MPPT With Single DC–DC Converter and Inverter for Grid-Connected Hybrid Wind-Driven PMSG–PV System

ABSTRACT:

A new topology of a hybrid distributed generator based on photovoltaic and wind-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator is proposed. In this generator, the sources are connected together to the grid with the help of only a single boost converter followed by an inverter. Thus, compared to earlier schemes, the proposed scheme has fewer power converters. A model of the proposed scheme in the d − q-axis reference frame is developed. Two low-cost controllers are also proposed for the new hybrid scheme to separately trigger the dc–dc converter and the inverter for tracking the maximum power from both sources. The integrated operations of both proposed controllers for different conditions are demonstrated through simulation and experimentation. The steady-state performance of the system and the transient response of the controllers are also presented to demonstrate the successful operation of the new hybrid system. Comparisons of experimental and simulation results are given to validate the simulation model.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Grid-connected hybrid system
  2. Hybrid distributed generators (DGs)
  3. Smart grid
  4. Wind-driven PMSG–PV

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

 

Fig. 1. Proposed DG system based on PMSG–PV sources.

 EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:


Fig. 2. DC link steady-state waveforms. (a) Experimental (voltage—50 V/div, current—10 A/div, and time—500 ms/div). (b) Simulated (voltage—20 V/div, current—5 A/div, and time—500 ms/div.

Fig. 3. Steady-state grid voltage and current waveforms. (a) Experimental (voltage—50 V/div, current—10 A/div, and time—20 ms/div). (b) Simulated (voltage—50 V/div, current—5 A/div, and time— 20 ms/div).

Fig.4. Transient response for a step change in PMSG shaft speed. (a) Changes in rectifier output voltage and duty cycle of the boost converter. (b) Changes in dc-link voltage and current. (c) Changes in grid current.

 

CONCLUSION:

A new reliable hybrid DG system based on PV and wind driven PMSG as sources, with only a boost converter followed by an inverter stage, has been successfully implemented. The mathematical model developed for the proposed DG scheme has been used to study the system performance in MATLAB. The investigations carried out in a laboratory prototype for different irradiations and PMSG shaft speeds amply confirm the utility of the proposed hybrid generator in zero-net-energy buildings. In addition, it has been established through experimentation and simulation that the two controllers, digital MPPT controller and hysteresis current controller, which are designed specifically for the proposed system, have exactly tracked the maximum powers from both sources. Maintenance-free operation, reliability, and low cost are the features required for the DG employed in secondary distribution systems. It is for this reason that the developed controllers employ very low cost microcontrollers and analog circuitry. Furthermore, the results of the experimental investigations are found to be matching closely with the simulation results, thereby validating the developed model. The steady state waveforms captured at the grid side show that the power generated by the DG system is fed to the grid at unity power factor. The voltage THD and the current THD of the generator meet the required power quality norms recommended by IEEE. The proposed scheme easily finds application for erection at domestic consumer sites in a smart grid scenario.

REFERENCES:

[1] J. Byun, S. Park, B. Kang, I. Hong, and S. Park, “Design and implementation of an intelligent energy saving system based on standby power reduction for a future zero-energy home environment,” IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron., vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 507–514, Oct. 2013.

[2] J. He, Y. W. Li, and F. Blaabjerg, “Flexible microgrid power quality enhancement using adaptive hybrid voltage and current controller,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 2784–2794, Jun. 2014.

[3] W. Li, X. Ruan, C. Bao, D. Pan, and X. Wang, “Grid synchronization systems of three-phase grid-connected power converters: A complexvector- filter perspective,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 1855–1870, Apr. 2014.

[4] C. Liu, K. T. Chau, and X. Zhang, “An efficient wind-photovoltaic hybrid generation system using doubly excited permanent-magnet brushless machine,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 831–839, Mar. 2010.

[5] S. A. Daniel and N. A. Gounden, “A novel hybrid isolated generating system based on PV fed inverter-assisted wind-driven induction generators,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 416–422, Jun. 2004.

