A Unified Control and Power Management Schemefor PV-Battery-Based Hybrid Microgrids for BothGrid-Connected and Islanded Modes


Battery storage is usually employed in Photovoltaic (PV) system to mitigate the power fluctuations due to the characteristics of PV panels and solar irradiance. Control schemes for PV-battery systems must be able to stabilize the bus voltages as well as to control the power flows flexibly. This paper proposes a comprehensive control and power management system (CAPMS) for PV-battery-based hybrid microgrids with both AC and DC buses, for both grid-connected and islanded modes. The proposed CAPMS is successful in regulating the DC and AC bus voltages and frequency stably, controlling the voltage and power of each unit flexibly, and balancing the power flows in the systems automatically under different operating circumstances, regardless of disturbances from switching operating modes, fluctuations of irradiance and temperature, and change of loads. Both simulation and experimental case studies are carried out to verify the performance of the proposed method.


  1. Solar PV System
  2. Battery
  3. Control and Power Management System
  4. Distributed Energy Resource
  5. Microgrid
  6. Power Electronics
  7. dSPACE



Fig. 1. The proposed control and power management system (CAPMS) for PV-battery-based hybrid microgrids.


Fig.. 2.. (Gb)rid-connected mode Case A-1: (a) power flows and (b) voltage

values of the PV-battery system.

Fig. 3. Grid-connected mode Case A-2: power flows of the PV-battery system.

Fig. 4. Grid-connected mode Case A-3-1: PV array in power-reference mode.

Fig. 5. Grid-connected mode Case A-3-2: DC bus and PV array voltages

during transitions between MPPT and power-reference modes.

Fig. 6. Grid-connected mode Case A-4: the PV-battery system is receiving

power from the grid after 2.2 s.

Fig. 7. Grid-connected mode Case A-5: Reactive power control of the


Fig. 8. Grid-connected mode Case A-6: transition from grid-connected to

islanded mode.

Fig. 9. Islanded mode Case B-1: power flows of the PV-battery system with

changing loads.

Fig. 10. Islanded mode Case B-2: battery power changes with PV generation.

Fig. 11. Islanded mode Case B-3: bus voltage control of the PV-battery


Fig. 12. Islanded mode Case B-4: (a) unsynchronized and (b) synchronized

AC bus voltages (displaying phase-a) when closing the breaker at the PCC.


 This paper proposes a control and power management system (CAPMS) for hybrid PV-battery systems with both DC and AC buses and loads, in both grid-connected and islanded modes. The presented CAPMS is able to manage the power flows in the converters of all units flexibly and effectively, and ultimately to realize the power balance between the hybrid microgrid system and the grid. Furthermore, CAPMS ensures a reliable power supply to the system when PV power fluctuates due to unstable irradiance or when the PV array is shut down due to faults. DC and AC buses are under full control by the CAPMS in both grid-connected and islanded modes, providing a stable voltage environment for electrical loads even during transitions between these two modes. This also allows additional loads to access the system without extra converters, reducing operation and control costs. Numerous simulation and experimental case studies are carried out in Section IV that verifies the satisfactory performance of the proposed CAPMS.


[1] T. A. Nguyen, X. Qiu, J. D. G. II, M. L. Crow, and A. C. Elmore, “Performance characterization for photovoltaic-vanadium redox battery microgrid systems,” IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 1379–1388, Oct 2014.

[2] S. Kolesnik and A. Kuperman, “On the equivalence of major variable step- size MPPT algorithms,” IEEE J. Photovolt., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 590– 594, March 2016.

[3] H. A. Sher, A. F. Murtaza, A. Noman, K. E. Addoweesh, K. Al-Haddad, and M. Chiaberge, “A new sensorless hybrid MPPT algorithm based on fractional short-circuit current measurement and P&O MPPT,” IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1426–1434, Oct 2015.

[4] Y. Riffonneau, S. Bacha, F. Barruel, and S. Ploix, “Optimal power flow management for grid connected PV systems wi0th batteries,” IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 309–320, July 2011.

[5] H. Kim, B. Parkhideh, T. D. Bongers, and H. Gao, “Reconfigurable solar converter: A single-stage power conversion PV-battery system,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 3788–3797, Aug 2013.

