Power Quality Improvement in Utility Interactive Based AC-DC Converter Using Harmonic Current Injection Technique


This paper highlights the power quality issues and explains the corrective measures taken by means of hybrid front-end third harmonic current injection rectifiers. Here zig-zag transformer is used as the current injection device so that the advantages related to the zig-zag transformer is effectively utilized. The third harmonic current injection device along with three-level boost converter at the output stage will increase the DC-link voltage.

boost converter

With less boost inductance, generally half of the conventional boost converter inductance is sufficient to implement the proposed converter structure resulting in reduced ripple current and also the device rating is reduced by half of the output voltage. Moreover, the power quality is well improved using third harmonic current modulated front-end structure which is well proper for medium/higher power applications. The experimental prototype of hybrid front-end converter is developed in the laboratory to validate the MATLAB simulation results.


  1. Current modulation circuit
  2. Front-end rectifier
  3. Power quality
  4. PFC
  5. Third harmonic current injection
  6. Three-level boost converter
  7. THD
  8. Zig-zag transformer



Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of proposed front-end AC-DC converter


Fig. 2. Simulation results of input phase voltage, input phase current, input voltage and current, DC-link voltage, and DC current for the proposed front-end converter under load variations.

Fig. 3. Frequency spectrum of input line current ias at (a) Light load condition

(20%) (b) Full load condition (100%).

Fig. 4. Comparison of power quality indices with varying load of front-end AC-DC converter with six-pulse DBR (a) Variation of THD of input current with load and (b) Variation of PF of input current with load.


In this paper, a front-end AC-DC converter employed with third harmonic current injection circuit using a zig-zag transformer and three-level boost converter has implemented for medium and high-power applications. The three-level boost converter has completed with less boost inductance, an only half rating of the conventional boost converter inductance thereby resulting in less ripple current and also the device rating has reduced by half of the output voltage.

zig-zag transformer

The third order current harmonic reduction has achieved by the zig-zag transformer. With less attractive rating, only 20% of the load rating is enough to realize the zig-zag transformer. The proposed converter has modeled, designed and its performance was analyzed by MATLAB simulation under varying load conditions. An experimental setup has been developed, and the performance of the system is confirmed from the hardware results. The proposed scheme resulted in less input current and voltage THD and control PF close to unity. Also, the other power quality parameters such as displacement PF and misuse factor are well within the IEEE standards.


[1] Abraham I. Pressman, “Switching Power Supply Design,” McGraw-Hill, International Editions, New York, 1999.

[2] B. Singh, B. N. Singh, A. Chandra, K. Al-Haddad, A. Pandey and D. P. Kothari, “A review of single-phase improved power quality AC-DC converters,” IEEE Trans. on Ind. Electron., vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 962-981, Oct. 2003.

[3] J. I. Itoh and I. Ashida, “A Novel Three-Phase PFC Rectifier Using a Harmonic Current Injection Method,” IEEE Trans. on Power Electron., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 715-722, March 2008.

[4] N. Vazquez, H. Rodriguez, C. Hernandez, E. Rodriguez and J. Arau, “Three-Phase Rectifier With Active Current Injection and High Efficiency,” IEEE Trans. on Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 110-119, Jan. 2009.

[5] H. Y. Kanaan and K. Al-Haddad, “Three-Phase Current-Injection Rectifiers: Competitive Topologies for Power Factor Correction,” IEEE Ind. Electron. Magazine, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 24-40, Sept. 2012.

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