A Study on Anti-Islanding Detection Algorithms for Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Systems

 

ABSTRACT

This study analyzes various anti-islanding (AI) protection relays when the islanding condition of Grid-Tied PV (photovoltaic) System appears at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) between the PV Solar Power System and the power grid. The main purpose of the study is to determine the performance of several AI prevention schemes in detecting the presence of an island, by monitoring the detection time of the islanding condition through different methods. The devices used to implement the methods include over-current and under-current (OI/UI) relays, over-voltage and under-voltage (OV/UV) relays, over-frequency and under-frequency (OF/UF) relays, rate of change of frequency (ROCOF) and Vector Shift relays. The protection was tested in case of complete disconnection of the PV system from the electric power grid and also in case of various grid faults.

 

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

 

Fig. 1. Simulink model of the 100kW Grid-Connected PV Array

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS

   

Fig.1: Output results of boost converter

Fig. 2. The output result of dc link voltage (V DC) in VSC

Fig. 3. Id and Iq currents (pu) of VSC Control

Fig. 4. The Voltage between phase A and phase B of VSC

Fig. 5. Simulation result in 20kV measurement point of utility grid.

Fig. 6. The RMS value of voltage in PCC.

Fig. 7. The RMS value of current in PCC.

Fig. 8. The output result of frequency in PCC.

      

CONCLUSION :

This paper studies and compares different AI detection techniques such as passive AI prevention by standard protection schemes: OI/UI, OV/UV, OF/UF, as well as ROCOF and Vector Shift in case of a 100kW Grid-Connected PV Array. The PV System is completely disconnected from EPS and continues to energize a 20kV utility grid at 50Hz, and respectively various grid faults occurs at 5km away from the PCC of the PV System. The effectiveness of different AI detection algorithms is tested and the impact on network fault conditions and relays behavior during islanding is studied. From the results provided by the performed Matlab/Simulink simulations, it was observed that using traditional relays for islanding detection such as the OC or UV resulted

in significantly better performance in respect to detection time of islanding conditions. The ROCOF and Vector Shift relays have a detection time comparable with frequency relays. However, if the ROCOF threshold is exceeded, the formation of an island is quickly detected. The terminal voltage of PV inverter needs to exceed a certain threshold when the frequency is not stabilized by VSC. The UC relay failed entirely to detect the islanding in both analyzed cases. The effects of unintentional islanding were observed from simulation of transient grid faults on a power distribution network. The protection equipment needs to distinguish between islanding event and grid faults. The Grid-Tied PV System protections should detect the fault and trip before islanding occurs as a result of the opening of the circuit breaker in response to a downstream fault. In order to minimize these effects and to perform according to the. international standards, the AI relays have to be inserted at the points where islanding conditions may occur. The theoretical simulation results are useful to select these points and design the AI protection devices for Grid-Tied PV Systems.

 

REFERENCES

[1] D. Rekioua and E. Matagne, Optimization of Photovoltaic Power Systems, Modelization, Simulation and Control. Springer, 2012.

[2] IEEE Std 1547-2003, Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems, IEEE, 2003.

[3] R. Teodorescu, M. Liserre and P. Rodríguez, Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2011.

[4] CIGRE Working Group B5.34, “The Impact of Renewable Energy Sources and Distributed Generation on Substation Protection and Automation,” CIGRE, 2010.

[5] IEEE Std 1547.2-2008, IEEE Application Guide for IEEE Std 1547™, IEEE Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems, IEEE, 2008

Solar PV Array Fed Brushless DC Motor Driven Water Pump

 

ABSTRACT:

 This work deals with the utilization of solar photovoltaic (SPV) energy in the brushless DC (BLDC) motor driven water pump. A DC-DC boost converter, used as an intermediate power conditioning unit plays a vital role in efficiency enhancement of SPV array and soft starting of the BLDC motor with proper control. The speed control of BLDC motor is performed by PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) control of the voltage source inverter (VSI) using DC link voltage regulator. No additional control or current sensing element is required for speed control. The behavior of proposed pumping system is demonstrated by evaluating its various performances through MATLAB/simulink based simulation study.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Solar PV
  2. BLDC motor
  3. Boost converter
  4. Soft starting
  5. PWM
  6. VSI
  7. Speed control

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig.1 Configuration of PV array fed BLDC motor-pump.

 EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

Fig.2 Starting and steady state performances of solar PV array

Fig.3 Starting and steady state performance of boost DC-DC converter

Fig.4 Starting and steady state performance of brushless DC motor-pump

Fig.5 Dynamic performance of solar PV array.