Energy Management and Control System for Laboratory Scale Microgrid based Wind-PV-Battery


This paper proposes an energy management and control system for laboratory scale microgrid based on hybrid energy resources such as wind, solar and battery. Power converters and control algorithms have been used along with dedicated energy resources for the efficient operation of the microgrid. The control algorithms are developed to provide power compatibility and energy management between different resources in the microgrid. It provides stable operation of the control in all microgrid subsystems under various power generation and load conditions. The proposed microgrid, based on hybrid energy resources, operates in autonomous mode and has an open architecture platform for testing multiple different control configurations. Real-time control system has been used to operate and validate the hybrid resources in the microgrid experimentally. The proposed laboratory scale microgrid can be used as a benchmark for future research in smart grid applications.


  1. Wind energy
  2. Solar energy
  3. Conversion
  4. Storage
  5. Hybrid system
  6. Control
  7. Energy management



 Fig. 1. Components of the laboratory scale experimental microgrid


Fig. 2. Wind turbine-generator speed

Fig. 3. PV module current


Fig. 4. DC-link voltage

Fig. 5. Battery current

Fig. 6. Power at different locations in the microgrid (variable wind power)

Fig. 7. Battery state of charge

Fig. 8. Load Voltage

Fig. 9. Power at different locations in the microgrid (variable wind power)

Fig. 10. Battery current

Fig. 11. Battery state of charge

Fig. 12. DC-bus voltage

Fig. 13. Load Voltage


 A laboratory scale experimental microgrid of distributed renewable energy sources with battery storage and energy management and control system is developed in this paper. The experimental setup is flexible and allows testing difference power electronics interfaces and combinations. The control software is open source in order to implement different control strategies. This tool contributes to the enhancement of education and research the field of renewable energy and distributed energy systems.


[1] A. Bari, J. Jiang, W. Saad and A. Jaekel, “Challenges in the Smart Grid Applications: An Overview,” Int. J. of Distributed Sensor Networks, pp.1–12, 2014.

[2] M. B. Shadmand and R. S. Balog, “Multi-objective optimization and design of photovoltaic-wind hybrid system for community smart DC microgrid,” IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 2635–2643, Sep. 2014.

[3] M. J. Hossain, H. R. Pota, M. A. Mahmud and M. Aldeen, “Robust control for power Sharing in microgrids with low-inertia wind and PV generators,” IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 1067–1077, Jul. 2015.

[4] Zaheeruddin and M. Manas, “Renewable energy management through microgrid central controller design: an approach to integrate solar, wind and biomass with battery,” Energy Reports, vol. 1, pp.156–163, 2015.

[5] A. Tani, M. B. Camara and B. Dakyo, “Energy management in the decentralized generation systems based on renewable energy—ultracapacitors and battery to compensate the wind/load power fluctuations,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 1817–1827, 2015.


Control Strategy of Photovoltaic Generation Inverter Grid-Connected Operating and Harmonic Elimination Hybrid System


This paper proposes a three-phase three-wire photovoltaic generation inverter grid-connected operating and harmonic elimination hybrid system. The hybrid system mainly consists of photovoltaic array battery, photovoltaic output filter, three-phase voltage-type inverter, inverter output filter and passive filters. Based on working principle and working characteristics of the proposed hybrid system, the composite control strategy about active power, reactive power  and harmonic suppression is proposed. The composite control strategy mainly consists of a single closed-loop control slip of active power and reactive power, double closed-loop control slip of harmonics. Simulation results show the correctly of this paper’s contents, the hybrid system have an effective to improve power factor, supply active power for loads and suppress harmonics of micro-grid.


  1. Micro grid
  2. Harmonic restraint
  3. Active power control
  4. Reactive power control
  5. Photovoltaic generation



  • Figure 1. Structure of novel hybrid system.


 (a) Current dynamic waveform of load and grid side


(b) Current spectrum waveform of load and grid side

(c) Voltage and current dynamic waveform of grid side

(d) Voltage waveform of the DC capacitor

Figure 2. Simulation results when photovoltaic generation is connected.

(a) Current dynamic waveform of load and grid side

(b) Current spectrum waveform of load and grid side

(c) Voltage and current dynamic waveform of grid side

(d) Voltage waveform of the DC capacitor

Figure 3. Simulation results when photovoltaic generation is not connected.


