A Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage- Emulator/Battery Supported Dynamic Voltage Restorer

IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 2016

ABSTRACT: This study examines the use of superconducting magnetic and battery hybrid energy storage to compensate grid voltage fluctuations. The superconducting magnetic energy storage system (SMES) has been emulated by a high current inductor to investigate a system employing both SMES and battery energy storage experimentally. The design of the laboratory prototype is described in detail, which consists of a series-connected three phase voltage source inverter used to regulate AC voltage, and two bidirectional DC/DC converters used to control energy storage system charge and discharge. ‘DC bus level signaling’ and ‘voltage droop control’ have been used to automatically control power from the magnetic energy storage system during short-duration, high power voltage sags, while the battery is used to provide power during longer-term, low power under-voltages. Energy storage system hybridisation is shown to be advantageous by reducing battery peak power demand compared with a battery-only system, and by improving long term voltage support capability compared with a SMES-only system. Consequently, the SMES/battery hybrid DVR can support both short term high-power voltage sags and long term under voltages with significantly reduced superconducting material cost compared with a SMES-based system.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR)
  2. Energy Storage Integration
  3. Sag
  4. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage
  5. Battery

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Figure 1. Hybrid energy storage DVR system configuration.

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Figure 2. Simulated PLL Algorithm results: (a) Simulated voltage sag with phase jump (b) Phase jump angle (c) Blue trace: supply phase angle. Red trace: PLL output: ‘Pre-sag compensation’ with controller gains: kp = 0.5, ki = 5, (d) Blue trace: supply phase angle. Red trace: PLL output: ‘In phase compensation’ with controller gains kp = 200, ki = 50.

Figure 3. Hybrid System Experimental results: 0.1s Three phase sag to 35% of nominal voltage. (a) Supply voltages (b) Load voltages (c) DC Link Voltage (d) Battery Current (e) SMES-inductor current.

Figure 4. Battery System Experimental results: 0.1s Three phase sag to 35% of nominal voltage. (a) Supply voltages (b) Load voltages (c) DC Link Voltage (d) Battery Current.

 

Figure 5. Hybrid System Experimental results: Long-term three phase under voltage (a) RMS supply phase-voltage. (b) RMS load phase-voltage (c) DC Bus Voltage (d) Battery Current (e) SMES-inductor current.

 CONCLUSION:

The performance a novel hybrid DVR system topology has been assessed experimentally and shown to effectively provide voltage compensation for short-term sags and long-term under-voltages. A prototype system has been developed which demonstrates an effective method of interfacing SMES and battery energy storage systems to support a three phase load. The system has been shown to autonomously prioritise the use of the short-term energy storage system to support the load during deep, short-term voltage sags and a battery for lower depth, long-term under-voltages. This can have benefits in terms of improved voltage support capability and reduced costs compared with a SMES-based system. Additional benefits include reduced battery power rating requirement and an expected improvement in battery life compared with a battery-only system due to reduced battery power cycling and peak discharge power.

REFERENCES:

[1] P.K. Ray, S.R. Mohanty, N. Kishor, and J.P.S. Catalao, “Optimal Feature and Decision Tree-Based Classification of Power Quality Disturbances in Distributed Generation Systems,” Sustainable Energy, IEEE Trans., vol. 5, Sept. 2014, pp. 200-208.

[2] D. Novosel, G. Bartok, G. Henneberg, P. Mysore, D. Tziouvaras, and S. Ward, “IEEE PSRC Report on Performance of Relaying During Wide-Area Stressed Conditions,” Power Delivery, IEEE Trans., vol. 25, Jan. 2010, pp. 3-16.

[3] “IEEE Recommended Practice for Monitoring Electric Power Quality,” in IEEE Std 1159-1995, ed. New York, NY: IEEE Standards Board, 1995, p. i.

[4] S. Jothibasu and M.K. Mishra, “A Control Scheme for Storageless DVR Based on Characterization of Voltage Sags,” Power Delivery, IEEE Trans., vol. 29, July 2014, pp. 2261-2269.