Fig.6 Dynamic performance of boost DC-DC converter

Fig.7 Dynamic performance of brushless DC motor – pump

CONCLUSION:

The SPV Array fed boost converter based BLDC motor driven water pump has been proposed and its suitability has been demonstrated by analyzing its various performance indices using MATLAB based simulation study. A simple, efficient and economical method for speed control of BLDC motor has been suggested, which has offered absolute elimination of current sensing elements. The proper selection of SPV array has made the boost converter capable of tracking MPP irrespective of weather conditions. An optimum design of the boost converter has been presented. The safe starting of brushless DC motor has been achieved without any additional control. The desired performance of proposed system even at 20% of standard solar irradiance has justified its suitability for solar PV based water pumping.

REFERENCES:

[1] R. Kumar and B. Singh, “Solar PV array fed Cuk converter-VSI controlled BLDC motor drive for water pumping,” 6th IEEE Power India Int. Conf. (PIICON), 5-7 Dec. 2014, pp. 1-7.

[2] M. A. Elgendy, B. Zahawi and D. J. Atkinson, “Assessment of the Incremental Conductance Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy, vol.4, no.1, pp.108-117, Jan. 2013.

[3] J.V. Mapurunga Caracas, G. De Carvalho Farias, L.F. Moreira Teixeira and L.A. De Souza Ribeiro, “Implementation of a High-Efficiency, High-Lifetime, and Low-Cost Converter for an Autonomous Photovoltaic Water Pumping System,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 631-641, Jan.-Feb. 2014.

[4] N. Mohan, T. M. Undeland and W. P. Robbins, Power Electronics: Converters, Applications and Design, 3rd ed. New Delhi, India: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2010.

[5] M. H. Rashid, Power Electronics Handbook: Devices, Circuits, and Applications,” 3rd ed. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Inc., 2011.

 

Commutation Torque Ripple Reduction in BLDC Motor Using Modified SEPIC Converter and Three-level NPC Inverter

ABSTRACT:

 This paper presents a new power converter topology to suppress the torque ripple due to the phase current commutation of a brushless DC motor (BLDCM) drive system. A combination of a 3-level diode clamped multilevel inverter (3-level DCMLI), a modified single-ended primary-inductor converter (SEPIC), and a dc-bus voltage selector circuit are employed in the proposed torque ripple suppression circuit. For efficient suppression of torque pulsation, the dc-bus voltage selector circuit is used to apply the regulated dc-bus voltage from the modified SEPIC converter during the commutation interval. In order to further mitigate the torque ripple pulsation, the 3-level DCMLI is used in the proposed circuit. Finally, simulation and experimental results show that the proposed topology is an attractive option to reduce the commutation torque ripple significantly at low and high speed applications.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Brushless direct current motor (BLDCM)
  2. Dc-bus voltage control
  3. Modified single-ended primary-inductor converter
  4. 3-level diode clamped multilevel inverter (3-level DCMLI)
  5. Torque ripple

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. Proposed converter topology with a dc-bus voltage selector circuit for BLDCM

 EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Fig. 2. Simulated waveforms of phase current and torque at 1000 rpm and 0.825 Nm with 5 kHz switching frequency. (a) BLDCM fed by 2-level inverter. (b) BLDCM fed by 3-level DCMLI. (c) BLDCM fed by 2-level inverter with SEPIC converter and a switch selection circuit. (d) BLDCM fed by proposed topology.

Fig. 3. Simulated waveforms of phase current and torque at 6000 rpm and 0.825 Nm with 5 kHz switching frequency. (a) BLDCM fed by 2-level inverter. (b) BLDCM fed by 3-level DCMLI. (c) BLDCM fed by 2-level inverter with SEPIC converter and a switch selection circuit. (d) BLDCM fed by proposed topology.

Fig. 4. Simulated waveforms of phase current and torque at 1000 rpm and 0.825 Nm with 20 kHz switching frequency. (a) BLDCM fed by 2-level inverter. (b) BLDCM fed by 3-level DCMLI. (c) BLDCM fed by 2-level inverter with SEPIC converter and switch a selection circuit. (d) BLDCM fed by proposed topology.

Fig. 5. Simulated waveforms of phase current and torque at 6000 rpm and 0.825 Nm with 20 kHz switching frequency. (a) BLDCM fed by 2-level inverter. (b) BLDCM fed by 3-level DCMLI. (c) BLDCM fed by 2-level inverter with SEPIC converter and a switch selection circuit. (d) BLDCM fed by proposed topology.

