The Application of Electric Spring in Grid-ConnectedPhotovoltaic System

ABSTRACT:  

The characteristics of distributed photovoltaic system power generation system is intermittent and instability. Under the weak grid conditions, when the active power of the PV system injected into the grid is fluctuant, the voltage of supply feeder will increase or decrease, thus affecting the normal use of sensitive load. The electric spring can transfer the energy injected into the supply feeder to the wide-voltage load, which is in series with the ES, to ensure the voltage stability of the sensitive load in the system. In this paper, a grid-connected photovoltaic simulation model with electric spring is built in Matlab / simulink. The voltage waveforms on the ES and sensitive load is obtained under the condition of changing the active power injected into the supply feeder by the grid-connected photovoltaic system. Thought the analysis of the waveforms, we can find that the Electric spring is a kind of effective method to solve the voltage fluctuation of the supply feeder in the grid-connected PV system.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Electric spring
  2. Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System
  3. Voltage Regulation
  4. Photovoltaic Consumption

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Figure 1. The photovoltaic system model with Electric spring

 EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Figure 2. The effective value of line voltage when the active power of PV system decreases

Figure 3. The line voltage when the active power of PV system increases (with ES)

 CONCLUSION:

 This paper applies the electric spring to the PV system to solve the problem that the bus voltage fluctuates due to the power fluctuation during the PV power injected into the bus. By building a simulation model in Matlab /Simulink, it is proved that the voltage on the bus can be effectively stabilized after adding the electric spring in the grid-connected photovoltaic system. When the active power of the PV fluctuates, the electric spring can transfer the voltage fluctuation on the bus to the wide-voltage load, in order to ensure that the bus voltage stability in the vicinity of the given value. Therefore, this is an effective method to solve the fluctuation of the bus voltage in PV grid connected system.

REFERENCES:

  1. Hui S Y R, Lee C K, Wu F. Electric springs—A new smart grid technology[J]. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 2012, 3(3): 1552-1561.
  2. F. Kienzle, P. Ahein, and G. Andersson, “Valuing investments in multi-energy conversion, storage, and demand-Side management systems under uncertainty,” IEEE Trans Sustain. Energy, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 194–202,Apr. 2011.
  3. C. K. Lee and S. Y. R. Hui, “Input voltage control bidirectional power converters,” US patent application, US2013/0322139, May 31, 2013.
  4. CHEN Xu, ZHANG Yongjun, HUANG Xiangmin. Review of Reactive Power and Voltage Control Method in the Background of Active Distribution Network[J]. Automation of Electric Power Systems,2016,40(01):143-
  5. Lee S C, Kim S J, Kim S H. Demand side management with air conditioner loads based on the queuing system model[J]. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2010, 26 (2): 661-668.

Electric Spring for Voltage and Power Stability and Power Factor Correction

ABSTRACT:  

Electric Spring (ES), a new smart grid technology, has earlier been used for providing voltage and power stability in a weakly regulated/stand-alone renewable energy source powered grid. It has been proposed as a demand side management technique to provide voltage and power regulation. In this paper, a new control scheme is presented for the implementation of the
electric spring, in conjunction with non-critical building loads like electric heaters, refrigerators and central air conditioning system. This control scheme would be able to provide power factor correction of the system, voltage support, and power balance for the critical loads, such as the building’s security system, in addition to the existing characteristics of electric spring of voltage and power stability. The proposed control scheme is compared with original ES’s control scheme where only reactive-power is injected. The improvised control scheme opens new avenues for the utilization of the electric spring to a greater extent by providing voltage and power stability and enhancing the power quality in the renewable energy powered microgrids

 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. Electric Spring in a circuit

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Fig. 2. Over-voltage, Conventional ES: Power Factor of system (ES turned on at t = 0.5 sec)

Fig. 3. Over-voltage, Conventional ES: Active and Reactive power across critical load, non-critical load, and electric spring (ES turned on at t=0.5 sec)

Fig. 4 Under-voltage, Conventional ES: RMS Line voltage, ES Voltage, and Non-Critical load voltage (ES turned on at t=0.5 sec)

Fig. 5. Under-voltage, Conventional ES: Power Factor of system (ES turned on at t = 0.5 sec)

Fig. 6. Under-voltage, Conventional ES: Active and Reactive power across critical load, non-critical load, and electric spring (ES turned on at t=0.5 sec)

Fig. 7. Over-voltage, Improvised ES: RMS Line voltage, ES Voltage, and Non-Critical load voltage (ES turned on at t=0.5 sec)

Fig. 8. Over-voltage, Improvised ES: Power Factor of system (ES turned on at t = 0.5 sec)

