A Novel Three-Phase Three-Leg AC/AC Converter Using Nine IGBTs

ABSTRACT:

This paper proposes a novel three-phase nine-switch ac/ac converter topology. This converter features sinusoidal inputs and outputs, unity input power factor, and more importantly, low manufacturing cost due to its reduced number of active switches. The operating principle of the converter is elaborated; its modulation schemes are discussed. Simulated semiconductor loss analysis and comparison with the back-to-back two-level voltage source converter are presented. Finally, experimental results from a 5-kVA prototype system are provided to verify the validity of the proposed topology.

 

KEYWORDS:

  1. AC/AC converter
  2. pulse width modulation (PWM)
  3. reduced switch count topology

 

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:Fig: 1 B2B 2L-VSC.

Fig: 2 Proposed nine switch ac to ac converter with a quasi dc link

 

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

  

Fig. 3. Measured rectifier and inverter waveforms (CF-mode operation). (a) Input and output voltages. (b) Voltage spectrum. (c) Input and output currents.

Fig. 4. Measured waveforms and spectrum (VF mode operation). (a) Input and output voltages. (b) Spectrum.

Fig. 5. Measured waveforms when the inverter output frequency has a step increase from 30 to 120 Hz, while the rectifier input frequency remains at 60 Hz. (a) Input and output voltages. (b) Input and output currents.

 

CONCLUSION:

A novel nine-switch PWMac/ac converter topology was proposed in this paper. The topology uses only nine IGBT devices for ac to ac conversion through a quasi dc-link circuit. Compared with the conventional back-to-back PWM VSC using 12 switches and the matrix converter that uses 18, the number of switches in the proposed converter is reduced by 33% and 50%, respectively. The proposed converter features sinusoidal inputs and outputs, unity input power factor, and low manufacturing cost. The operating principle of the converter was elaborated, and modulation schemes for constant and VF operations were developed. Simulation results including a semiconductor loss analysis and comparison were provided, which reveal that the proposed converter, while working in CF mode, has an overall higher efficiency than the B2B 2L-VSC at the expense of uneven loss distribution. However, the VF-mode version requires IGBT devices with higher ratings and dissipates significantly higher losses, and thus, is not as attractive as its counterpart. Experimental verification is carried out on a 5-kVA prototype system.

 

REFERENCES:

 Wu, High-power Converters and AC Drives. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE/Wiley, 2006.

  • Singh, B. N. Singh, A. Chandra, K. Al-Haddad, A. Pandey, and D. P. Kothari, “A review of three-phase improved power quality AC– DC converters,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 641–660, Jun. 2004.
  • Blaabjerg, S. Freysson, H. H. Hansen, and S. Hansen, “A new optimized space-vector modulation strategy for a component-minimized Voltage source inverter,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 704–714, Jul. 1997.
  • L. A. Ribeiro, C. B. Jacobina, E. R. C. da Silva, and A. M. N. Lima, “AC/AC converter with four switch three phase structures,” in Proc. IEEE PESC, 1996, vol. 1, pp. 134–139.

Matrix Converters: A Technology Review

ABSTRACT

The matrix converter is an array of controlled semiconductor switches that connects directly the three-phase source to the three-phase load. This converter has several attractive features that have been investigated in the last two decades. In the last few years, an increase in research work has been observed, bringing this topology closer to the industrial application. This paper presents the state-of-the-art view in the development of this converter, starting with a brief historical review. An important part of the paper is dedicated to a discussion of the most important modulation and control strategies developed recently. Special attention is given to present modern methods developed to solve the commutation problem. Some new arrays of power bidirectional switches integrated in a single module are also presented. Finally, this paper includes some practical issues related to the practical application of this technology, like overvoltage protection, use of filters, and ride-through capability.

KEYWORDS

  1. AC–AC power conversion
  2. Converters
  3. Matrix

 

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

 matrix converter

Fig. 1. Simplified circuit of a 3 x 3 matrix converter

 

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Phase output voltage

Fig. 2. Typical waveforms. (a) Phase output voltage. (b) Load current.

maximum voltage ratio

Fig. 3. Illustrating maximum voltage ratio of 50%.

voltage ratio improvement
Fig. 4. Illustrating voltage ratio improvement to 87%.