 

A Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage- Emulator/Battery Supported Dynamic Voltage Restorer

 

ABSTRACT:

This study examines the use of superconducting magnetic and battery hybrid energy storage to compensate grid voltage fluctuations. The superconducting magnetic energy storage system (SMES) has been emulated by a high current inductor to investigate a system employing both SMES and battery energy storage experimentally. The design of the laboratory prototype is described in detail, which consists of a series-connected three phase voltage source inverter used to regulate AC voltage, and two bidirectional DC/DC converters used to control energy storage system charge and discharge. ‘DC bus level signaling’ and ‘voltage droop control’ have been used to automatically control power from the magnetic energy storage system during short-duration, high power voltage sags, while the battery is used to provide power during longer-term, low power under-voltages.

Energy storage system hybridisation is shown to be advantageous by reducing battery peak power demand compared with a battery-only system, and by improving long term voltage support capability compared with a SMES-only system. Consequently, the SMES/battery hybrid DVR can support both short term high-power voltage sags and long term undervoltages with significantly reduced superconducting material cost compared with a SMES-based system.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR)
  2. Energy Storage Integration
  3. Sag
  4. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage
  5. Battery

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

 

Figure 1. Hybrid energy storage DVR system configuration.

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

 Figure 2. Simulated PLL Algorithm results: (a) Simulated voltage sag with phase jump (b) Phase jump angle (c) Blue trace: supply phase angle. Red trace: PLL output: ‘Pre-sag compensation’ with controller gains: kp = 0.5, ki = 5, (d) Blue trace: supply phase angle. Red trace: PLL output: ‘In phase compensation’ with controller gains kp = 200, ki = 50.

Figure 3. Hybrid System Experimental results: 0.1s Three phase sag to 35% of nominal voltage. (a) Supply voltages (b) Load voltages (c) DC Link Voltage (d) Battery Current (e) SMES-inductor current.

Figure 4. Battery System Experimental results: 0.1s Three phase sag to 35% of nominal voltage. (a) Supply voltages (b) Load voltages (c) DC Link Voltage (d) Battery Current.

Figure 5. Hybrid System Experimental results: Long-term three phase under voltage (a) RMS supply phase-voltage. (b) RMS load phase-voltage (c) DC Bus Voltage (d) Battery Current (e) SMES-inductor current.

CONCLUSION:

The performance a novel hybrid DVR system topology has been assessed experimentally and shown to effectively provide voltage compensation for short-term sags and long-term under-voltages. A prototype system has been developed which demonstrates an effective method of interfacing SMES and battery energy storage systems to support a three phase load. The system has been shown to autonomously prioritise the use of the short-term energy storage system to support the load during deep, short-term voltage sags and a battery for lower depth, long-term under-voltages. This can have benefits in terms of improved voltage support capability and reduced costs compared with a SMES-based system. Additional benefits include reduced battery power rating requirement and an expected improvement in battery life compared with a battery-only system due to reduced battery power cycling and peak discharge power.

REFERENCES:

[1] P.K. Ray, S.R. Mohanty, N. Kishor, and J.P.S. Catalao, “Optimal Feature and Decision Tree-Based Classification of Power Quality Disturbances in Distributed Generation Systems,” Sustainable Energy, IEEE Trans., vol. 5, Sept. 2014, pp. 200-208.

[2] D. Novosel, G. Bartok, G. Henneberg, P. Mysore, D. Tziouvaras, and S. Ward, “IEEE PSRC Report on Performance of Relaying During Wide-Area Stressed Conditions,” Power Delivery, IEEE Trans., vol. 25, Jan. 2010, pp. 3-16.

[3] “IEEE Recommended Practice for Monitoring Electric Power Quality,” in IEEE Std 1159-1995, ed. New York, NY: IEEE Standards Board, 1995, p. i.

[4] S. Jothibasu and M.K. Mishra, “A Control Scheme for Storageless DVR Based on Characterization of Voltage Sags,” Power Delivery, IEEE Trans., vol. 29, July 2014, pp. 2261-2269.

[5] B. Otomega and T. Van Cutsem, “Undervoltage Load Shedding Using Distributed Controllers,” Power Systems, IEEE Trans., vol. 22, Nov. 2007, pp. 1898-1907.