CONCLUSION

In this paper as well as earlier literature s, the Electric Spring
was demonstrated as an ingenious solution to the problem of
voltage and power instability associated with renewable energy
powered grids. Further in this paper, by the implementation of
the proposed improvised control scheme it was demonstrated
that the improvised Electric Spring (a) maintained line voltage
to reference voltage of 230 Volt, (b) maintained constant
power to the critical load and (c) improved overall power
factor of the system compared to the conventional ES. Also,
the proposed ‘input-voltage-input-current’ control scheme is
compared to the conventional ‘input-voltage’ control. It was
shown, through simulation and hardware-in-loop emulation,
that using a single device voltage and power regulation and
power quality improvement can be achieved.

Control Scheme

It was also shown that the improvised control scheme has merit over the conventional ES with only reactive power injection.
Also, it is proposed that electric spring could be embedded
in future home appliances. If many non-critical loads in the
buildings are equipped with ES, they could provide a reliable
and effective solution to voltage and power stability and in sit u
power factor correction in a renewable energy powered
micro-grids. It would be a unique demand side management
(D S M) solution which could be implemented without any
reliance on information and communication technologies.

REFERENCES

[1] S. Y. Hui, C. K. Lee, and F. F. Wu, “Electric springs – a new smart
grid technology,” IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 3, no. 3, pp.
1552–1561, Sept 2012.
[2] S. Hui, C. Lee, and F. WU, “Power control circuit and
method for stabilizing a power supply,” 2012. [Online]. Available:
http://www.google.com/patents/US20120080420
[3] C. K. Lee, N. R. Ch a u d h u r i, B. Ch a u d h u r i, and S. Y. R. Hui, “Droop
control of distributed electric springs for stabilizing future power grid,”
IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 1558–1566, Sept
2013.
[4] C. K. Lee, B. Ch a u d h u r i, and S. Y. Hui, “Hardware and control
implementation of electric springs for stabilizing future smart grid with
intermittent renewable energy sources,” IEEE Journal of Emerging and
Selected Topics in Power Electronics, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 18–27, March
2013.
[5] C. K. Lee, K. L. Che n g, and W. M. N g, “Load characterization of electric
spring,” in 2013 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, Sept
2013, pp. 4665–4670.

Performance of Electric Springs with Multiple Variable Loads

 

ABSTRACT:

Electric Spring is an emerging smart grid technology, which can provide voltage support to weakly regulated system. This paper studies the effect of load variation on the performance of electric springs. Two different single phase circuits with intermittent power supply have been simulated for the study – with one electric spring and with two electric springs. The loads considered are linear and are identical. Results obtained in MATLAB/Simulink environment show that line voltage is regulated by electric spring irrespective of variation in load. A brief comparative study is done between the simulation results obtained from the two circuits to observe the effect of the additional electric spring. This study tests the effectiveness of electric springs in a circuit designed to be more realistic, i.e., when the loads are not ON all the time and multiple electric springs are distributed all over the grid.

 KEYWORDS:

  1. Demand Side Management
  2. Electric Spring
  3. Renewable Energy Sources

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. Schematic Diagram of Electric Spring connected with Intermittent Renewable Energy Source

 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig. 2. Block Diagram for Circuit with Two Electric Springs

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

 Fig. 3. RMS Voltage for Boosting action in single ES circuit

Fig. 4. Active and Reactive power consumption of ES during Boosting action in single ES circuit

Fig. 5. RMS Voltage for Reduction action in single ES circuit

Fig. 6. Active and Reactive power consumption of ES during Reduction action in single ES circuit

Fig. 7. RMS Voltage for Boosting action in double ES circuit

Fig. 8. Active and Reactive power consumption of ES during Boosting action in double ES circuit

Fig. 9. RMS Voltage for Reduction action in double ES circuit

Fig. 10. Active and Reactive power consumption of ES during Reduction action in double ES circuit

CONCLUSION:

This paper demonstrates the effects of load variation on the performance of ES. From the simulation results, it can be noted that, for boosting mode of operation, the ES can regulate the line voltage at the reference value irrespective of variation in load. However, for reduction mode of operation, the load variation causes fluctuations in the line voltage even when the ES is operating. This might be improved by making the circuit more inductive, which will assist the ES for reduction action. The basic single ES circuit was modified by adding an extra ES to it. It was observed that the reactive power consumption of each ES decreased by almost 50% for both modes of operation. Therefore we can conclude that as the number of ES in the circuit increases by a factor of ‘n’, the reactive power consumed by each ES to carry out the same magnitude of regulation decreases by a factor of ‘n’. This decreases the stress on each ES as well as the inverter rating for ES. For this study, the linear and identical loads have been considered, which can be further extended to non-linear and non-identical loads. Also, the random load profile can be replaced with a real time load profile.

