Transformer-less dynamic voltage restorer based on buck-boost converter

ABSTRACT

In this study, a new topology for dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) has been proposed. The topology is inspired by the buck-boost ac/ac converter to produce the required compensation voltage. This topology is able to compensate different voltage disturbances such as sag, swell and flicker without leap of the phase angle. The mass of the proposed topology has been reduced due to lack of injection topology. In addition to, the required compensation energy is directly delivered from the grid through the grid voltage. Therefore, the massive dc-link capacitors are not required to implement. To verify the qualification of the topology, the simulation results by MATLAB/SIMULINK software have been presented. Moreover, an experimental prototype of the case study has been designed and tested.

 

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

 

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1 Proposed topology

 

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Fig. 2. Simulation results for sag compensation

 

 

Fig. 3 Simulation results for swell compensation

 

Fig. 4. Simulation results

 

CONCLUSION

In this paper a new topology for DVR using buck-boost ac/ac converter was proposed. This topology contains five bidirectional switches, an inductor and a capacitor. Unlike the conventional topologies, the proposed DVR does not have any injection transformer due to the structural features. Because of direct connection to the grid, the storage elements are not required in the proposed topology. Therefore, this topology has less physical volume, mass and price in comparison with traditional topologies. Any kind of voltage disturbances can be compensated by the proposed topology and the effective operation has been confirmed by simulation and experimental results.

 

 

 

REFERENCES

 

  • Hietpas, S.M., Naden, M.: ‘Automatic voltage regulator using an AC voltagevoltage converter’, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., 2000, 36, (1), pp. 33–38
  • Vilathgamuwa, D.M., Member, S., Perera, A.A.D.R., et al.: ‘Dynamic voltage restorer’, 2003, 18, (3), pp. 928–936
  • Wijekoon, H.M., Vilathgamuwa, D.M., Choi, S.S.: ‘Interline dynamic voltage restorer: an economical way to improve interline power quality’, IEE Proc. Gener. Transm. Distrib., 2003, 150, (5), pp. 513–520
  • Wang, B., Member, S., Venkataramanan, G., et al.: ‘Operation and control of a dynamic voltage restorer using transformer coupled H-bridge converters’, 2006, 21, (4), pp. 1053–1061
  • Babaei, E., Farhadi Kangarlu, M.: ‘Voltage quality improvement by a dynamic voltage restorer based on a direct three-phase converter with fictitious DC link’, IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., 2011, 5, (8), p. 814

An Adjustable-Speed PFC Bridgeless Buck–Boost Converter-Fed BLDC Motor Drive

ABSTRACT:

This paper presents a power factor corrected (PFC) bridgeless (BL) buck–boost converter-fed brushless direct current (BLDC) motor drive as a cost-effective solution for low-power applications. An approach of speed control of the BLDC motor by controlling the dc link voltage of the voltage source inverter (VSI) is used with a single voltage sensor. This facilitates the operation of VSI at fundamental frequency switching by using the electronic commutation of the BLDC motor which offers reduced switching losses. A BL configuration of the buck–boost converter is proposed which offers the elimination of the diode bridge rectifier, thus reducing the conduction losses associated with it. A PFC BL buck–boost converter is designed to operate in discontinuous inductor current mode (DICM) to provide an inherent PFC at ac mains. The performance of the proposed drive is evaluated over a wide range of speed control and varying supply voltages (universal ac mains at 90–265 V) with improved power quality at ac mains. The obtained power quality indices are within the acceptable limits of international power quality standards such as the IEC 61000-3-2. The performance of the proposed drive is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink environment, and the obtained results are validated experimentally on a developed prototype of the drive.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Bridgeless (BL) buck–boost converter
  2. Brushless direct current (BLDC) motor
  3. Discontinuous inductor current mode (DICM)
  4. Power factor corrected (PFC)
  5. Power quality

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. Proposed BLDC motor drive with front-end BL buck–boost converter

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 Fig. 2. Steady-state performance of the proposed BLDC motor drive at rated conditions.