Line-to-line voltage and current

Fig. 5. Line-to-line voltage and current in the load with the indirect method. Output frequency of 50 Hz.

CONCLUSION:

 After two decades of research effort, several modulation and control methods have been developed for the matrix converter, allowing the generation of sinusoidal input and output currents, operating with unity power factor using standard processors. The most important practical implementation problem in the matrix converter circuit, the commutation problem between two controlled bidirectional switches, has been solved with the development of highly intelligent multistep commutation strategies. The solution to this problem has been made possible by using powerful digital devices that are now readily available in the market.

 

REFERENCES:

 Gyugi and B. Pelly, Static Power Frequency Changers: Theory, Performance and Applications. New York: Wiley, 1976.

  • Brandt, “Der Netztaktumrichter,” Bull. ASE, vol. 62, no. 15, pp. 714–727, July 1971.
  • Popov, “Der Direktumrichter mit zyklischer Steuerung,” Elektrie, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 372– 376, 1975.
  • Stacey, “An unrestricted frequency changer employing force commutated thyristors,” in Proc. IEEE PESC’76, 1976, pp. 165–173.
  • Jones and B. Bose, “A frequency step-up cycloconverter using power transistors in inverse-series mode,” Int. J. Electron., vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 573–587, 1976.
  • MATRIX Converter

Control for Grid-Connected and Intentional Islanding Operations of Distributed Power Generation

ABSTRACT:

Intentional islanding describes the condition in which a microgrid or a portion of the power grid, which consists of a load and a distributed generation (DG) system, is isolated from the remainder of the utility system. In this situation, it is important for the microgrid to continue to provide adequate power to the load. Under normal operation, each DG inverter system in the microgrid usually works in constant current control mode in order to provide a preset power to the main grid. When the microgrid is cut off from the main grid, each DG inverter system must detect this islanding situation and must switch to a voltage control mode. In this mode, the microgrid will provide a constant voltage to the local load. This paper describes a control strategy that is used to implement grid-connected and intentional-islanding operations of distributed power generation. This paper proposes an intelligent load-shedding algorithm for intentional islanding and an algorithm of synchronization for grid reconnection.

 

KEYWORDS:

  1. Distributed generation (DG)
  2. Grid-connected operation
  3. Intentional-islanding operation
  4. Islanding detection
  5. Load shedding
  6. Synchronization

 

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

 

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

grid connected  

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the grid connected inverter system.

 

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

grid-connected to intentional-islanding operation.

Fig. 2. From grid-connected to intentional-islanding operation.

Synchronization for grid reconnection.
Fig. 3. Synchronization for grid reconnection.

Phase voltage (top) without and (bottom) with the synchronization algorithm.

Fig. 4. Phase voltage (top) without and (bottom) with the synchronization algorithm.


Fig. 5. Phase voltage
Va without the load-shedding algorithm.

Phase voltage Va with the load-shedding algorithm

Fig. 6.Phase voltage Va with the load-shedding algorithm.

CONCLUSION:

 Through this paper, the control, islanding detection, load shedding, and reclosure algorithms have been proposed for the operation of grid-connected and intentional-islanding DGs. A controller was designed with two interface controls: one for grid connected operation and the other for intentional islanding operation. An islanding-detection algorithm, which was responsible for the switch between the two controllers, was presented. The simulation results showed that the detection algorithm can distinguish between islanding events and changes in the loads and can apply the load-shedding algorithms when needed. The reclosure algorithm causes the DG to resynchronize itself with the grid. In addition, it is shown that the response of the proposed control schemes is capable of maintaining the voltages and currents within permissible levels during grid connected and islanding operation modes. The experimental results showed that the proposed control schemes are capable of maintaining the voltages within the standard permissible levels during grid connected and islanding operation modes. In addition, it was shown that the reclosure algorithm causes the DG to resynchronize itself with the grid.