A super conducting magnetic energy storage emulator battery supported DVR

ABSTRACT

This study examines the use of superconducting magnetic and battery hybrid energy storage to compensate grid voltage fluctuations. The superconducting magnetic energy storage system (SMES) has been emulated by a high current inductor to investigate a system employing both SMES and battery energy storage experimentally. The design of the laboratory prototype is described in detail, which consists of a series-connected three phase voltage source inverter used to regulate AC voltage, and two bidirectional DC/DC converters used to control energy storage system charge and discharge. ‘DC bus level signaling’ and ‘voltage droop control’ have been used to automatically control power from the magnetic energy storage system during short-duration, high power voltage sags, while the battery is used to provide power during longer-term, low power under-voltages. Energy storage system hybridization is shown to be advantageous by reducing battery peak power demand compared with a battery-only system, and by improving long term voltage support capability compared with a SMES-only system. Consequently, the SMES/battery hybrid DVR can support both short term high-power voltage sags and long term undervoltages with significantly reduced superconducting material cost compared with a SMES-based system.

 KEYWORDS:

  1. Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR)
  2. Energy Storage Integration
  3. Voltage Sag
  4. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage
  5. Battery

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

image001

Figure 1. Hybrid energy storage DVR system configuration

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

image002

Figure 2. Hybrid System Experimental results: 0.1s Three phase sag to 35% of nominal voltage. (a) Supply voltages (b) Load voltages (c) DC Link Voltage (d) Battery Current (e) SMES-inductor current.

image003

Figure 3. Battery System Experimental results: 0.1s Three phase sag to 35% of nominal voltage. (a) Supply voltages (b) Load voltages (c) DC Link Voltage (d) Battery Current.

image004

Figure 4. Hybrid System Experimental results: Long-term three phase undervoltage (a) RMS supply phase-voltage. (b) RMS load phase-voltage (c) DC Bus Voltage (d) Battery Current (e) SMES-inductor current.

CONCLUSION

The performance a novel hybrid DVR system topology has been assessed experimentally and shown to effectively provide voltage compensation for short-term sags and long-term under-voltages. A prototype system has been developed which demonstrates an effective method of interfacing SMES and battery energy storage systems to support a three phase load. The system has been shown to autonomously prioritise the use of the short-term energy storage system to support the load during deep, short-term voltage sags and a battery for lower depth, long-term under-voltages. This can have benefits in terms of improved voltage support capability and reduced costs compared with a SMES-based system. Additional benefits include reduced battery power rating requirement and an expected improvement in battery life compared with a battery-only system due to reduced battery power cycling and peak discharge power.

REFERENCES

  1. K. Ray, S.R. Mohanty, N. Kishor, and J.P.S. Catalao, “Optimal Feature and Decision Tree-Based Classification of Power Quality Disturbances in Distributed Generation Systems,” Sustainable Energy, IEEE Trans., vol. 5, Sept. 2014, pp. 200-208.
  2. Novosel, G. Bartok, G. Henneberg, P. Mysore, D. Tziouvaras, and S. Ward, “IEEE PSRC Report on Performance of Relaying During Wide-Area Stressed Conditions,” Power Delivery, IEEE Trans., vol. 25, Jan. 2010, pp. 3-16.
  3. “IEEE Recommended Practice for Monitoring Electric Power Quality,” in IEEE Std 1159-1995, ed. New York, NY: IEEE Standards Board, 1995, p. i.
  4. Jothibasu and M.K. Mishra, “A Control Scheme for Storageless DVR Based on Characterization of Voltage Sags,” Power Delivery, IEEE Trans., vol. 29, July 2014, pp. 2261-2269.
  5. Otomega and T. Van Cutsem, “Undervoltage Load Shedding Using Distributed Controllers,” Power Systems, IEEE Trans., vol. 22, Nov. 2007, pp. 1898-1907.