Fig. 3. Harmonic spectra of supply current at rated supply voltage and rated loading on BLDC motor for a dc link voltage of (a) 200 V and (b) 50 V.

Fig. 4. Dynamic performance of proposed BLDC motor drive during (a) starting, (b) speed control, and (c) supply voltage variation at rated conditions

Fig. 5. Harmonic spectra of supply current at rated loading on BLDC motor

with dc link voltage as 200 V and supply voltage as (a) 90 V and (b) 270 V.

Fig. 6. Steady-state performance of the proposed BLDC motor drive at rated conditions with dc link voltage as (a) 200 V and (b) 50 V.

 CONCLUSION:

A PFC BL buck–boost converter-based VSI-fed BLDC motor drive has been proposed targeting low-power applications. A new method of speed control has been utilized by controlling the voltage at dc bus and operating the VSI at fundamental frequency for the electronic commutation of the BLDC motor for reducing the switching losses in VSI. The front-end BL buck–boost converter has been operated in DICM for achieving an inherent power factor correction at ac mains. A satisfactory performance has been achieved for speed control and supply voltage variation with power quality indices within the acceptable limits of IEC 61000-3-2. Moreover, voltage and current stresses on the PFC switch have been evaluated for determining the practical

application of the proposed scheme. Finally, an experimental prototype of the proposed drive has been developed to validate the performance of the proposed BLDC motor drive under speed control with improved power quality at ac mains. The proposed scheme has shown satisfactory performance, and it is a recommended solution applicable to low-power BLDC motor drives.

REFERENCES:

[1] C. L. Xia, Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motor Drives and Controls. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2012.

[2] J. Moreno, M. E. Ortuzar, and J. W. Dixon, “Energy-management system for a hybrid electric vehicle, using ultracapacitors and neural networks,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 614–623, Apr. 2006.

[3] Y. Chen, C. Chiu, Y. Jhang, Z. Tang, and R. Liang, “A driver for the singlephase brushless dc fan motor with hybrid winding structure,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 60, no. 10, pp. 4369–4375, Oct. 2013.

[4] X. Huang, A. Goodman, C. Gerada, Y. Fang, and Q. Lu, “A single sided matrix converter drive for a brushless dc motor in aerospace applications,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 59, no. 9, pp. 3542–3552, Sep. 2012.

[5] H. A. Toliyat and S. Campbell, DSP-Based Electromechanical Motion Control. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 2004.

Novel Approach Employing Buck-Boost Converter as DC-Link Modulator and Inverter as AC-Chopper for Induction Motor Drive Applications: An Alternative to Conventional AC-DC-AC Scheme

 

ABSTRACT:

Induction motor (IM) is the workhorse of the industries. Amongst various speed control schemes for IM, variable-voltage variable-frequency (VVVF) is popularly used. Inverters are broadly used to produce variable/controlled frequency and variable/controlled output voltage for various applications like ac machine drives, switched mode power supply (SMPS), uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), etc. This paper presents the two-fold solution of control for such loads. In this novel solution, rms values of output voltage is varied by controlling the inverter duty ratio which operates as an ac chopper, while the fundamental frequency of output voltage is varied by controlling the buck-boost converter according to the reference frequency given to it. The buck-boost converter shuffles between buck-mode and boost-mode to produce required frequency by generating the modulated dc-link for the inverter, unlike conventional fixed dc-link in case of ac-dc-ac converters. The proposed technique eliminates over modulation (as in conventional pulse width modulated inverters) and hence the non-linearity, and lower order harmonics are absent. Further, it reduces dv/dt in the output voltage resulting less stress on the insulation of machine winding, and electromagnetic interference. However, the proposed scheme demands more number of power semiconductor devices as compared to their conventional ac-dc ac counterparts. Simulation studies of proposed single-phase as well as three-phase topologies are carried out in MATLAB/Simulink. Hardware implementation of proposed single-phase topology is done using dSPACE DS1104 R&D controller board and results are presented.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Ac-chopper
  2. Buck-boost converter
  3. Dc-link modulation
  4. Inverter
  5. Variable-voltage variable-frequency
  6. V/f  induction motor drive

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. Block diagram for the proposed topology.