 Aiming at the shortages and problems of active power, reactive power and harmonic control technology in microgrid, a three-phase three-wire photovoltaic generation inverter grid-connected operating and harmonic elimination hybrid system is proposed in this paper. The principle and control strategy of the proposed hybrid system are studied. Through the research of this paper, the following conclusions can be drawn:

(1) The compensation of active, reactive power and the real-time dynamic control of harmonics can be realized through the proposed hybrid system.

(2) Based on the working principle of the proposed hybrid system at different time, the hybrid control method of active power, reactive power and harmonic suppression is proposed. The proposed control strategy is simple and easy to be implied in engineering.

(3) Simulation results show the correctly of this paper’s contents, at the same time, the proposed control method can also be applied to other similar systems in this paper.


[1] Ding Ming, Wang Min.Distributed generation technology. Electric Power Automation Equioment, vol. 24, no.7, pp. 31–36, July 2004.

[2] Liang Youwei , Hu Zhijian , Chen Yunping. A survey of distributed generation and it s application in power system. Power System Technology, vol. 27, no.12, pp. 71-75, December 2003.

[3] Wang Chengshan, Xiao Chaoxia, Wang Shouxiang. Synthetical Control and Analysis of Microgrid. Automation of Electric Power Systems, vol. 32, no.7, pp. 98-103, April 2008.

[4] Liu Yang-hua1,Wu Zheng-qiu,Lin Shun-jiang. Research on Unbalanced Three-phase Power Flow Calculation Method in Islanding Micro Grid. Journal of Hunan University(Natural Sciences) , vol. 36, no.7, pp. 36-40, July 2009.

[5] Xie Qing Hua, Simulation Study on Micro-grid Connection/Isolation Operation Containing Multi-Micro-sources. Shanxi Electric Power,vol. 37, no.8, pp. 10-13, August 2009.

Performance Investigation of Shunt Hybrid Active Power Filter With A Synchronous Reference Frame BasedController


This paper presents a novel synchronous reference frame based (SRF) control strategy for shunt hybrid active power filter (SHAPF). The control strategy includes a direct current control (DCC) and an indirect current control (ICC) strategy. SHAPF can achieve harmonic compensation and dynamic reactive power compensation with the proposed controller. In this proposed method, as distinct from studies in literature, dynamic reactive power compensation and dc link voltage control is realized with ICC and harmonic current compensation is realized with DCC. Also, the proposed controller provides a variable SHAPF dc link voltage which is adjusted according to the reactive power compensation requirements in order to decrease the switching losses of converter and achieve power savings. The performance of proposed controller is verified with experimental results.


  1. Active Power Filter (APF)
  2. Harmonics
  3. Reactive Power Compensation
  4. Direct Current Control
  5. Indirect Current Control



Fig. 1. Power Circuit Diagram of SHAPF




Fig.2. Reactive Power Trend (a) and Current Harmonic Spec. (b) of Case I



Fig.3. Reactive Power Trend (a) and Current Harmonic Spec. (b) of Case II


 This paper presents a SRF based controller approach for SHAPF. In proposed control method, DCC strategy is preferred for harmonic compensation control to maintain superior dynamic and steady state performance on the compensation of low order harmonics. ICC strategy is used for the reactive power compensation controller and the dc link voltage controller to simplify the controller and provide a successful performance without being affected by dynamic changes in active and reactive current components. Additionally, the dc link voltage is determined with adaptive to the reactive power demand of load by the proposed control method. By the help of this ability, the switching losses of SHAPF is decreased by keeping only required voltage level on dc link. The proposed control method is applied on the laboratory prototype of SHAPF. The steady state and dynamic performance of controller is verified with the experimental results.


[1] H. Fujita and H. Akagi, “A practical approach to harmonic compensation in power systems-series connection of passive and active filters,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1020–1025, 1991.

[2] H. Akagi, “Active and hybrid filters for power conditioning,” ISIE’2000. Proc. 2000 IEEE Int. Symp. Ind. Electron. (Cat. No.00TH8543), vol. 1, 2000.

[3] H. Fujita, T. Yamasaki, and H. Akagi, “A hybrid active filter for damping of harmonic resonance in industrial power systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 215–222, Mar. 2000.

[4] S. Srianthumrong and H. Akagi, “Medium-voltage transformerless ac/dc power conversion system consisting of a diode rectifier and a shunt hybrid filter,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 874–882, May 2003.

