Diode Clamped Three Level Inverter Using Sinusoidal PWM



An inverter is a circuit which converts dc power into ac power at desired output voltage and frequency. The ac output voltage can be fixed at a fixed or variable frequency. This conversion can be achieved by controlled turn ON & turn OFF or by forced commutated thyristors depending on applications. The output voltage waveform of a practical inverter is non sinusoidal but for high power applications low distorted sinusoidal waveforms are required. The filtering of harmonics is not feasible when the output voltage frequency varies over a wide range. There is need for alternatives. Three level Neutral Point Clamped inverter is a step towards it.


  1. Harmonics
  2. Inverter
  3. THD
  4. PWM



Figure1.Diode clamped three level inverter



 Figure2. Upper triangular pulse width modulation

Figure3. lower triangular pulse width modulation

Figure4. three level voltage waveform

Figure5.Matlab model of three level inverter feeding induction motor

 Figure 6. stator waveform of three level inverter


In normal inverters odd harmonics are present which causes distortion of the output waveform. By using the “THREE LEVEL DIODECLAMPED INVERTER” we can eliminate some number of harmonics hence increasing the efficiency of the inverter.


[1] A.Mwinyiwiwa, Zbigneiw Wolanski, ‘Microprocessor Implemented SPWM for Multiconverters with Phase-Shifted Triangle Carriers’ IEEE Trans. On Ind. Appl., Vol. 34, no. 3, pp 1542-1549, 1998.

[2] J. Rodriguez, J.S. Lai, F. Z. Peng, ’ Multilevel Inverters: A Survey of Topologies, Controls and Applications’, IEEE Trans. On Ind. Electronics, VOL. 49, NO. 4, pp. 724-738, AUGUST 2002

[3] D. Soto, T. C. Green, ‘A Comparison of High Power Converter Topologies for the Implementation of FACTS Controller’, IEEE Trans. On Ind. Electronics, VOL. 49, NO. 5, pp. 1072-1080, OCTOBER 2002.

[4] Muhammad H. Rashid, Power Electronics: Circuits, Devices and Applications, Third edition, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, 2004.

[5] Dr. P. S. Bimbhra, Power Electronics, Khanna Publishers, Third Edition, Hindustan Offset Press, New Delhi-28, 2004.

Modeling and Control of Hybrid Power Filter using p-q Theory



 The paper presents design of hybrid active power filter (HAPF) in a three-phase three-wire power system. Design is implemented with instantaneous reactive power theory for control of HAPF in order to mitigate harmonics generated by both non-linear and unbalanced load at the point of common coupling (peC). The p-q Theory enables the source current to be decomposed in αβ0 frame to obtain compensation current for each phase. The hysteresis band current controller is used to generate gating pulses for voltage source inverter (VSI). Over all harmonic reduction is achieved via the proposed control of HAPF and the THD levels are per the IEEE-519 standard. Investigation of proposed scheme is validated by extensive simulations using MATLAB / Simulink Sim-Power System tool box.


  1. Harmonics
  2. Passive Filter
  3. Active Filter
  4. Hybrid Filter
  5. Power Quality



Fig. 1: Basic Diagram of SAF


Fig. 2: Source Current THD (29.9%) without Filter

Fig. 3: Source Current THD (10. I 5%) using Passive Filter

Fig. 4: Source Current THD (4.47%) using Active Filter

Fig. 5: Source Current THD (2.02%) using HAPF

Fig. 6: Compensating Current for Phase a,b and c

Fig. 7: Load Current THD (10.39%) in HAPF


This paper highlights the efficacy of HAPF for improving the power quality by eliminating harmonics from power system. The HAPF with a constant power compensation control strategy and hysteresis-band current controller is proposed. A thorough simulation based investigation validates the competency of HAPF among all filters for harmonic mitigation in power system due to current quality problem. The performance examined has demonstrated the efficiency by reducing the source current THD for non-linear load. The THD is well below the specified limit ofIEEE-519 standard.


[1] A. Baitha and N. Gupta, ” A comparative analysis of passive filters for power quality improvement”, Int. Conf on Advancements in Power and Energy (TAP Energy), pp. 327-332, 20 IS .

[2] B. Singh and V. Verma, “An improved hybrid filter for compensation of current and voltage harmonics for varying rectifier loads”. Int. J. Electrical Power & Energy Systems, Vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 312-xxx, May 2007.

[3] H. Fujita, T. Yamasaki, and H. Akagi, ” A hybrid active filters for damping of harmonic resonance in industrial power system,” IEEE Trans. on Power Electrics, Vol IS , No. 2, pp. 209-216, 2000.

[4] F.Z. Peng, H. Akagi, and A. Nanbe, ” A new approach to harmonic compensation in power systems-A combined system of shunt passive and series active filters,” I EEE Trans. on Ind. Appt, Vol. 26, pp. 983-990, Nov. 1990

[5] B. Singh and V. Verma, “Design and Implementation of a Current Controlled Parallel Hybrid Power Filter” Int. Conf on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems, PEDES’06, pp. 1-7, 2006.

A Two-Level 24-Pulse Voltage Source Converter with Fundamental Frequency Switching for HVDC System


This paper deals with the performance analysis of a two-level, 24-pulse Voltage Source Converters (VSCs) for High Voltage DC (HVDC) system for power quality improvement. A two level VSC is used to realize a 24-pulse converter with minimum switching loss by operating it at fundamental frequency switching (FFS). The performance of this converter is studied on various issues such as steady state operation, dynamic behavior, reactive power compensation, power factor correction, and harmonics distortion. Simulation results are presented for a two level 24-pulse converter to demonstrate its capability.



  1. Two-Level Voltage Source Converter
  2. HVDC
  3. Multipulse
  4. Fundamental Frequency Switching
  5. Harmonics





 Fig. 1 A 24-Pulse voltage source converter based HVDC system Configuration



Fig. 2 Synthesis of Stepped AC voltage waveform of 24-pulse VSC.



Fig. 3 Steady state performance of proposed 24-pulse voltage source Converter


Fig. 4 Dynamic performance of proposed 24-pulse voltage source converter



Fig. 5 Waveforms and harmonic spectra of 24-pulse covnerter i) supply voltage ii) supply current (iii) converter voltage


A two level, 24-pulse voltage source converter has been designed and its performance has been validated for HVDC system to improve the power quality with fundamental frequency switching. Four identical transformers have been used for phase shift and to realize a 24-pulse converter along with control scheme using a two level voltage source converter topology. The steady state and dynamic performance of the designed converter configuration has been demonstrated the quite satisfactory operation and found suitable for HVDC system. The characteristic harmonics of the converter system has also improved by the proposed converter configuration with minimum switching losses without using extra filtering requirements compared to the conventional 12-pulse thyristor converter.


[1] J. Arrillaga, “High Voltage Direct Current Transmission,” 2nd Edition, IEE Power and Energy Series29, London, UK-1998.

[2] J. Arrilaga and M. Villablanca, “24-pulse HVDC conversion,” IEE Proceedings Part-C, vol. 138, no. 1, pp. 57–64, Jan. 1991..

[3] Lars Weimers, “HVDC Light: a New Technology for a better Environment,” IEEE Power Engineering Review, vol.18, no. 8, pp. 1920-1926, 1989.

[4] Vijay K. Sood, “HVDC and FACTS Controller, Applications of Static Converters in Power Systems”, Kluwar Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 2004.

[5] Gunnar Asplund Kjell Eriksson and kjell Svensson, “DC Transmission based on Voltage Source Converters, in Proc. of CIGRE SC14 Colloquium in South Africa 1997.