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

 (a) Plot of output voltage (rms) of inverter v/s duty ratio.

 

(b) Output voltage waveform of the proposed inverter: [X-axis: 1 div. = 0.01 s, Y-axis: 1 div. = 100 V].

(c) Output voltage of conventional inverter for unipolar SPWM: [X-axis: 1 div. = 0.01 s, Y-axis: 1 div. = 100 V].

(d) FFT plot of the output voltage with the proposed topology.

(e) FFT plot of output voltage with unipolar SPWM inverter.

Fig. 2. Analysis of the proposed topology.

 

(a) Output voltage of the proposed topology: [X-axis: 1 div. = 0.01 s, Y-axis:

1 div. = 50 V].

(b) Comparison of reference voltage and input voltage (upper trace), comparison of reference voltage and output voltage (lower trace) of buck-boost converter Upper trace: [X-axis: 1 div. = 0.01 s, Y-axis: 1 div. = 100 V] Lower trace: [X-axis: 1 div. = 0.01 s, Y-axis: 1 div. = 50 V].

(c) Output voltage and reference voltage of buck-boost converter at f=10 Hz,

f=20 Hz, f=25 Hz: [X-axis: 1 div. = 0.01 s, Y-axis: 1 div. = 100 V].

(d) Output voltage and reference voltage of buck-boost converter at f=30 Hz,

f=40 Hz, f=50 Hz: [X-axis: 1 div. = 0.01 s, Y-axis: 1 div. = 100 V].

Fig. 3 Simulation results of the proposed buck-boost converter.

(b) Gate pulses of MOSFETs M2 and M3, Comparison of input voltage and reference voltage, Gate pulses M1, M2, M3: [X-axis: 1 div. = 0.002 s, Y-axis: 1 div. = 1 V], Voltage: [X-axis: 1 div. = 0.002 s, Y-axis: 1 div. = 100 V].

(c) Output voltage waveforms of buck-boost converter without La Output voltage of buck-boost converter and reference voltage with La: [X-axis: 1 div. = 0.02 s, Y-axis: 1 div. = 50 V], Output voltage of inverter with La: [Xaxis: 1 div. = 0.02 s, Y-axis: 1 div. = 100 V].

(d) Output voltage of buck-boost converter and inverter and inverter with La Blue color: Reference voltage, Green color: Actual output voltage of buckboost converter, Output voltage of buck-boost converter and reference voltage without La: [X-axis: 1 div. = 0.02 s, Y-axis: 1 div. = 50 V], Output voltage of inverter without La: [X-axis: 1 div. = 0.02 s, Y-axis: 1 div. = 100 V].

Fig. 4 Results for improving output voltage of inverter.

(b) Pole voltage of phase A and output of buck-boost converter compared with reference voltage of three-phase system Blue color: Reference voltage Green color: Actual output voltage of buck-boost converter for three-phase Pole voltage of phase A: [X-axis: 1 div. = 0.05 s, Y-axis: 1 div. = 50 V] Output voltage of buck-boost converter of phase A: [X-axis: 1 div. = 0.05 s,

Y-axis: 1 div. = 50 V].

Fig. 5 Simulation result of proposed three-phase topology.