REFERENCES:

[1] IEA, World Energy Outlook 2015: IEA. Available:

http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/media/weowebsite/2015/WEO2015 _Factsheets.pdf

[2] P. P. Varaiya, F. F. Wu and J. W. Bialek, “Smart Operation of Smart Grid: Risk-Limiting Dispatch,” in Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 40-57, Jan. 2011.

[3] D. Westermann and A. John, “Demand Matching Wind Power Generation With Wide-Area Measurement and Demand-Side Management,” in IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 145-149, March 2007.

[4] P. Palensky and D. Dietrich, “Demand Side Management: Demand Response, Intelligent Energy Systems, and Smart Loads,” in IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 381-388, Aug. 2011.

[5] A. Mohsenian-Rad, V. W. S. Wong, J. Jatskevich, R. Schober, and A. Leon-Garcia, “Autonomous demand-side management based on gametheoretic energy consumption scheduling for the future smart grid,” IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 320–331, Dec. 2010.

Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Based Electric Spring for Smart Grid Applications

 

ABSTRACT:

This paper proposes “Electric Spring” (ES) based on Single Phase three-level Cascaded H-Bridge Inverter to achieve effective demand side management for stabilizing smart grid fed by substantial intermittent renewable energy sources (RES). Considering the most attractive features of multilevel inverter (MLI), an effective structure of Electric Spring is proposed for suppressing voltage fluctuation in power distribution network arising due to RES and maintaining the critical load voltage. Also, the operation of ES in capacitive as well as inductive mode is discussed. Further, the paper describes droop control method for parallel operation of distributed electric spring for stabilization the power grid. An exclusive dynamic performance of the system using electric spring has been tested and demonstrated through detailed MATLAB simulation.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Critical load
  2. Cascaded H-Bridge Inverter
  3. Droop control
  4. Electric Spring
  5. MLI
  6. RES
  7. Smart load

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. Schematic of Electric Spring.

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Fig. 2. Observed RMS value of (a) Source voltage (Vs), (b) Non–critical voltage (Vnc), (c) Electric spring voltage (Va) & current (Ia), (d) Critical voltage (Vc) in capacitive mode.

Fig. 3. Observed Instantaneous value of (a) Source voltage (Vs), (b) Non–critical voltage (Vnc), (c) Electric spring voltage (Va) & current (Ia), (d) Critical voltage (Vc) in capacitive mode.

Fig. 4. Observed RMS value of (a) Source voltage (Vs), (b) Non–critical voltage (Vnc), (c) Electric spring voltage (Va) & current (Ia), (d) Critical voltage (Vc) in inductive mode.

Fig. 5. Observed Instantaneous value of (a) Source voltage (Vs), (b) Non– critical voltage (Vnc), (c) Electric spring voltage (Va) & current (Ia), (d) Critical voltage (Vc) in inductive mode.

Fig. 6. THD analysis of (a) Two-level and (b) Three-level CHMLI based ES.

CONCLUSION:

The paper proposes new approach for regulating the mains voltage using MLI based ES for smart grid applications. The implemented Three-level CHMLI based ES for smart grid application effectively regulates the ac mains voltage and reduces the THD content as compared with Two-level VSI based ES. The effectiveness of ES is validated through digital simulation in terms of THD. Lastly simulation results of droop control for Four Electric springs have been implemented in a large-scale distributed pattern in order to make multiple ES act in coordinating manner so as to have robust stabilizing effect.

REFERENCES:

[1] Edward J.Coster, Johanna M.A.Myrzik, BAS Kruimer, “Integration Issues of Distributed Generation Distribution Grids,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol.99, no.1, pp.28-39, January, 2011.

[2] Koutsopoulos and L. Tassiulas, “Challenges in demand load control for the smart grid,” IEEE Netw., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 16–21, 2011.

[3] M.H.J.Bollen, “Understanding Power Quality Problems: Voltage Sags and Interruptions,” IEEE Press, 2000.

[4] N. Hingorani and L. Gyugyi, Understanding FACTS, Concepts and Technology of Flexible AC Transmission Systems. New York: IEEE Press, 2000.