 

REFERENCES:

  • Jayaweera, S. Galloway, G. Burt, and J. R. McDonald, “A sampling approach for intentional islanding of distributed generation,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 514– 521, May 2007.
  • M. Guerrero, J. C. Vásquez, J. Matas, M. Castilla, and L. García de Vicuña, “Control strategy for flexible microgrid based on parallel lineinteractive UPS systems,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 726–736, Mar. 2009.
  • Fuangfoo, T. Meenual,W.-J. Lee, and C. Chompoo-inwai, “PEA guidelines for impact study and operation of DG for islanding operation,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 1348–1353, Sep./Oct. 2008. 156 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 58, NO. 1, JANUARY 2011
  • Carpaneto, G. Chicco, and A. Prunotto, “Reliability of reconfigurable distribution systems including distributed generation,” in Proc. Int. Conf. PMAPS, 2006, pp. 1–6.
  • IEEE Recommended Practice for Utility Interface of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems, IEEE Std 929-2000, 2000, p. i.

Simulation a Shunt Active Power Filter using MATLAB /SIMULINK

ABSTRACT:

 Along with increasing demand on improving power quality, the most popular technique that has been used is Active Power Filter (APF); this is because APF can easily eliminate unwanted harmonics, improve power factor and overcome voltage sags. This paper will discuss and analyze the simulation result for a three-phase shunt active power filter using MATLAB/SIMULINK program. This simulation will implement a non-linear load and compensate line current harmonics under balance and unbalance load. As a result of the simulation, it is found that an active power filter is the better way to reduce the total harmonic distortion (THD) which is required by quality standards IEEE-519.

 

KEYWORDS:

  1. APF
  2. d-q theorem,
  3. THD
  4. Power Quality
  5. ADS
  6. Instantaneous Power theory

 

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

shunt active power filter Fig.1. Diagram illustrating component of shunt connected active filter with the waveform showing cancellation of harmonics from an ASD load.

 

SIMULATION RESULTS:

Fig. 2. Three phase line voltage  

                               Fig. 3. Three phase line current

Fig. 4. Three phase load current

                                          Fig. 5. Active filter current

Fig. 6. Line current for phase A

Fig. 7. Load current for phase A

                                   

Fig. 8. Active filter current for phase A

Fig. 9. THD for line current

Fig. 10. THD for load current

 

CONCLUSION:

The Increasing usage of non-linear load in electrical power system which will produce the current and voltage harmonics and associate harmonics problem in power system become more serious and directly affecting the power quality. Conventional way of harmonics elimination by using passive filter might suffer from parasitic problem. It has been shown that three phase active filter based on p-q theory can be implemented for harmonic mitigation and power factor correction. Harmonics mitigation carried out by the active filter meets the IEEE-519 standard requirements.

 

REFERENCES:

 Emadi, A. Nasiri, and S. B. Bekiarov, “Uninterruptible Power Supplies and Active Filter”, Florida, 2005, pp. 65-111.

  • W. Hart, “Introduction to Power Electronics”, New Jersey, 1997, pp. 291-335.
  • McGranaghan, “Active Filter Design and Specification for Control of Harmonics in Industrial and Commercial Facilities”, 2001.
  • Round, H. Laird and R. Duke, “An Improved Three-Level Shunt Active Filter”, 2000.
  • Lev-Ari, “Hilbert Space Techniques for Modeling and Compensation of Reactive Power in Energy Processing Systems”, 2003.

