Reduction of Energy Storage Requirements in Future Smart Grid Using Electric Springs

 

ABSTRACT:

The electric spring is an emerging technology proven to be effective in i) stabilizing smart grid with substantial penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources and ii) enabling load demand to follow power generation. The subtle change from output voltage control to input voltage control of a reactive power controller offers the electric spring new features suitable for future smart grid applications. In this project, the effects of such subtle control change are highlighted, and the use of the electric springs in reducing energy storage requirements in power grid is theoretically proven and practically demonstrated in an experimental setup of a 90 kVApower grid.Unlike traditional Statcom and StaticVar Compensation technologies, the electric spring offers not only reactive power compensation but also automatic power variation in non-critical loads. Such an advantageous feature enables noncritical loads with embedded electric springs to be adaptive to future power grid. Consequently, the load demand can follow power generation, and the energy buffer and therefore energy storage requirements can be reduced.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Distributed power systems
  2. Energy storage
  3. Smart grid
  4. Stability

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

 

Fig. 1. Experimental setup based on the 90 kVA Smart Grid Hardware Simulation System at the Maurice Hancock Smart Energy Laboratory.

 EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Fig. 2. Measured rms power line voltage (vs) and non-critical load voltage (vo)

Fig. 3. Measured average powers of the wind power simulator (PG+PR), battery storage (PS) and non-critical load(P1)

Fig. 4. Measured power (Ps) and energy change (Es) of the battery storage.

Fig. 5. Measured electric spring reactive power (QES), critical load voltage (VR2) and power (P2).

 CONCLUSION:

In this paper, the differences between the output voltage control and the input voltage control of a reactive power controller are highlighted. While energy storage is an effective but expensive means to balance power supply and demand, an analysis and practical confirmation are presented to show that electric springs can reduce energy storage requirements in a power grid. Electric springs allow the non-critical load power to vary with the renewable energy profile. By reducing the instantaneous power imbalance of power supply and demand, electric springs allow the non-critical load demand profile to follow the power generation profile and reduce the energy storage requirements in power grid. This important point has been theoretically proved and practically verified in an experimental setup. Due to the advantageous features such as enabling the load demand to follow the power generation, the reduction of energy storage requirements, the reactive power compensation for voltage regulation, and the possibility of both active and reactive power control [28], electric springs open a door to distributed stability control for future smart grid with substantial penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources.

REFERENCES:

[1] D. Westermann and A. John, “Demand matching wind power generation with wide-area measurement and demand-side management,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 22, no. 1 , pp. 145–149, 2007.

[2] P. Palensky and D. Dietrich, “Demand side management: Demand response, intelligent energy systems, and smart loads,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Inform., vol. 7 , no. 3 , pp. 381–388, 2011.

[3] P. Varaiya, F. Wu, and J. Bialek, “Smart operation of smart grid: Risklimiting dispatch,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 99, no. 1 , pp. 40–57, 2011.

[4] I. Koutsopoulos and L. Tassiulas, “Challenges in demand load control for the smart grid,” IEEE Netw., vol. 25, no. 5 , pp. 16–21, 2011.

[5] A. Mohsenian-Rad, V. W. S. Wong, J. Jatskevich, R. Schober, and A. Leon-Garcia, “Autonomous demand-side management based on gametheoretic energy consumption scheduling for the future smart grid,” IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 1 , no. 3 , pp. 320–331, 2011.

 

 

DC Electric Springs A Technology for Stabilizing DC Power Distribution Systems

 

ABSTRACT:

There is a growing interest in using DC power systems and microgrids for our electricity transmission and distribution, particularly with the increasing penetration of photovoltaic power systems. This paper presents an electric active suspension technology known as the DC electric springs for voltage stabilization and power quality improvement. The basic operating modes and characteristic of a DC electric spring with different types of serially-connected non-critical loads will first be introduced. Then, the various power delivery issues of the DC power systems, namely bus voltage variation, voltage droop, system fault, and harmonics, are briefly described. The operating limits of a DC electric spring in a DC power grid is studied. It is demonstrated that the aforementioned issues can be mitigated using the proposed DC electric spring technology. Experiment results are provided to verify the feasibility of the proposed technology.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Smart load
  2. Distributed power systems
  3. Power electronics
  4. Electric springs
  5. DC grids
  6. Smart grid

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

 

Fig. 1. The basic configuration of DC electric springs.