[5] R. Inzunza and H. Akagi, “A 6.6-kV Transformerless Shunt Hybrid Active Filter for Installation on a Power Distribution System,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 893–900, Jul. 2005.

Hybrid Shunt Active Filter Offering Unity PowerFactor and Low THD at Line Side with Reduced Power Rating


This paper present analysis of hybrid active power filter with synchronous reference frame control algorithm. The proposed topology consist of active power filter and passive power filter are connected in shunt with the mains feeding a nonlinear load. The shunt passive power filter is tuned to eliminate most dominate 5th order load current harmonic. The shunt active power filter is used compensate all other higher order load current harmonics. This approach help toreduce the overall rating of shunt active power filter, and maintain unity power factor at line side with low THD, which makes system more economical for industrial usage. Detail design steps for 5th order tuned filter is also discussed and results are presented. The proposed shunt active power filter is also tested for dynamic loading condition. Hardware results for the verification of proposed control algorithm is also presented and discussed.


  1. Hybrid Active Filter
  2. Passive Filter
  3. Total Harmonic Distortion
  4. Synchronous Reference Frame
  5. Unity Power Factor



Fig. 1: Main Power Circuit Diagram of HAPF



Fig. 2: Simulation Result ofSPPF (a) Phase-A Output Load Current

without Compensation (b) Phase-A Source Current with Compensation

(c) Phase-A 5th Order Harmonic Current

(d) Phase-A Source Voltage and Source Current

Fig. 3: FFT Curve ofSPPF (a) FFT of Output Load Current without

Compensation (b) FFT o f Source Current with Compensation

Fig. 4: Simulation Result of SAPF Under Fixed Load (a) Phase-A Output

Load Current without Compensation (b) Phase-A Source Current after

Compensation (c) D C Bus Voltage Across Capacitor (d) Phase-A Actual

Compensating Current (e) Phase-A Source Voltage and Source Current

Fig. 5: Simulation Result ofSAPF under Dynamic Load (a) Phase-A

Output Load Current without Compensation (b) Phase-A Source Current

after Compensation (c) Phase-A Actual Compensating Current (d) DC

Bus Voltage Across Capacitor

Fig. 6: Hysteresis Controller Results (a) Reference and Actual

Compensating Currents of Phase-A (b) Line-Line Voltage of lnverter


Fig.7: FFT Curve of Source Current after Compensation by using SAPF

  • under Fixed Load (b) under Dynamic Load

Fig. 8: Simulation Result ofHAPF(a) Phase-A Load Current without

Compensation,(b) Phase-A Source Current with Compensation,

(c) Phase-A Phase Voltage and Current, (d) DC Link Voltage oflnverter,

(e) Phase-A Actual Compensating Current

Fig. 9: Simulation Result ofHAPF (a) Three Phase Output Load

Current, (b) Three Phase Load Current, (c) Three Phase Source Current,

(d) FFT Curve of Source Current with Compensation


 This paper analyze the performance and simulation of hybrid active power filter (HAPF). Through the simulation analysis, this paper verified the mitigation of harmonic, to achieve unity power factor with reduced rating of SAPF. Proposed control technique is able to give fast dynamic response during variable load condition, which demonstrate the robustness of controllers. The proposed topology is an effort to provide cost effective solution for harmonic elimination in various industrial application


[I] B. Singh, V. Verma, A. Chandra and K. AI-Haddad ” Hybrid filter for power quality improvement” IEEE proc. Gener. Transm. Distrib. , Volume:152, No.3 , May 2005.

[2] J. Arrillaga and N. R. Watson, Power System Harmonics, 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2003

[3] B. Singh, K. AI-Haddad, and A. Chandra, ” A reviewof active filter for power quality improvement,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. , Vol. 46, nO.5 pp. 960-971 , Oct.l999.

[4] H. Akagi, ” Active harmonic filters” Proc. IEEE, vol. 93, no. 12, pp.2128-2141 , Dec. 2005.

[5] K. K. Shyu, M. Yang, Y.M. Chen, and Y.F.Lin, “Model reference Adaptive control design for a shunt active po we filter systems,” TEEE Trans. Tnd. Electron., vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 97-106, Jan. 2008.