CONCLUSION:

Relation between fundamental output voltage (rms) and duty ratio of switches of ac chopper operating as inverter is linear. So, on increasing the duty ratio of pulses given to switches, output voltage of inverter increases linearly. To get 100 % inverter output voltage, no need to go in over modulation region, which eliminates the non-linearity. The profile of output voltage of inverter (with chopping depending on the duty ratio of its switches) is sinusoidal because of modulated dc-link provided by the buck-boost converter, which reduces lower order harmonics, and %THD. It also reduces dv/dt as envelope of output voltage is sinusoidal as full dc-link voltage is not switched. This reduction in dv/dt reduces the stresses on the enameled copper wire of the stator winding of the motor. It will reduce the inter-turn short circuit failure of stator winding. Also this reduction of dv/dt will reduce the electromagnetic interference generated by the inverter in the drive system. In the proposed scheme, output voltage of buck-boost converter follows the reference voltage very closely for different frequencies, so when reference voltage is greater than input voltage, converter has to operate in boost mode else operates in buck mode. Hardware implementation of proposed single phase scheme is carried out. The hardware results have very close resemblance with the simulation results. The proposed concept is novel, and with appropriate refinements, can offer new era of control of inverter for V/f three-phase induction motor drive applications. However, it demands more number of power semiconductor devices compared to that needed for the conventional ac-dc-ac approach.

REFERENCES:

[1] Jose Thankachan, and Saly George, “A novel switching scheme for three phase PWM ac chopper fed induction motor,” in Proc. IEEE 5th India International Conference on Power Electronics (IICPE), pp. 1-4, 2012.

[2] Amudhavalli D., and Narendran L., “Speed control of an induction motor by V/f method using an improved Z-source inverter,” in Proc. International Conference on Emerging Trends in Electrical Engineering and Energy Management (ICETEEEM), pp. 436-440, 2012.

[3] G. W. Heumann, “Adjustable frequency control of high-speed induction motors,” Electrical Engineering, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 576-579, June 1947. [4] Mineo Tsuji, Xiaodan Zhao, He Zhang, and Shinichi Hamasaki, “New simplified V/f control of induction motor for precise speed operation,” in Proc. International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), pp. 1-6 , 2011.

[5] V. K. Jayakrishnan, M. V. Sarin, K. Archana, and A. Chitra, “Performance analysis of MLI fed induction motor drive with IFOC speed control,” in Proc. Annual IEEE India Conference (INDICON), pp. 1-6, 2013.

Backstepping Control of Smart Grid-Connected Distributed Photovoltaic Power Supplies for Telecom Equipment

ABSTRACT:

Backstepping controllers are obtained for distributed hybrid photovoltaic (PV) power supplies of telecommunication equipment. Grid-connected PV-based power supply units may contain dc–dc buck–boost converters linked to single-phase inverters. This distributed energy resource operated within the self consumption concept can aid in the peak-shaving strategy of ac smart grids. New backstepping control laws are obtained for the single-phase inverter and for the buck–boost converter feeding a telecom equipment/battery while sourcing the PV excess power to the smart grid or to grid supply the telecom system. The backstepping approach is robust and able to cope with the grid nonlinearity and uncertainties providing dc input current and voltage controllers for the buck–boost converter to track the PV panel maximum power point, regulating the PV output dc voltage to extract maximum power; unity power factor sinusoidal ac smart grid inverter currents and constant dc-link voltages suited for telecom equipment; and inverter bidirectional power transfer. Experimental results are obtained from a lab setup controlled by one inexpensive dsPIC running the sampling, the backstepping and modulator algorithms. Results show the controllers guarantee maximum power transfer to the telecom equipment/ac grid, ensuring steady dc-link voltage while absorbing/injecting low harmonic distortion current into the smart grid.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Backstepping
  2. Buck–boost converter
  3. Dc/ac converter
  4. MPPT
  5. Self-consumption
  6. Smart grids

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

 image001

Fig. 1. PV distributed hybrid self-consumption system and telecom load.

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 image002

 Fig. 2. MPPT operation.

       image003

Fig. 3. Voltage and current waveforms when there is a change from inverter to rectifier.

image004

Fig. 4. (a)Voltage and current waveforms when there is a change from inverter to rectifier. (b) Center part zoom of (a).

image005

Fig. 5. Voltage and current waveforms when the load requires 25 W.

image006

Fig. 6. Voltage and current waveforms when the load requires 62 W.

image007

Fig. 7. DC–AC converter input power.