An Ultracapacitor Integrated Power Conditioner for Intermittency Smoothing and Improving Power Quality of Distribution Grid

ABSTRACT:

Penetration of various types of distributed energy resources (DERs) like solar, wind, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) onto the distribution grid is on the rise. There is a corresponding increase in power quality problems and intermittencies on the distribution grid. In order to reduce the intermittencies and improve the power quality of the distribution grid, an ultracapacitor (UCAP) integrated power conditioner is proposed in this paper. UCAP integration gives the power conditioner active power capability, which is useful in tackling the grid intermittencies and in improving the voltage sag and swell compensation. UCAPs have low energy density, high-power density, and fast charge/discharge rates, which are all ideal characteristics for meeting high-power low-energy events like grid intermittencies, sags/swells. In this paper, UCAP is integrated into dc-link of the power conditioner through a bidirectional dc–dc converter that helps in providing a stiff dc-link voltage. The integration helps in providing active/reactive power support, intermittency smoothing, and sag/swell compensation. Design and control of both the dc–ac inverters and the dc–dc converter are discussed. The simulation model of the overall system is developed and compared with the experimental hardware setup.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Active power filter (APF)
  2. Dc–dc converter
  3. D–q control
  4. Digital signal processor (DSP)
  5. Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR)
  6. Energy storage integration
  7. Sag/swell
  8. Ultracapacitors (UCAP)

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

 image001

Fig. 1. One-line diagram of power conditioner with UCAP energy storage.

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 image002

Fig. 2. (a) Source and load rms voltages Vsrms and VLrms during sag. (b) Source voltages Vsab (blue), Vsbc (red), and Vsca (green) during sag. (c) Injected voltages Vinj2a (blue), Vinj2b (red), and Vinj2c (green) during sag. (d) Load voltages VLab (blue), VLbc (red), and VLca (green) during sag.

image003

Fig. 3. (a) Currents and voltages of dc–dc converter. (b) Active and reactive

power of grid, load, and inverter during voltage sag.

 CONCLUSION:

In this paper, the concept of integrating UCAP-based rechargeable energy storage to a power conditioner system to improve the power quality of the distribution grid is presented. With this integration, the DVR portion of the power conditioner will be able to independently compensate voltage sags and swells and the APF portion of the power conditioner will be able to provide active/reactive power support and renewable intermittency smoothing to the distribution grid. UCAP integration through a bidirectional dc–dc converter at the dc-link of the power conditioner is proposed. The control strategy of the series inverter (DVR) is based on inphase compensation and the control strategy of the shunt inverter (APF) is based on id iq method. Designs of major components in the power stage of the bidirectional dc–dc converter are discussed. Average current mode control is used to regulate the output voltage of the dc–dc converter due to its inherently stable characteristic. A higher level integrated controller that takes decisions based on the system parameters provides inputs to the inverters and dc–dc converter controllers to carry out their control actions. The simulation of the integrated UCAP-PC system which consists of the UCAP, bidirectional dc–dc converter, and the series and shunt inverters is carried out using PSCAD. The simulation of the UCAP-PC system is carried out using PSCAD. Hardware experimental setup of the integrated system is presented and the ability to provide temporary voltage sag compensation and active/reactive power support and renewable intermittency smoothing to the distribution grid is tested. Results from simulation and experiment agree well with each other thereby verifying the concepts introduced in this paper. Similar UCAP based energy storages can be deployed in the future in a microgrid or a low-voltage distribution grid to respond to dynamic changes in the voltage profiles and power profiles on the distribution grid.

 REFERENCES:

[1] N. H. Woodley, L. Morgan, and A. Sundaram, “Experience with an inverter-based dynamic voltage restorer,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 1181–1186, Jul. 1999.

[2] J. G. Nielsen, M. Newman, H. Nielsen, and F. Blaabjerg, “Control and testing of a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) at medium voltage level,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 806–813, May 2004.

[3] V. Soares, P. Verdelho, and G. D. Marques, “An instantaneous active and reactive current component method for active filters,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 660–669, Jul. 2000.

[4] H. Akagi, E. H. Watanabe, and M. Aredes, Instantaneous Reactive Power Theory and Applications to Power Conditioning, 1st ed. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley/IEEE Press, 2007.

[5] K. Sahay and B. Dwivedi, “Supercapacitors energy storage system for power quality improvement: An overview,” J. Energy Sources, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 1–8, 2009.