Study of Control Strategies for Shunt Active Power Filter for Harmonics Suppression


Excessive use of nonlinear and time varying devices results in harmonic currents in the secondary distribution system. The suppression of harmonics is a dominant issue and one of the practical ways to compensate harmonics is shunt active power filter (SAPF). The core part of the SAPF is control techniques used for reference current generation. This paper presents a comprehensive study of three control strategies namely instantaneous reactive power (p – q) theory, synchronous reference frame (SRF) theory and instantaneous active and reactive current (id – iq) component method for SAPF in a three phase three wire distribution system. These three control methods aims to compensate harmonics, reactive power and load unbalance under sinusoidal balanced supply voltage conditions. Simulation results present a relative investigation of three control techniques based on current THD and load unbalance.


  1. Harmonics
  2. Hysteresis band current control (HBCC)
  3. Id – iq method
  4. Nonlinear loads
  5. P – q theory
  6. Shunt active power filter
  7. SRF theory



Fig. 1. SAPF connected to distribution grid



Fig. 2. Simulation results of SAPF with p-q theory under nonlinear balanced

load (a) Source voltage (b) Load current (c) Source current after filtering

(d) Compensation current.


Fig. 3. Simulation results of SAPF with id-iq method under nonlinear

balanced load (a) Source current after filtering (b) Compensation current

Fig. 4. Simulation results of SAPF with id-iq method under nonlinear

unbalanced load (a) Source voltage (b) Load current (c) Source current

after filtering (d) Compensation current.

Fig. 5. Dynamic performance of SAPF during load change with id-iq method

  • Load current (b) Source current (c) Compensation current.

Fig. 6. (a) Source voltage (V) and load current (A) (b) Source voltage (V)

and source current (A) (c) Compensation current (d) Reactive power

demand of the load (e) Reactive power supplied by the SAPF (f)

Reactive power supplied by the source.


 The harmonic distortions exist in the distribution system due to the massive use of power electronic based nonlinear loads. Harmonic distortions can result in serious problems such as increase in current, reactive VAs, VAs, power factor reduction and increase in losses. The SAPF with three control strategies viz. p-q theory, SRF theory and id-iq method has been studied in this paper. The simulation has been carried out for different load scenarios and the THD, percentage of individual dominant harmonics has also observed. From the simulation analysis, it is observed that the SAPF giving quite reasonably good performance in compensating harmonics, reactive power and load unbalance. Among the three control techniques, it is noticed that the id-iq method gives reasonably better performance in terms of current THD.


[1] S. Rahmani, N. Mendalek, and K. Al-Haddad, “Experimental design of a nonlinear control technique for three-phase shunt active power filter,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 3364-3375, Oct. 2010.

[2] IEEE Recommended Practice and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electric Power Systems – Redline,” IEEE Std 519-2014 (Revision of IEEE Std 519-1992) – Redline , pp.1-213, June 11 2014.

[3] S. Senini and P. J. Wolfs, “Hybrid active filter for harmonically unbalanced three phase three wire railway traction loads,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 702–710, Jul. 2000.

[4] S. Rahmani, K. Al-Haddad, H. Y. Kanaan, and B. Singh,

“Implementation and simulation of a modified PWM with two current control techniques applied to a single-phase shunt hybrid power filter,” Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. Electr. Power Appl., vol. 153, no. 3, pp. 317–326, May 2006.

[5] B. Singh, K. Al-Haddad, and A. Chandra, “A review of active filters for power quality improvement,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 960-971, Oct 1999.

Harmonic Mitigation by SRF Theory Based ActivePower Filter using Adaptive Hysteresis Control


Power quality is an all-encompassing concept for a multitude of individual types of power system disturbances. The presence of harmonics in power supply network poses a severe  power quality problem that results in greater power losses in the distribution system, interference problems in communication systems and, sometimes, in operation failures of electronic equipment. Shunt active power filters are employed to suppress the current harmonics and reduce the total harmonic distortion (THD). The voltage source inverter (VSI) is the core of an active power filter. The hysteresis current control is a method of controlling the VSI. Hysteresis control can be either of fixed band type or adaptive band type. In this paper, Synchronous Reference Frame (SRF) theory is implemented for the generation of reference current signals for the controller. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the proposed model in harmonics currents mitigation by simulating a model of a three-phase three wire shunt active power filter based on adaptive hysteresis current control and SRF theory. Simulation results indicate that the proposed active power filter can restrain harmonics of electrical source current effectively


