A Simple Active and Reactive Power Control for Applications of Single-Phase Electric Springs


Aiming at effective power management in microgrids with high penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs), the paper proposes a simple power control for the so-called second-generation, single-phase electric springs (ES-2), that overcomes the shortcomings of the existing ES control methods. By the proposed control, the unpredictable power generated from RESs is divided into two parts, i.e. the one absorbed by the ES-2 that still varies and the other injected into the grid that turns to be controllable, by a simple and accurate signal manipulation that works both at steady-state and during RES transients. It is believed that such a control is suitable for the distributed power generation, especially at domestic homes.  In the paper, the proposed control is supported by a theoretical background. Its effectiveness is at first validated by simulations and then by experiments. To this purpose, a typical RES application is considered, and an experimental setup is arranged, built up around an ES-2 implementing the proposed control. Testing of the setup is carried out in three steps and proves not only the smooth operation of the ES-2 itself, but also its capability in running the application properly.



  1. Electric spring
  2. Smart load
  3. Microgrids
  4. Power control
  5. Grid connected
  6. Distributed generation.





Fig. 1. Topology of ES-2 and associated circuitry.



Fig. 2 Simulation waveforms under different variations of the input active power. (a) From 1.6kW to 1.1kW and then back to 1.6kW @ VG=230V. (b) From 8kW to 2kW and then back to 8kW @ VG=200V. (c) From 8kW to 4kW and then to 2kW @ VG=200V..

Fig. 3. Transient ES-2 responses to a change of the line voltage with Pinref=1.5kW. (a) From 240V to 210V. (b) From 210V to 240V

Fig. 4. Simulation waveforms before and after grid distortion. (a) Results of PLL. (b) Results of active and reactive power of ES system.



The input active and reactive power control is proposed for the purpose of practical application of ES-2 in this paper. An overall review and analysis have been done on the existing control strategies such as δ control and RCD control, revealing that the essences of the controls on ES-2 are to control the input active power and reactive power. If being equipped together with the distributed generation from RESs, the ES-2 can manage the fluctuated power and make sure the controllable power to grid, which means that the ES-2 is able to deal with the active power captured by MPPT algorithm. Simulations have been done on the steady and transient analysis and also under the grid anomalies, validating the effectiveness of the proposed control. Three steps have been set in the experiments to verify the three typical situations and namely the active power generated by the GCC from RESs are, 1) more than; 2) less than; 3) the same as the load demand. Tested results have validated the proposed control.



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Grid-Connected PV Array with Supercapacitor Energy Storage System for Fault Ride Through


A fault ride through, power management and control strategy for grid integrated photovoltaic (PV) system with supercapacitor energy storage system (SCESS) is presented in this paper. During normal operation the SCESS will be used to minimize the short term fluctuation as it has high power density and during fault at the grid side it will be used to store the generated power from the PV array for later use and for fault ride through. To capture the maximum available solar power, Incremental Conductance (IC) method is used for maximum power point tracking (MPPT). An independent P-Q control is implemented to transfer the generated power to the grid using a Voltage source inverter (VSI). The SCESS is connected to the system using a bi-directional buck boost converter. The system model has been developed that consists of PV module, buck converter for MPPT, buck-boost converter to connect the SCESS to the DC link. Three independent controllers are implemented for each power electronics block. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is examined on Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) and the results verify the superiority of the proposed approach.


  1. Active and reactive power control
  2. Fault ride through
  3. MPPT
  4. Photovoltaic system
  5. RTDS Supercapacitor
  6. Energy storage




Fig.1. Grid connected PV system with energy storage



Fig.2. Grid voltage after three phase fault is applied


Fig.3. PV array power PPV with SCESS and with no energy storage


Fig.4. Grid active power Pg for a three phase fault with and without energy storage


Fig.5.SCESS power PSC for the applied fault on the grid side


Fig.6. Grid reactive power Qg during three phase fault


Fig.7. DC link voltage for the applied fault


Fig.8. PV array voltage VPV during three phase fault


Fig.9. MPPT output voltage Vref for the applied fault


This paper presents grid connected PV system with supercapacitor energy storage system (SCESS) for fault ride through and to minimize the power fluctuation. Incremental conductance based MPPT is implemented to track the maximum power from the PV array. The generated DC power is connected to the grid using a buck converter, VSI, buck-boost converter with SCESS. The SCESS which is connected to the DC link controls the DC link voltage by charging and discharging process. A P-Q controller is implemented to transfer the DC link power to the grid. During normal operation the SCESS minimizes the fluctuation caused by change in irradiation and temperature. During a grid fault the power generated from the PV array will be stored in the SCESS. The SCESS supplies both active and reactive power to ride through the fault. RTDS based results have shown the validity of the proposed controller.


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A New Control Strategy for Active and Reactive Power Control of Three-Level VSC Based HVDC System


This paper presents a new control strategy for real and reactive power control of three-level multipulse voltage source converter based High Voltage DC (HVDC) transmission system operating at Fundamental Frequency Switching (FFS). A three-level voltage source converter replaces the conventional two-level VSC and it is designed for the real and reactive power control is all four quadrants operation. A new control method is developed for achieving the reactive power control by varying the pulse width and by keeping the dc link voltage constant. The steady state and dynamic performances of HVDC system interconnecting two different frequencies network are demonstrated for active and reactive powers control. Total numbers of transformers used in the system are reduced in comparison to two level VSCs. The performance of the HVDC system is also improved in terms of reduced harmonics level even at fundamental frequency switching.


  1. HVDC
  2. Voltage Source Converter
  3. Multilevel
  4. Multipulse
  5. Dead Angle (β)



Fig. 1 A three-level 24-Pulse voltage source converter based HVDC system




Fig. 2 Control scheme of three-level VSC based HVDC system using dynamic dead angle (β) Control



Fig. 3 Performance of rectifier station during simultaneous real and reactive power control of three-level 24-pulse VSC based HVDC system


Fig. 4 Performance of inverter station during simultaneous real and reactive power control of three-level 24-pulse VSC based HVDC system


Fig. 5 Variation of angles (δ) and (β) values of three-level 24-pulse VSC based HVDC system during simultaneous real and reactive power control


A new control method for three-level 24-pulse voltage source converter configuration has been designed for HVDC system. The performance of this 24-pulse VSC based HVDC system using the control method has been demonstrated in active power control in bidirectional, independent control of the reactive power and power quality improvement. A new dynamic dead angle (β) control has been introduced for three-level voltage source converter operating at fundamental frequency switching. In this control the HVDC system operation is successfully demonstrated and also an analysis of (β) value for various reactive power requirement and harmonic performance has been carried out in detail. Therefore, the selection of converter operation region is more flexible according to the requirement of the reactive power and power quality.


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