IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, 2014
This paper proposes a new fault current limiting dynamic voltage restorer (FCL-DVR) concept. The new topology uses a crowbar bidirectional thyristor switch across the output terminals of a conventional back-to-back DVR. In the event of a load short, the DVR controller will deactivate the faulty phase of the DVR and activate its crowbar thyristor to insert the DVR filter reactor into the grid to limit the fault current. A fault condition is detected by sensing the load current and its rate of change. The FCL-DVR will operate with different protection strategies under different fault conditions. Design of the FCL-DVR involves selecting important parameters, such as DVR power rating, dc link voltage of the DVR, output filter reactors and capacitors, and grid-tied transformers is proposed. The design methodology of the proposed FCL-DVR is fully discussed based on power systems computer aided design (PSCAD)/electromagnetic transients including dc (EMTDC) simulation. A scaled-down experimental verification is also carried out. Both modeling and experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the new FCL-DVR concept for performing both voltage compensation and fault current limiting functions.
- Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR)
- Fault current limiting (FCL)
- Parameter design method
- Voltage compensation
Fig. 1 Topology of FCL-DVR.
EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:
Fig 2. Simulation results of voltage compensation operation of FCL-DVR. Waveforms of grid voltages, PCC voltages, load currents FCL-DVR output voltages, and dc link voltages of the FCL-DVR during voltage fluctuation event and (b) unbalanced voltage event.
Fig. 3 Simulation waveforms of grid voltages, PCC voltages, load currents, FCL-DVR output voltages, and FCL-DVR dc link voltages during (a) single-phase to ground, (b) phase-to-phase, (c) two-phase to ground, and (d) three-phase to ground short circuit fault.
Fig. 4. Simulation results of fault current limiting and recovery processes of FCL-DVR. Simulation waveforms of the IGBT currents, thyristor currents, thyristor voltages, and dc link voltages of the FCL-DVR during (a) current limiting stage under a three-phase to ground short-circuit fault and (b) recovery stage after the three-phase to ground short-circuit fault is removed
A new FCL-DVR concept is proposed to deal with both voltage fluctuation and short current faults. The new topology uses a crowbar bidirectional thyristor switch across the output terminals of a conventional back-to-back DVR. In the event of load short, the DVR controller will deactivate the faulty phase of the DVR and activate its crowbar thyristor to insert the DVR filter reactor into the grid to limit the fault current. The FCL-DVR will operate with different protection strategies under different fault conditions. Based on theoretical analysis, PSCAD/EMTDC simulation and experimental study, we conclude the following.
1) With the crowbar bidirectional thyristor across the output terminal of the inverter, the proposed FCL-DVR can compensate voltage fluctuation and limit fault current.
2) The FCL-DVR can be used to deal with different types of short faults with minimum influence on nonfault phases. The FCL-DVR has the same power rating as a conventional DVR.
3) The delta-connection mode of the shunt transformers minimizes the influence of dc link voltage fluctuations and suppresses the 3rd harmonics.
4) The proposed control method can detect faults within two cycles.
5) The design methodology based on the analysis of the relationship between main circuit parameters and compensation capacity could be helpful to the design of FCL-DVR.
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