  1. Synchronous reference frame theory
  2. Adaptive hysteresis control
  3. Harmonic mitigation
  4. Shunt active filter
  5. Voltage source inverter



Fig. 1. Reference Current Generation Block



 Fig. 2. Nonlinear Load Currents

Fig. 3. Compensating APF Currents

Fig.4.Source currents after compensation

Fig.5. Harmonic analysis of source current with Adaptive Hysteresis Band


 In the adaptive band hysteresis control, the switching  frequency is nearly constant with respect to the system parameters and defined switching frequency. However, at low switching frequency case, the tracking is not as good as the one in high switching frequency. Obviously, a decrease in switching frequency results in an increase in the hysteresis bandwidth that causes the free operation of current error in a  wider range. This higher low-frequency error, in turn, will lead to higher low order harmonics in the source current, and hence higher THD. Based on the above facts, the switching frequency should be kept as high as possible for better performances of adaptive band hysteresis current control.

The developed model has the following advantages:

  • Simplification of the power conversion circuit can be achieved.
  • (ii) Under the developed model, the performance of control strategy can be effectively examined without long simulation run time and convergence problem.


[I] L. A Moran, J. W. Dixon, “Active Filters”, Chapter 33 in “Power Electronics Handbook”, Academic Press, August 200 I, pp. 829-841.

[2] IEEE Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electrical Power Systems, IEEE Standard 519-1992, 1993

[3] Singh, 8.; Chandra, A; AI-Haddad K. “Computer-Aided Modeling and Simulation of Active Power Filters”, Electric Power Components and Systems, 27: 11, 1227 -1241,1999

[4] L. Moran, 1. Dixon, J. Espinoza, R. Wallace “Using Active Power Filters to Improve Power Quality”, 5th Brasilian Power Electronics Conference, COBEP’99, 19-23 September 1999, pp 501-511.

[5] Massoud, AM. ; Finney, SJ.; Williams, B.W. “Review of harmonic current extraction techniques for an active power filter”, 11th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power, pp 154 – 159,12-15 Sept. 2004

A Multilevel Inverter Structure based on Combination of Switched-Capacitors and DC Sources


This paper presents a switched-capacitor multilevel inverter (SCMLI) combined with multiple asymmetric DC sources. The main advantage of proposed inverter with similar cascaded MLIs is reducing the number of isolated DC sources and replacing them with capacitors. A self-balanced asymmetrical charging pattern is introduced in order to boost the voltage and create more voltage levels. Number of circuit components such as active switches, diodes, capacitors, drivers and DC sources reduces in proposed structure. This multi-stage hybrid MLI increases the total voltage of used DC sources by multiple charging of the capacitors stage by stage. A bipolar output voltage can be inherently achieved in this structure without using single phase H-bridge inverter which was used in traditional SCMLIs to generate negative voltage levels. This eliminates requirements of high voltage rating elements to achieve negative voltage levels. A 55-level step-up output voltage (27 positive levels, a zero level and 27 negative levels) are achieved by a 3-stage system which uses only 3 asymmetrical DC sources (with amplitude of 1Vin, 2Vin and 3Vin) and 7 capacitors (self-balanced as multiples of 1Vin). MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation results and experimental tests are given to validate the performance of proposed circuit.


  1. Multi-level inverter
  2. Switched-capacitor
  3. Bipolar converter
  4. Asymmetrical
  5. Self-balancing




Fig (1) Three stage structure of the proposed inverter



 Fig (2) Waveform of the output voltage in (a) 50Hz and pure resistive load (b)

the inset graphs of voltage and current


 Fig (3) waveform of the output voltage in 50Hz with resistive-inductive load

 Fig (4) Capacitor’s voltage in 50Hz (a) middle stage (b) last stage


 In this paper, a multilevel inverter based on combination of multiple DC sources and switched-capacitors is presented. Unlike traditional converters which used H-bridge cell to produce negative voltage that the switches should withstand maximum output AC voltage, the suggested structure has the ability of generating bipolar voltage (positive, zero and negative), inherently. Operating principle of the proposed SCMLI in charging and discharging is carried out. Also, evaluation of reliability has been done and because of high number of redundancy, there has been many alternative switching states which help the proposed structure operate correctly even in fault conditions. For confirming the superiority than others, a comprehensive comparison in case of number of devices and efficiency is carried out and shows that the proposed topology has better performance than others. For validating the performance, simulation and experimental results are brought under introduced offline PWM control method.


