Microgrids being an important entity in the distribution system, and to get their full advantages by incorporating maximum distributed generation, standalone hybrid renewable energy systems (HRESs), being environmentally-safe and economically-efficient, are considered as the promising solution to electrify remote areas where the grid power is not available. In this work, a techno-economic investigation with an optimal design of HRES is presented to fulfill the domestic electricity need for a residential area of the Sherani district in the Province of Baluchistan, Pakistan. Nine case studies based on PV/wind/diesel/battery are analyzed based on net present cost (NPC), cost of energy (COE), and emission to decide the feasible solution. HOMER tool is utilized to accomplish modeling and simulation for economic analysis and optimal sizing. Simulation results demonstrated that HRES with PV-wind-battery is the most viable option for the specified area, and the optimal sizing of components are also obtained with $ 28,620 NPC and 0.311 $/kWh COE which shows 81.65% reduction in cost and 100% preserving in toxic emission while fulfilling 100% energy demand with 67.3% of excess energy. Furthermore, MATLAB/Simulink modeling for the optimally designed system is built for technical analysis while its effectiveness is proved by keeping dc and ac buses voltage constant, safe operating range of battery state of charge (SOC) with active power balance between HRES components, as well as efficient ac voltage quality, regardless of generation disturbances and load fluctuations. The output signal has total harmonic distortion (THD) of 0.30% as compared to 5.44% with the conventional control scheme. The novelty lies in the sequential application of both HOMER and MATLAB simulations of the proposed HRES model and validation of the proposition for the studied area; by using and implementing model predictive control (MPC) of a reconfigurable inverter.
Standalone HRES with PV-wind-battery is proposed as the optimal and economically most viable system, as determined by techno-economic studies carried out through HOMER and MATLAB along with FCS-MPC of a reconfigurable inverter, to fulfill the residential electricity requirement of Sherani district in the Province of Baluchistan, Pakistan. Firstly, optimal sizing of HRES components and economic investigation is performed through HOMER, while simulation studies for the suggested area with practical and real data of load profile as well as weather is investigated using different costs (capital, replacement, O&M), operating life, and efficiencies of HRES components, project lifetime, meteorological data assessment, and interest rate as the input parameters; load demand, resources availability, operating reserves, allowable capacity shortage, GHG emission penalties as optimization constraints; and NPC as decision variable. Out of nine possible optimal configurations namely PV-wind-battery, PV-wind-diesel-battery, PV-battery, PV diesel- battery, wind-diesel-battery, PV-wind-diesel, PV diesel, wind-diesel, and diesel-battery, as examined during this work, PV-wind-battery is obtained as the most feasible and economically viable configuration (i.e. winning plan) with minimum NPC ($ 28,620) and COE (0.311 $/kWh) which shows 81.65% reduction in cost and 100% preserving in toxic emission, while fulfilling 100% energy demand with 67.3% of excess energy. The proposed optimal HRES design (winning plan) comprises 13.4 kW PV, 4 kW wind, 3.88 kW converter, and 20 units of 2.37 kWh lead-acid battery. Optimal sizes of HRES components are then used to design a management and control strategy in MATLAB/Simulink with finite control set model predictive control (FCS-MPC) of reconfigurable inverter for technical analysis based on power balance between HRES elements, constant dc and ac voltages, safe operating range of battery SOC, efficient ac voltage quality, during variations of PV irradiance, wind speed, as well as load demand. The results are validated through simulations with total harmonic distortion (THD) of 0.30% which is well below the allowable limit according to IEEE-929 and IEEE-519 standards as compared to 5.44% THD with the conventional PI control scheme.
The presented scheme would be an assessing tool for the governments, energy sector/microgrid planners, model designers, and researchers to investigate suitable policies, mechanisms, effective and efficient design of HRESs. An increasing, unpredictable and abrupt load demand of the society can be handled by integrating more renewable generation in terms of a reliable, economical, and environment-friendly scenarios with an understanding of intermittent generation profile. The future work includes microgrid reconfiguration under inverter and rectification mode to control the voltage and frequency during the standalone mode, and power flow during the grid-connected mode.
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