IEEE ELECTRICAL PROJECTS IN ADILABAD

IEEE Electrical Projects  adilabad-2015/2016/2017
Software Used: Matlab/Simulink
Areas : Power Electronics and Drives, Power Systems, Renewable Energy and sources, etc
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Contact us:
email: asokatechnologies@gmail.com
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Asoka technologies provide IEEE Electrical Projects adilabad
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING is a field of engineering that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electro magnetism. This field first became an identifiable occupation in the later half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone, and electric power distribution and use. Subsequently, broad casting and recording media made electronics part of daily life. The invention of the transistor, and later the integrated circuit, brought down the cost of electronics to the point they can be used in almost any household object.
Electrical engineering has now subdivided into a wide range of sub fields including electronics, digital computers, power engineering, tele communications, control systems, radio-frequency engineering, signal processing, instrumentation, and microelectronics. Many of these sub disciplines overlap and also overlap with other engineering branches, spanning a huge number of specializations such as hardware engineering, power electronics, electro magnetics & waves, microwave engineering, nanotechnology, electro chemistry, renewable energies, mechatronics, electrical materials science, and many more.
POWER ELECTRONICS is the application of solid-state electronics to the control and conversion of electric power. The first high power electronic devices were mercury-arc valves. In modern systems the conversion is performed with semiconductor switching devices such as diodes, thyristors and transistors, pioneered by R. D. Middlebrook and others beginning in the 1950s. In contrast to electronic systems concerned with transmission and processing of signals and data, in power electronics substantial amounts of electrical energy are processed. An AC/DC converter (rectifier) is the most typical power electronics device found in many consumer electronic devices, e.g. television sets, personal computers, battery chargers, etc. The power range is typically from tens of watts to several hundred watts. In industry a common application is the variable speed drive (VSD) that is used to control an induction motor. The power range of VSDs start from a few hundred watts and end at tens of megawatts.
An ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEM is a network of electrical components deployed to supply, transfer, and use electric power. An example of an electric power system is the the grid that provides power to an extended area. An electrical grid power system can be broadly divided into the generators that supply the power, the transmission system that carries the power from the generating centres to the load centres, and the distribution system that feeds the power to nearby homes and industries. Smaller power systems are also found in industry, hospitals, commercial buildings and homes. The majority of these systems rely upon three-phase AC power—the standard for large-scale power transmission and distribution across the modern world. Specialised power systems that do not always rely upon three-phase AC power are found in aircraft, electric rail systems, ocean liners and automobiles.
MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment and fourth-generation programming language. A proprietary programming language developed by MathWorks, MATLAB allows matrix manipulations, plotting of functions and data, implementation of algorithms, creation of user interfaces, and interfacing with programs written in other languages, including C, C++, C#, Java, Fortran and Python.
SIMULINK, developed by MathWorks, is a graphical programming environment for modeling, simulating and analyzing multidomain dynamic systems. Its primary interface is a graphical block diagramming tool and a customizable set of block libraries. It offers tight integration with the rest of the MATLAB environment and can either drive MATLAB or be scripted from it. Simulink is widely used in automatic control and digital signal processing for multidomain simulation and Model-Based Design.
IEEE Electrical Projects adilabad

Speed Control of Induction Motor Using New Sliding Mode Control Technique

ABSTRACT

Induction Motors have been used as the workhorse in the industry for a long time due to its easy build, high robustness, and generally satisfactory efficiency. However, they are significantly more difficult to control than DC motors. One of the problems which might cause unsuccessful attempts for designing a proper controller would be the time varying nature of parameters and variables which might be changed while working with the motion systems. One of the best suggested solutions to solve this problem would be the use of Sliding Mode Control (SMC). This paper presents the design of a new controller for a vector control induction motor drive that employs an outer loop speed controller using SMC. Several tests were performed to evaluate the performance of the new controller method, and two other sliding mode controller techniques. From the comparative simulation results, one can conclude that the new controller law provides high performance dynamic characteristics and is robust with regard to plant parameter variations.

 

KEYWORDS:

  1. Induction Motor
  2. Sliding Mode Control
  3. DC Motors
  4. PI Controller

 

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

 

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Induction motor drive system with sliding mode controller

Fig. 1 Induction motor drive system with sliding mode controller

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

                           Rotor speed tracking performance (b)Rotor speed tracking error (c)Control effort Rotor speed tracking performance (b)Rotor speed tracking error (c)Control effort Rotor speed tracking performance (b)Rotor speed tracking error (c)Control effort

Fig.2 (a)Rotor speed tracking performance  (b)Rotor speed tracking error   (c)Control effort

image005 image006 image007

Fig.3 (a)Rotor speed tracking performance  (b)Rotor speed tracking error   (c)Control effort

image008 image009 image010

Fig.4 (a)Rotor speed tracking performance  (b)Rotor speed tracking error   (c)Control effort

 

CONCLUSION

In this paper, new technique to reduced chattering for sliding mode control is submitted to design the rotor speed control of induction motor. To validate the performances of the new proposed control law, we provided a series of simulations and a comparative study between the performances of the new proposed sliding mode controller strategy and those of the Pseudo and Saturation sliding mode controller techniques. The sliding mode controller algorithms are capable of high precision rotor speed tracking. From the comparative simulation results, one can conclude that the three sliding mode controller techniques demonstrate nearly the same dynamic behavior under nominal condition. Also, from the simulation results, it can be seen obviously that the control performance of the new sliding mode controller strategy in the rotor speed tracking, robustness to parameter variations is superior to that of the other sliding mode controller techniques.