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Fig. 2. Enlarged experiment waveforms based on the raw data exported from the oscilloscope corresponding

Fig. 3. Enlarged experiment waveforms based on the raw data exported from the oscilloscope corresponding

CONCLUSION:

In this paper, the concept of DC electric springs (ES) is firstly introduced to cope with several issues of DC power grids. The DC-ES is proposed as an active suspension system. Similar to their AC counterparts, the DC-ES can provide dynamic voltage regulation for the DC bus. The DC-ES connected in series with different types of non-critical loads to form a smart load have been analyzed and their operating modes have been identified and explained. Furthermore, the operating limits of the DC-ES under a given set of system parameters is studied, which provides quantitative analytical procedures to estimate the theoretical limits of ES. The paper provides a fundamental study on the DC-ES including the characteristics, the modes of operation, and the operating limits. The theoretical analysis and the performance of the DCES have been practically verified.

REFERENCES:

[1] R. Lobenstein and C. Sulzberger, “Eyewitness to DC history,” Power and Energy Magazine, IEEE, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 84–90, May 2008.

[2] G. Neidhofer, “Early three-phase power,” Power and Energy Magazine, IEEE, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 88–100, Sep. 2007.

[3] B. C. Beaudreau, World Trade: A Network Approach. iUniverse, 2004.

[4] H. Kakigano, Y. Miura, and T. Ise, “Distribution voltage control for DC microgrids using fuzzy control and gain-scheduling technique,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 2246–2258, May 2013.

[5] P. Loh, D. Li, Y. K. Chai, and F. Blaabjerg, “Autonomous operation of hybrid microgrid with AC and DC subgrids,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 2214–2223, May 2013.

Electric Springs—A New Smart Grid Technology

 

ABSTRACT:

The scientific principle of “mechanical springs” was described by the British physicist Robert Hooke in the 1660’s. Since then, there has not been any further development of the Hooke’s law in the electric regime. In this paper, this technological gap is filled by the development of “electric springs.” The scientific principle, the operating modes, the limitations, and the practical realization of the electric springs are reported. It is discovered that such novel concept has huge potential in stabilizing future power systems with substantial penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources. This concept has been successfully demonstrated in a practical power system setup fed by an ac power source with a fluctuating wind energy source. The electric spring is found to be effective in regulating the mains voltage despite the fluctuation caused by the intermittent nature of wind power. Electric appliances with the electric springs embedded can be turned into a new generation of smart loads, which have their power demand following the power generation profile. It is envisaged that electric springs, when distributed over the power grid, will offer a new form of power system stability solution that is independent of information and communication technology.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Distributed power systems
  2. Smart loads
  3. Stability

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. The experimental setup for the electric spring (with control block diagram).

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 Fig. 2. Measured steady-state electric spring waveforms under “neutral” mode. . Va=4.5vac QES=17.5 var, .[Electric spring voltage is near zero.]

Fig. 3. Measured steady-state electric spring waveforms under “capacitive” mode. Va=97.9vac QES=-349.9 var

Fig. 4. Measured steady-state electric spring waveforms under “inductive” mode. Va=94.3vac QES=348.4 var.

                               

Fig. 5. Measured root-mean-square values of the mains voltage vs, noncritical load voltage vo and electric spring voltage va before and after the electric spring is activated. [Electric spring is programmed for voltage boosting function only.]

Fig. 6. Measured power of the critical load and noncritical loads [Electric spring is programmed for voltage boosting function only.]

Fig. 7. Measured root-mean-square values of the critical load (mains) voltage  vs, noncritical load load voltage vo and electric spring voltage va before and after the electric spring is activated. [Electric spring is programmed for both voltage boosting and suppression functions.]

Fig. 8. Measured power of the critical load and smart load. [Electric spring is programmed for both voltage boosting and suppression functions.].

 CONCLUSION:

The Hooke’s law on mechanical springs has been developed into an electric spring concept with new scientific applications for modern society. The scientific principles, operating modes and limits of the electric spring are explained. An electric spring has been practically tested for both voltage support and suppression, and for shaping load demand (of about 2.5 kW) to follow the fluctuating wind power profile in a 10 kVA power system fed by an ac power source and a wind power simulator. The electric springs can be incorporated into many existing noncritical electric loads such as water heaters and road lighting systems [26] to form a new generation of smart loads that are adaptive to the power grid. If many noncritical loads are equipped with such electric springs and distributed over the power grid, these electric springs (similar to the spring array in Fig. 1) will provide a highly reliable and effective solution for distributed energy storage, voltage regulation and damping functions for future power systems. Such stability measures are also independent of information and communication technology (ICT). This discovery based on the three-century-old Hooke’s law offers a practical solution to the new control paradigm that the load demand should follow the power generation in future power grid with substantial renewable energy sources. Unlike traditional reactive power compensation methods, electric springs offer both reactive power compensation and real power variation in the noncritical loads. With many countries determined to de-carbonize electric power generation for reducing global warming by increasing renewable energy up to 20% of the total electrical power output by 2020 [22]–[25], electric spring is a novel concept that enables human society to use renewable energy as nature provides. The Hooke’s law developed in the 17th century has laid down the foundation for stability control of renewable power systems in the 21st century.