[1] L. G. Franquelo, J. Rodriguez, J. I. Leon, S. Kouro, R. Portillo, and M. A. M. Prats, “The age of multilevel converters arrives,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. Mag., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 28–39, June, 2008.

[2] M. Saeedifard, P. M. Barbosa and P. K. Steimer,”Operation and Control of a Hybrid seven Level Converter,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 27, no.2, pp. 652–660, February, 2012.

[3] A. Nami. “A New Multilevel Converter Configuration for High Power High Quality Application,” PhD Thesis, Queensland University of Technology, 2010.

[4] V. Dargahi, A. K. Sadigh, M. Abarzadeh, S. Eskandari and K. Corzine, “A new family of modular multilevel converter based on modified flying capacitor multicell converters IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 30, no.

1, pp. 138-147, January, 2015.

[5] I. López, S. Ceballos, J. Pou, J. Zaragoza, J. Andreu, I. Kortabarria and V. G. Agelidis,” Modulation strategy for multiphase Neutral-Point Clamped converters,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 928–941, March, 2015.


A Highly Efficient and Reliable Inverter Configuration Based Cascaded Multi-Level Inverter for PV Systems


This paper presents an improved Cascaded Multi-Level Inverter (CMLI) based on a highly efficient and reliable configuration for the minimization of the leakage current. Apart from a reduced switch count, the proposed scheme has additional features of low switching and conduction losses. The proposed topology with the given PWM technique reduces the high-frequency voltage transitions in the terminal and common-mode voltages. Avoiding high-frequency voltage transitions achieves the minimization of the leakage current and reduction in the size of EMI filters. Furthermore, the extension of the proposed CMLI along with the PWM technique for 2m+1 levels is also presented, where m represents the number of Photo Voltaic (PV) sources. The proposed PWM technique requires only a single carrier wave for all 2m+1 levels of operation. The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of the grid current for the proposed CMLI meets the requirements of IEEE 1547 standard. A comparison of the proposed CMLI with the existing PV Multi-Level Inverter (MLI) topologies is also presented in the paper. Complete details of the analysis of PV terminal and common-mode voltages of the proposed CMLI using switching function concept, simulations, and experimental results are presented in the paper.


  1. Cascaded multi-level inverter
  2. Leakage current
  3. Common-mode voltage
  4. Terminal voltage





Fig. 1. Proposed five-level grid-connected CMLI with PV and parasitic elements.



Fig. 2. Simulation results of proposed five-level CMLI showing the waveforms of : (a) output voltage vuv; (b) grid current iac; (c) terminal voltage vxg; (d) terminal voltage vyg; (e) terminal voltage vzg; (f) leakage current ileak; (g) common-mode voltage vcm.

Fig. 3. Proposed five-level CMLI integrated with MPPT. The subplots give waveforms of : (a) voltage VPV1; (b) voltage VPV2; (c) current IPV1; (d) current IPV2; (e) power PPV1; (f) power PPV2; (g) resultant modulation index ma; (h) output power POUT; (i) modified reference wave vref_modified; (j) inverter output voltage vab.


 In this paper, an improved five-level CMLI with low switch count for the minimization of leakage current in a transformerless PV system is proposed. The proposed CMLI minimizes the leakage current by eliminating the high-frequency transitions in the terminal and common-mode

voltages. The proposed topology also has reduced conduction and switching losses which makes it possible to operate the CMLI at high switching frequency. Furthermore, the solution for generalized 2m+1 levels CMLI is also presented in the paper. The given PWM technique requires only one carrier wave for the generation of 2m+1 levels. The operation, analysis of terminal and common-mode voltages for the CMLI is also presented in the paper. The simulation and experimental results validate the analysis carried out in this paper. The MPPT algorithm is also integrated with the proposed five-level CMLI to extract the maximum power from the PV panels. The proposed CMLI is also compared with the other existing MLI topologies in Table V to show its advantages.


[1] Y. Tang, W. Yao, P.C. Loh and F. Blaabjerg, “Highly Reliable Transformerless Photovoltaic Inverters With Leakage Current and Pulsating Power Elimination,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Elect., vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 1016-1026, Feb. 2016.