 CONCLUSION:

This paper proposes a novel backstepping controller for a PV panel feeding a buck–boost converter, and dc linked to a telecom load and a single-phase ac–dc converter connected to a smart grid, configuring a subset of a distributed hybrid photovoltaic power supply for telecom equipments within the self-consumption concept. This setup absorbs/injects nearly sinusoidal (THD = 1.6%, lower than the 3% required by the standards) grid currents at near unity power factor and the self consumption can contribute to the smart grid peak power shaving strategy.

New nonlinear backstepping control laws were obtained for the input voltage of the buck–boost converter, thus achieving MPP operation (MPPT efficiency between 98.2% and 99.9%) and for the dc–ac converter regulating the dc telecom load voltage and controlling the ac grid current. All the control laws, fixed frequency converter modulators, voltage and current sampling, and grid synchronization have been implemented using a low-cost dsPIC30F4011 microcontroller.

Obtained experimental results show the performance of the PV self-consumption system using the backstepping control method. Results show the system dynamic behavior when the dc–ac converter changes operation from inverter to rectifier to adapt itself to the telecom load requirements. The robustness of the control laws has been tested as well. Capacitance of real capacitors can vary almost ten times around the rated value, while inductances can vary from 30% to nearly 300% of the rated value.

 REFERENCES:

[1] N. Femia, G. Petrone, G. Spagnuolo, and M. Vitelli, Power Electronics and Control Techniques for Maximum Energy Harvesting in Photovoltaic Systems. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 2013.

[2] A.Maki and S. Valkealahti, “Effect of photovoltaic generator components on the number of MPPs under partial shading conditions,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 1008–1017, Dec. 2013.

[3] Epia Org. (2013, Jul.). Self-consumption of PV electricity—Position paper. [Online]. Available:http://www.epia.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Position_Papers/Self_and_direct_consumption_-_position_paper_-_final _version.pdf

[4] SunEdison. (2011, Nov.). Enabling the European consumer to generate power for self-consumption. [Online]. Available: http://www. sunedison.com/wps/wcm/connect/35bfb52a-ec27-4751-8670-fe6e807e8063/SunEdison_PV_Self  consumption_Study_high_resolution_%2813_ Mb%29.pdf?MOD=AJPERES

[5] A. Nourai, R. Sastry, and T.Walker, “A vision & strategy for deployment of energy storage in electric utilities,” in Proc. IEEE Power Energy Soc. Gen. Meeting, 2010, pp. 1–4.

Comprehensive Study of Single-Phase AC-DC Power Factor Corrected Converters with High-Frequency Isolation

ABSTRACT: Solid-state switch mode AC-DC converters having high-frequency transformer isolation are developed in buck, boost, and buck-boost configurations with improved power quality in terms of reduced total harmonic distortion (THD) of input current, power-factor correction (PFC) at AC mains and precisely regulated and isolated DC output voltage feeding to loads from few Watts to several kW. This paper presents a comprehensive study on state of art of power factor corrected single-phase AC-DC converters configurations, control strategies, selection of components and design considerations, performance evaluation, power quality considerations, selection criteria and potential applications, latest trends, and future developments. Simulation results as well as comparative performance are presented and discussed for most of the proposed topologies.

 

INDEX TERMS: AC-DC converters, harmonic reduction, high-frequency (HF) transformer isolation, improved power quality converters, power-factor correction.

 

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

image001

Fig. 1. Classification of improved power quality single-phase AC-DC converters with HF transformer isolation.

CIRCUIT CONFIGURATIONS

A. Buck AC-DC Converters

image002         image003

Fig. 2. Buck forward AC-DC converter with voltage follower control.

Fig. 3. Buck push-pull AC-DC converter with voltage follower control.

                                           image004       image005

 

 

 

 

Fig. 4. Half-bridge buck AC-DC converter with voltage follower control.