 

REFERENCES

  1. Wade, M.W.Dunnigan, B.W.Williams, X.Yu, ‘Position control of a vector controlled induction machine using slotine’s sliding mode control’, IEE Proceeding Electronics Power Application, Vol. 145, No.3, pp.231-238, 1998.
  2. I.Utkin, ‘Sliding mode control design principles and applications to electric drives’, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol.40, No.1, pp. 23-36, February 1993.
  3. K.Namdam, P.C.Sen, ‘Accessible states based sliding mode control of a variable speed drive system’, IEEE Transactions Industry Application, Vol.30, August 1995, pp.373-381.
  4. Krishnan, ‘Electric motor drives: modelling, analysis, and control’, Prentice-Hall, New-Jersey, 2001.
  5. J.Wai, K.H.Su, C.Y.Tu, ‘Implementation of adaptive enhanced fuzzy sliding mode control for indirect field oriented induction motor drive’, IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, pp.1440-1445, 2003.

 

IEEE Electrical Academic Projects for BTech and MTech using Matlab/Simulink-Amravati, Maharashtra

Latest IEEE Electrical Academic Projects List-2015/2016/2017

For BTech and MTech Final year

Software Used: Matlab/Simulink

Areas : Power Electronics and Drives, Power Systems, Renewable Energy and sources, etc

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Electrical engineering is a field of engineering that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electro magnetism. This field first became an identifiable occupation in the later half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone, and electric power distribution and use. Subsequently, broad casting and recording media made electronics part of daily life. The invention of the transistor, and later the integrated circuit, brought down the cost of electronics to the point they can be used in almost any household object.

Electrical engineering has now subdivided into a wide range of sub fields including electronics, digital computers, power engineering, tele communications, control systems, radio-frequency engineering, signal processing, instrumentation, and microelectronics. Many of these sub disciplines overlap and also overlap with other engineering branches, spanning a huge number of specializations such as hardware engineering, power electronics, electro magnetics & waves, microwave engineering, nanotechnology, electro chemistry, renewable energies, mechatronics, electrical materials science, and many more.

Electrical engineers typically hold a degree in electrical engineering or electronic engineering. Practicing engineers may have professional certification and be members of a professional body. Such bodies include the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the Institution of Engineering and Technology (professional society) (IET).

Electrical engineers work in a very wide range of industries and the skills required are likewise variable. These range from basic circuit theory to the management skills required of a project manager. The tools and equipment that an individual engineer may need are similarly variable, ranging from a simple voltmeter to a top end analyzer to sophisticated design and manufacturing software.

IEEE electrical academic projects

IEEE Electrical academic projects

 

Major Projects for Electrical Engineering

AT16-01 Generation of Higher Number of Voltage Levels by stacking inverters of lower multilevel structure with low voltage devices for drives 2016 IEEE
AT16-02 A Novel Multilevel Multi-Output Bidirectional Active Buck PFC Rectifier 2016 IEEE
AT16-03 Optimal Pulse width Modulation of Medium-Voltage Modular Multilevel Converter 2016 IEEE
AT16-04 Novel Family of Single-Phase Modified Impedance-Source Buck-Boost Multilevel Inverters with Reduced Switch Count 2016 IEEE
AT16-05 Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System Least Mean Square Based Control Algorithm for DSTATCOM 2016 IEEE
AT16-06 An Islanding Detection Method for Inverter-Based Distributed Generators Based on the Reactive Power Disturbance 2016 IEEE
AT16-07 Quasi-Z-Source Inverter With a T-Type Converter in Normal and Failure Mode 2016 IEEE
AT16-08 Real-Time Implementation of Model Predictive Control on 7-Level Packed U-Cell Inverter 2016 IEEE
AT16-09 High frequency inverter topologies integrated with the coupled inductor bridge arm 2016 IET

and so on………

Electrical engineering is a field of engineering that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electro magnetism. This field first became an identifiable occupation in the later half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone, and electric power distribution and use. Subsequently, broad casting and recording media made electronics part of daily life. The invention of the transistor, and later the integrated circuit, brought down the cost of electronics to the point they can be used in almost any household object.

