A flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) is a system composed of static equipment used for the AC transmission of electrical energy. It is meant to enhance controll ability and increase power transfer capability of the network. It is generally a power electronics-based system.
FACTS is defined by the IEEE as “a power electronic based system and other static equipment that provide control of one or more AC transmission system parameters to enhance controll ability and increase power transfer capability.”
According to Siemens “FACTS Increase the reliability of AC grids and reduce power delivery costs. They improve transmission quality and efficiency of power
transmission by supplying inductive or reactive power to the grid.
- Shunt capacitive compensation
- This method is used to improve the power factor. Whenever an inductive load is connected to the transmission line, power factor lags because of lagging load current. To compensate, a shunt capacitor is connected which draws current leading the source voltage. The net result is improvement in power factor.
- Shunt inductive compensation
- This method is used either when charging the transmission line, or, when there is very low load at the receiving end. Due to very low, or no load – very low current flows through the transmission line. Shunt capacitance in the transmission line causes voltage amplification (Ferranti effect). The receiving end voltage may become double the sending end voltage (generally in case of very long transmission lines). To compensate, shunt inductors are connected across the transmission line. The power transfer capability is thereby increased depending upon the power equation