Fig. 5. Buck full-bridge AC-DC converter with voltage follower control

 B. Boost AC-DC Converters

image006     image007

Fig. 6. Boost forward AC-DC converter with current multiplier control.

Fig. 7. Boost push-pull AC-DC converter with current multiplier control.

image008     image009

Fig. 8. Boost half-bridge AC-DC converter with current multiplier control.

Fig. 9. Boost full-bridge AC-DC converter with current multiplier control.

 C. Buck-Boost AC-DC Converters

image010           image011

Fig. 10. Flyback AC-DC converter with current multiplier control.

Fig. 11. Cuk AC-DC converter with voltage follower control.

image012      image013

Fig. 12. SEPIC AC-DC converter with voltage follower control.

Fig. 13. Zeta AC-DC converter with voltage follower control.

 

SIMULATION RESULTS:

image014

Fig. 14. Current waveforms and its THD for buck AC-DC converter topologies in CCM. (a) Forward buck topology (Fig. 2).( b) Push-pull buck topology (Fig. 3). (c) Half-bridge buck topology (Fig. 4). (d) Bridge buck topology (Fig. 5).

image015

Fig. 15. Current waveforms and its THD for boost AC-DC converter topologies in CCM. (a) Forward boost topology (Fig. 6). (b) Push-pull boost topology (Fig. 7). (c) Half-bridge boost topology (Fig. 8). (d) Bridge boost topology (Fig. 9).

image016

Fig. 16. Current waveforms and its THD for buck-boost AC-DC converter topologies in CCM. (a) Flyback topology (Fig. 10). (b) Cuk topology (Fig. 11). (c) SEPIC topology (Fig. 12). (d) Zeta topology (Fig. 13).

image017

Fig. 17. Current waveforms and its THD for buck AC-DC converter topologies in DCM. (a) Forward buck topology (Fig. 2). (b) Push-pull buck topology (Fig. 3). (c) Half-bridge buck topology (Fig. 4). (d) Bridge buck topology (Fig. 5).

image018

Fig. 18. Current waveforms and its THD for boost AC-DC converter topologies in DCM. (a) Forward boost topology (Fig. 6). (b) Push-pull boost topology (Fig. 7).

image019

Fig. 19. Current waveforms and its THD for buck-boost AC-DC converter topologies in DCM. (a) Flyback topology (Fig. 10). (b) Cuk topology (Fig. 11). (c) SEPIC topology (Fig. 12). (d) Zeta topology (Fig. 13).

 

CONCLUSION

A comprehensive review of the improved power quality HF transformer isolated AC-DC converters has been made to present a detailed exposure on their various topologies and its design to the application engineers, manufacturers, users and researchers. A detailed classification of these AC-DC converters into 12 categories with number of circuits and concepts has been carried out to provide easy selection of proper topology for a specific application. These AC-DC converters provide a high level of power quality at AC mains and well regulated, ripple free isolated DC outputs. Moreover, these converters have been found to operate very satisfactorily with very wide AC mains voltage and frequency variations resulting in a concept of universal input. The new developments in device technology, integrated magnetic and microelectronics are expected to provide a tremendous boost for these AC-DC converters in exploring number of additional applications. It is hoped that this exhaustive design and simulation of these HF transformer isolated AC-DC converters is expected to be a timely reference to manufacturers, designers, researchers, and application engineers working in the area of power supplies.

 

REFERENCES

[1] IEEE Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonics Control in Electric Power Systems, IEEE Standard 519, 1992.

[2] Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) – Part 3: Limits- Section 2: Limits for Harmonic Current Emissions (equipment input current 􀀀16 A per phase), IEC1000-3-2 Document, 1st ed., 1995.

[3] A. I. Pressman, Switching Power Supply Design, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998.

[4] K. Billings, Switchmode Power Supply Handbook, 2nd ed. NewYork: McGraw-Hill, 1999.

[5] N. Mohan, T. Udeland, and W. Robbins, Power Electronics: Converters, Applications and Design, 3rd ed. New York: Wiley, 2002.