Electrical engineering has now subdivided into a wide range of sub fields including electronics, digital computers, power engineering, tele communications, control systems, radio-frequency engineering, signal processing, instrumentation, and microelectronics. Many of these sub disciplines overlap and also overlap with other engineering branches, spanning a huge number of specializations such as hardware engineering, power electronics, electro magnetics & waves, microwave engineering, nanotechnology, electro chemistry, renewable energies, mechatronics, electrical materials science, and many more.

Electrical engineers typically hold a degree in electrical engineering or electronic engineering. Practicing engineers may have professional certification and be members of a professional body. Such bodies include the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the Institution of Engineering and Technology (professional society) (IET).

Electrical engineers work in a very wide range of industries and the skills required are likewise variable. These range from basic circuit theory to the management skills required of a project manager. The tools and equipment that an individual engineer may need are similarly variable, ranging from a simple voltmeter to a top end analyzer to sophisticated design and manufacturing software.

 

Power Electronics Projects

Power Electronics is the study of switching electronic circuits in order to control the flow of electrical energy. Power Electronics is the technology behind switching power supplies, power converters, power inverters, motor drives, and motor soft starters.

Asoka Technologies provide latest IEEE projects in different areas such as ;

Power electronics

Power systems

Electrical machines and drives

Renewable energy and sources

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING is a field of engineering that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electro magnetism. This field first became an identifiable occupation in the later half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone, and electric power distribution and use. Subsequently, broad casting and recording media made electronics part of daily life. The invention of the transistor, and later the integrated circuit, brought down the cost of electronics to the point they can be used in almost any household object.

Electrical engineering has now subdivided into a wide range of sub fields including electronics, digital computers, power engineering, tele communications, control systems, radio-frequency engineering, signal processing, instrumentation, and microelectronics. Many of these sub disciplines overlap and also overlap with other engineering branches, spanning a huge number of specializations such as hardware engineering, power electronics, electro magnetics & waves, microwave engineering, nanotechnology, electro chemistry, renewable energies, mechatronics, electrical materials science, and many more.

POWER ELECTRONICS is the application of solid-state electronics to the control and conversion of electric power. The first high power electronic devices were mercury-arc valves. In modern systems the conversion is performed with semiconductor switching devices such as diodes, thyristors and transistors, pioneered by R. D. Middlebrook and others beginning in the 1950s. In contrast to electronic systems concerned with transmission and processing of signals and data, in power electronics substantial amounts of electrical energy are processed. An AC/DC converter (rectifier) is the most typical power electronics device found in many consumer electronic devices, e.g. television sets, personal computers, battery chargers, etc. The power range is typically from tens of watts to several hundred watts. In industry a common application is the variable speed drive (VSD) that is used to control an induction motor. The power range of VSDs start from a few hundred watts and end at tens of megawatts.

An ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEM is a network of electrical components deployed to supply, transfer, and use electric power. An example of an electric power system is the the grid that provides power to an extended area. An electrical grid power system can be broadly divided into the generators that supply the power, the transmission system that carries the power from the generating centres to the load centres, and the distribution system that feeds the power to nearby homes and industries. Smaller power systems are also found in industry, hospitals, commercial buildings and homes. The majority of these systems rely upon three-phase AC power—the standard for large-scale power transmission and distribution across the modern world. Specialised power systems that do not always rely upon three-phase AC power are found in aircraft, electric rail systems, ocean liners and automobiles.

MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment and fourth-generation programming language. A proprietary programming language developed by MathWorks, MATLAB allows matrix manipulations, plotting of functions and data, implementation of algorithms, creation of user interfaces, and interfacing with programs written in other languages, including C, C++, C#, Java, Fortran and Python.

SIMULINK, developed by MathWorks, is a graphical programming environment for modeling, simulating and analyzing multidomain dynamic systems. Its primary interface is a graphical block diagramming tool and a customizable set of block libraries. It offers tight integration with the rest of the MATLAB environment and can either drive MATLAB or be scripted from it. Simulink is widely used in automatic control and digital signal processing for multidomain simulation and Model-Based Design.