[5] M. Parvania and M. Fotuhi-Firuzabad, “Demand response scheduling by stochastic SCUC,” IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 89–98, Jun. 2010

Electric Spring for Voltage and Power Stability and Power Factor Correction

ABSTRACT:

Electric Spring (ES), a new smart grid technology, has earlier been used for providing voltage and power stability in a weakly regulated/stand-alone renewable energy source powered grid. It has been proposed as a demand side management technique to provide voltage and power regulation. In this paper, a new control scheme is presented for the implementation of the electric spring, in conjunction with non-critical building loads like electric heaters, refrigerators and central air conditioning system. This control scheme would be able to provide power factor correction of the system, voltage support, and power balance for the critical loads, such as the building’s security system, in addition to the existing characteristics of electric spring of voltage and power stability. The proposed control scheme is compared with original ES’s control scheme where only reactive-power is injected. The improvised control scheme opens new avenues for the utilization of the electric spring to a greater extent by providing voltage and power stability and enhancing the power quality in the renewable energy powered microgrids.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Demand Side Management
  2. Electric Spring
  3. Power Quality
  4. Single Phase Inverter
  5. Renewable Energy

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

 

 Fig. 1. Electric Spring in a circuit

 EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Fig. 2. Over-voltage, Conventional ES: RMS Line voltage, ES Voltage, and Non-Critical load voltage (ES turned on at t=0.5 sec)

Fig. 3. Over-voltage, Conventional ES: Power Factor of system (ES turned on at t = 0.5 sec)

Fig. 4. Over-voltage, Conventional ES: Active and Reactive power across critical load, non-critical load, and electric spring (ES turned on at t=0.5 sec)

Fig. 5. Under-voltage, Conventional ES: RMS Line voltage, ES Voltage, and Non-Critical load voltage (ES turned on at t=0.5 sec)

Fig. 6. Under-voltage, Conventional ES: Power Factor of system (ES turned on at t = 0.5 sec)

Fig. 7. Under-voltage, Conventional ES: Active and Reactive power across critical load, non-critical load, and electric spring (ES turned on at t=0.5 sec)

Fig.8. Over-voltage, Improvised ES: RMS Line voltage, ES Voltage, and Non-Critical load voltage (ES turned on at t=0.5 sec)

Fig. 9. Over-voltage, Improvised ES: Power Factor of system (ES turned on at t = 0.5 sec)

Fig. 10. Over-voltage, Improvised ES: Active and Reactive power across critical load, non-critical load, and electric spring (ES turned on at t=0.5 sec)

Fig. 11. Under-voltage, Improvised ES: RMS Line voltage, ES Voltage, and Non-Critical load voltage (ES turned on at t=0.5 sec)

Fig. 12. Under-voltage, Improvised ES: Power Factor of system (ES turned on at t = 0.5 sec)

Fig. 13. Under-voltage, Improvised ES: Active and Reactive power across critical load, non-critical load, and electric spring (ES turned on at t=0.5 sec)

CONCLUSION:

In this paper as well as earlier literatures, the Electric Spring was demonstrated as an ingenious solution to the problem of voltage and power instability associated with renewable energy powered grids. Further in this paper, by the implementation of the proposed improvised control scheme it was demonstrated that the improvised Electric Spring (a) maintained line voltage to reference voltage of 230 Volt, (b) maintained constant power to the critical load, and (c) improved overall power factor of the system compared to the conventional ES. Also, the proposed ‘input-voltage-input-current’ control scheme is compared to the conventional ‘input-voltage’ control. It was shown, through simulation and hardware-in-loop emulation, that using a single device voltage and power regulation and power quality improvement can be achieved. It was also shown that the improvised control scheme has merit over the conventional ES with only reactive power injection. Also, it is proposed that electric spring could be embedded in future home appliances [1]. If many non-critical loads in the buildings are equipped with ES, they could provide a reliable and effective solution to voltage and power stability and insitu power factor correction in a renewable energy powered microgrids. It would be a unique demand side management (DSM) solution which could be implemented without any reliance on information and communication technologies.

REFERENCES:

[1] S. Y. Hui, C. K. Lee, and F. F. Wu, “Electric springs – a new smart grid technology,” IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 1552–1561, Sept 2012.

[2] S. Hui, C. Lee, and F. WU, “Power control circuit and method for stabilizing a power supply,” 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.google.com/patents/US20120080420

[3] C. K. Lee, N. R. Chaudhuri, B. Chaudhuri, and S. Y. R. Hui, “Droop control of distributed electric springs for stabilizing future power grid,” IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 1558–1566, Sept 2013.

[4] C. K. Lee, B. Chaudhuri, and S. Y. Hui, “Hardware and control implementation of electric springs for stabilizing future smart grid with intermittent renewable energy sources,” IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 18–27, March 2013.

[5] C. K. Lee, K. L. Cheng, and W. M. Ng, “Load characterisation of electric spring,” in 2013 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, Sept 2013, pp. 4665–4670.