[2] W. Li, Y. Gu, H. Luo, W. Cui, X. He and C. Xia, “Topology Review and Derivation Methodology of Single-Phase Transformerless Photovoltaic Inverters for Leakage Current Suppression,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Elect., vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 4537-4551, July 2015.

[3] J. Ji, W. Wu, Y. He, Z. Lin, F. Blaabjerg and H. S. H. Chung, “A Simple Differential Mode EMI Suppressor for the LLCL-Filter-Based Single-Phase Grid-Tied Transformerless Inverter,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Elect., vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 4141-4147, July 2015.

[4] Y. Bae and R.Y.Kim, “Suppression of Common-Mode Voltage Using a Multicentral Photovoltaic Inverter Topology With Synchronized PWM,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Elect., vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 4722-4733, Sept. 2014.

[5] N. Vazquez, M. Rosas, C. Hernandez, E. Vazquez and F. J. Perez-Pinal, “A New Common-Mode Transformerless Photovoltaic Inverter,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Elect., vol. 62, no. 10, pp. 6381-6391, Oct. 2015.


PMSG Based Wind Energy Generation System:Energy Maximization and its Control


This paper deals with the energy maximization and control analysis for the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based wind energy generation system (WEGS). The system consists of a wind turbine, a three-phase IGBT based rectifier on the generator side and a three-phase IGBT based inverter on the grid side converter system. The pitch angle control by perturbation and observation (P&O) algorithm for obtaining maximum power point tracking (MPPT). MPPT is most effective under, cold weather, cloudy or hazy days. A designed control technique is proposed for the MPPT mechanism of the system. This paper will explore in detail about the control analysis for both the generator and grid side converter system. Further, it will also discuss about the pitch angle control for the wind turbine in order to obtain maximum power for the complete wind energy generation system. The proposed WEGS for maximization of power is modelled, designed and simulated using MATLAB R2014b Simulink with its power system toolbox and discrete step solver incorporated in the simulation tool.


  1. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT)
  2. Permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG)
  3. Pitch angle control (PAC)
  4. Wind energy generation system (WEG)



Fig. 1. Control issue in PMSG based wind turbine system



Fig.2. Wind speed (15 m/s).

Fig.3. Pitch angle ( 26 Degree).

Fig.4. Active power output (1.49 MW).

Fig.5. Stator voltage of PMSG (per unit).

Fig.6. Stator current of PMSG (per unit).

Fig.7. Wind speed (m/s).

Fig.8. Pitch control.

Fig.9. Electrical torque of PMSG.

Fig.10. Wind turbine power with pitch control.


This paper has briefly discussed about the energy maximization and control analysis for the PMSG based wind energy generation system. The paper also explored in detail about the different control algorithm for both the machine and grid side converter system and has used VSC control for our proposed mechanism. A brief discussion on the pitch angle control for the wind turbine has been described which aims to obtain maximum power for the complete wind energy generation system. A designed control technique named as (P&O) has also been proposed for the MPPT mechanism of the system whose results has been validated using MATLAB R2014b Simulink. As discussed before the presented technique includes maximum power point tracking module, pitch angle control and average model for machine side and grid side converters. Also, the integrated control system controls the generator speed, DC-link voltage and active power along with the above-mentioned factors.


[1] M. Benadja and A. Chandra, “A new MPPT algorithm for PMSG based grid connected wind energy system with power quality improvement features”, IEEE Fifth Power India Conference, Murthal, pp. 1-6, 2012.

[2] S. Sharma and B. Singh, “An autonomous wind energy conversion system with permanent magnet synchronous generator”, International Conference on Energy, Automation and Signal, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, pp. 1-6, 2011.

[3] M. Singh and A. Chandra, “Power maximization and voltage sag/swell ride-through capability of PMSG based variable speed wind energy conversion system”,34th Annual Conference of IEEE Industrial Electronics, Orlando, FL, pp. 2206-2211, 2008.

[4] T. Tafticht, K. Agbossou, A. Cheriti and M. L. Doumbia, “Output Power Maximization of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Based Stand-alone Wind Turbine”,IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, Montreal, pp. 2412-2416, 2006.

[5] N. A. Orlando, M. Liserre, R. A. Mastromauro and A. D. Aquila, “A Survey of Control Issues in PMSG-Based Small Wind-Turbine Systems”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 1211-1221, Aug. 2013.