 REFERENCES:

[1] Hooke’s law—Britannica Encyclopedia [Online]. Available:

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/271336/Hookes-law

[2] A. M. Wahl, Mechanical Springs, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963.

[3] W. S. Slaughter, The Linearized Theory of Elasticity. Boston, MA: Birkhauser, 2002.

[4] K. Symon, Mechanics. ISBN 0-201-07392-7. Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley, Reading,1971.

[5] R. Hooke, De Potentia Restitutiva, or of Spring Explaining the Power of Springing Bodies. London, U.K.: John Martyn, vol. 1678, p. 23.

Electric Springs—A New Smart Grid Technology

ABSTRACT:

 The scientific principle of “mechanical springs” was described by the British physicist Robert Hooke in the 1660’s. Since then, there has not been any further development of the Hooke’s law in the electric regime. In this paper, this technological gap is filled by the development of “electric springs.” The scientific principle, the operating modes, the limitations, and the practical realization of the electric springs are reported. It is discovered that such novel concept has huge potential in stabilizing future power systems with substantial penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources. This concept has been successfully demonstrated in a practical power system setup fed by an ac power source with a fluctuating wind energy source. The electric spring is found to be effective in regulating the mains voltage despite the fluctuation caused by the intermittent nature of wind power. Electric appliances with the electric springs embedded can be turned into a new generation of smart loads, which have their power demand following the power generation profile. It is envisaged that electric springs, when distributed over the power grid, will offer a new form of power system stability solution that is independent of information and communication technology.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Distributed power systems
  2. Smart loads
  3. Stability

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. The experimental setup for the electric spring (with control block diagram).

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS

Fig. 2. Measured steady-state electric spring waveforms under “neutral” mode. . Va=4.5vac QES=17.5 var, . [Electric spring voltage is near zero.]

 

Fig. 3. Measured steady-state electric spring waveforms under “capacitive” mode. Va=97.9vac QES=-349.9 var

 

Fig. 4. Measured steady-state electric spring waveforms under “inductive” mode. Va=94.3vac QES=348.4 var.

 CONCLUSION:

 The Hooke’s law on mechanical springs has been developed into an electric spring concept with new scientific applications for modern society. The scientific principles, operating modes and limits of the electric spring are explained. An electric spring has been practically tested for both voltage support and suppression, and for shaping load demand (of about 2.5 kW) to follow the fluctuating wind power profile in a 10 kVA power system fed by an ac power source and a wind power simulator. The electric springs can be incorporated into many existing noncritical electric loads such as water heaters and road lighting systems [26] to form a new generation of smart loads that are adaptive to the power grid. If many noncritical loads are equipped with such electric springs and distributed over the power grid, these electric springs (similar to the spring array in Fig. 1) will provide a highly reliable and effective solution for distributed energy  storage, voltage regulation and damping functions for future power systems. Such stability measures are also independent of information and communication technology (ICT). This discovery based on the three-century-old Hooke’s law offers a practical solution to the new control paradigm that the load demand should follow the power generation in future power grid with substantial renewable energy sources. Unlike traditional reactive power compensation methods, electric springs offer both reactive power compensation and real power variation in the noncritical loads. With many countries determined to de-carbonize electric power generation for reducing global warming by increasing renewable energy up to 20% of the total electrical power output by 2020 [22]–[25], electric spring is a novel concept that enables human society to use renewable energy as nature provides. The Hooke’s law developed in the 17th century has laid down the foundation for stability control of renewable power systems in the 21st century.

REFERENCES:

 [1] Hooke’s law—Britannica Encyclopedia [Online]. Available: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/271336/Hookes-law

[2] A. M. Wahl, Mechanical Springs, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963.

[3] W. S. Slaughter, The Linearized Theory of Elasticity. Boston, MA: Birkhauser, 2002.

[4] K. Symon, Mechanics. ISBN 0-201-07392-7. Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley, Reading,1971. [5] R. Hooke, De Potentia Restitutiva, or of Spring Explaining the Power of Springing Bodies. London, U.K.: John Martyn, vol. 1678, p. 23.