation results for voltage sag condition at: (a) feeder 1 and (b) feeder 2.

Fig. 4. Per-phase experimental and corresponding simulation results for DF improvement case: (a) and (b) receiving feeder; (c) and (d) sourcing feeder (time/div= 10 ms/div).

Fig. 5 Per-phase experimental results and corresponding simulation results for voltage sag case: (a) and (b) at feeder 1 and (c) and (d) at feeder 2 (time/div = 10 ms/div).

Fig. 6 Per-phase experimental results and corresponding simulation results for voltage swell case at: (a) and (b) feeder 1 and (c) and (d) at feeder 2 (time/div = 10 ms/div).

 CONCLUSION

This paper proposes a new operational mode for the IDVR to improve the DF of different feeders under normal operation. In this mode, theDFof one of the feeders is improved via active and reactive power exchange (PQ sharing) between feeders through the common dc link.

The same system can also be used under abnormal conditions for voltage sag/swell mitigation. The main conclusions of this work can be summarized as follows:

1) Under PQ sharing mode, the injected voltage in any feeder does not affect its load voltage/current magnitude, however, it affects the DFs of both sourcing and receiving feeders. The DF of the sourcing feeder increases while the DF of the receiving feeder decreases.

2) When applying the proposed concept, some constraints should be satisfied to maintain the DF of both sourcing and receiving feeders within acceptable limits imposed by the utility companies. These operational constraints have been identified and considered.

3) The proposed mode is highly beneficial if the active power rating of the receiving feeder is higher than the sourcing feeder. In this case, the DF of the sourcing feeder will have a notable improvement with only a slight variation in DF of the receiving feeder.

The proposed concept has been supported with simulation and experimental results.

REFERENCES:

[1] S. A. Qureshi and N. Aslam, “Efficient power factor improvement technique and energy conservation of power system,” Int. Conf. Energy Manage. Power Del., vol. 2, pp. 749–752, Nov. 21–23, 1995.

[2] J. J. Grainger and S. H. Lee, “Optimum size and location of shunt capacitors for reduction of losses on distribution feeders,” IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-100, no. 3, pp. 1105–1118, Mar. 1981.

[3] S. M. Kannan, P. Renuga, and A. R. Grace, “Application of fuzzy logic and particle swarm optimization for reactive power compensation of radial distribution systems,” J. Electr. Syst., 6-3, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 407–425, 2010.

[4] L. Ramesh, S. P. Chowdhury, S. Chowdhury, A. A. Natarajan, and C. T. Gaunt, “Minimization of power loss in distribution networks by different techniques,” Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst. Eng., vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 521–527, 2009.

[5] T. P.Wagner, A. Y. Chikhani, and R. Hackam, “Feeder reconfiguration for loss reduction: An application of distribution automation,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1922–1933, Oct. 1991.

An Interline Dynamic Voltage Restoring and Displacement Factor Controlling Device (IVDFC)

 

 ABSTRACT:

 An interline dynamic voltage restorer (IDVR) is invariably employed in distribution systems to mitigate voltage sag/swell problems. An IDVR merely consists of several dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs) sharing a common dc link connecting independent feeders to secure electric power to critical loads. While one of the DVRs compensates for the local voltage sag in its feeder, the other DVRs replenish the common dc-link voltage. For normal voltage levels, the DVRs should be bypassed. Instead of bypassing the DVRs in normal conditions, this paper proposes operating the DVRs, if needed, to improve the displacement factor (DF) of one of the involved feeders. DF improvement can be achieved via active and reactive power exchange (PQ sharing) between different feeders. To successfully apply this concept, several constraints are addressed throughout the paper. Simulation and experimental results elucidate and substantiate the proposed concept.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Displacement factor improvement
  2. Interline dynamic voltage restorer (IDVR)
  3. Interline dynamic voltage restoring and displacement factor controlling (IVDFC)
  4. PQ sharing mode

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

 

Fig. 1. Single line diagram of an IPFC in transmission system.

 EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

Fig. 2. Per-phase PQ sharing mode simulation results: (a)–(c) for first case and (d)–(f) for the second case.

Fig. 3. Per-phase simulation results for voltage sag condition at: (a) feeder 1 and (b) feeder 2.

Fig. 4. Per-phase experimental and corresponding simulation results for DF improvement case: (a) and (b) receiving feeder; (c) and (d) sourcing feeder (time/div= 10 ms/div).

Fig. 5 Per-phase experimental results and corresponding simulation results for voltage sag case: (a) and (b) at feeder 1 and (c) and (d) at feeder 2 (time/div = 10 ms/div).

Fig. 6 Per-phase experimental results and corresponding simulation results for voltage swell case at: (a) and (b) feeder 1 and (c) and (d) at feeder 2 (time/div = 10 ms/div).

 CONCLUSION

This paper proposes a new operational mode for the IDVR to improve the DF of different feeders under normal operation. In this mode, theDFof one of the feeders is improved via active and reactive power exchange (PQ sharing) between feeders through the common dc link.

The same system can also be used under abnormal conditions for voltage sag/swell mitigation. The main conclusions of this work can be summarized as follows:

1) Under PQ sharing mode, the injected voltage in any feeder does not affect its load voltage/current magnitude, however, it affects the DFs of both sourcing and receiving feeders. The DF of the sourcing feeder increases while the DF of the receiving feeder decreases.

2) When applying the proposed concept, some constraints should be satisfied to maintain the DF of both sourcing and receiving feeders within acceptable limits imposed by the utility companies. These operational constraints have been identified and considered.

3) The proposed mode is highly beneficial if the active power rating of the receiving feeder is higher than the sourcing feeder. In this case, the DF of the sourcing feeder will have a notable improvement with only a slight variation in DF of the receiving feeder.

The proposed concept has been supported with simulation and experimental results.

REFERENCES:

[1] S. A. Qureshi and N. Aslam, “Efficient power factor improvement technique and energy conservation of power system,” Int. Conf. Energy Manage. Power Del., vol. 2, pp. 749–752, Nov. 21–23, 1995.

[2] J. J. Grainger and S. H. Lee, “Optimum size and location of shunt capacitors for reduction of losses on distribution feeders,” IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-100, no. 3, pp. 1105–1118, Mar. 1981.

[3] S. M. Kannan, P. Renuga, and A. R. Grace, “Application of fuzzy logic and particle swarm optimization for reactive power compensation of radial distribution systems,” J. Electr. Syst., 6-3, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 407–425, 2010.

[4] L. Ramesh, S. P. Chowdhury, S. Chowdhury, A. A. Natarajan, and C. T. Gaunt, “Minimization of power loss in distribution networks by different techniques,” Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst. Eng., vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 521–527, 2009.

[5] T. P.Wagner, A. Y. Chikhani, and R. Hackam, “Feeder reconfiguration for loss reduction: An application of distribution automation,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1922–1933, Oct. 1991.