Fig. 6. Simulated waveforms of phase current and torque at 1000 rpm and 0.825 Nm with 80 kHz switching frequency. (a) BLDCM fed by 2-level inverter. (b) BLDCM fed by 3-level DCMLI. (c) BLDCM fed by 2-level inverter with SEPIC converter and a switch selection circuit. (d) BLDCM fed by proposed topology.

Fig. 7. Simulated waveforms of phase current and torque at 6000 rpm and 0.825 Nm with 80 kHz switching frequency. (a) BLDCM fed by 2-level inverter. (b) BLDCM fed by 3-level DCMLI. (c) BLDCM fed by 2-level inverter with SEPIC converter and a switch selection circuit. (d) BLDCM fed by proposed topology.

CONCLUSION:

In this paper, a commutation torque ripple reduction circuit has been proposed using 3-level DCMLI with modified SEPIC converter and a dc-bus voltage selector circuit. A laboratory-built drive system has been tested to verify the proposed converter topology. The suggested dc-bus voltage control strategy is more effective in torque ripple reduction in the commutation interval. The proposed topology accomplishes the successful reduction of torque ripple in the commutation period and experimental results are presented to compare the performance of the proposed control technique with the conventional 2-level inverter, 3-level DCMLI, 2-level inverter with SEPIC converter and the switch selection circuit-fed BLDCM. In order to obtain significant torque ripple suppression, quietness and higher efficiency, 3-level DCMLI with modified SEPIC converter and the voltage selector circuit is a most suitable choice to obtain high-performance operation of BLDCM. The proposed topology may be used for the torque ripple suppression of BLDCM with the very low stator winding inductance.

REFERENCES:

[1] N. Milivojevic, M. Krishnamurthy, Y. Gurkaynak, A. Sathyan, Y.-J. Lee, and A. Emadi, “Stability analysis of FPGA-based control of brushless DC motors and generators using digital PWM technique,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 343–351, Jan. 2012.

[2] X. Huang, A. Goodman, C. Gerada, Y. Fang, and Q. Lu, “A single sided matrix converter drive for a brushless dc motor in aerospace applications,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 59, no. 9, pp. 3542–3552, Sep. 2012.

[3] X. Huang, A. Goodman, C. Gerada, Y. Fang, and Q. Lu, “Design of a five-phase brushless DC motor for a safety critical aerospace application,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 59, no. 9, pp. 3532-3541, Sep. 2012.

[4] J.-G. Lee, C.-S. Park, J.-J. Lee, G. H. Lee, H.-I. Cho, and J.-P. Hong, “Characteristic analysis of brushless motor condering drive type,” KIEE, pp. 589-591, Jul. 2002.

[5] T. H. Kim and M. Ehsani, “Sensorless control of BLDC motors from near-zero to high speeds,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1635–1645, Nov. 2004.

 

Simulation and Control of Solar Wind Hybrid Renewable Power System

ABSTRACT:

The sun and wind based generation are well thoroughly considered to be alternate source of green power generation which can mitigate the power demand issues. This paper introduces a standalone hybrid power generation system consisting of solar and permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind power sources and a AC load. A supervisory control unit, designed to execute maximum power point tracking (MPPT), is introduced to maximize the simultaneous energy harvesting from overall power generation under different climatic conditions. Two contingencies are considered and categorized according to the power generation from each energy source, and the load requirement. In PV system Perturb & Observe (P&O) algorithm is used as control logic for the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) controller and Hill Climb Search (HCS) algorithm is used as MPPT control logic for the Wind power system in order to maximizing the power generated. The Fuzzy logic control scheme of the inverter is intended to keep the load voltage and frequency of the AC supply at constant level regardless of progress in natural conditions and burden. A Simulink model of the proposed Hybrid system with the MPPT controlled Boost converters and Voltage regulated Inverter for stand-alone application is developed in MATLAB.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Renewable energy
  2. Solar
  3. PMSG Wind
  4. Fuzzy controller
  5. P&O

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Figure 1. Block diagram of PV-Wind hybrid system

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Figure 2. PV changing irradiation level

Figure 3. Output voltage for PV changing irradiation level

  Figure 4. Wind speed changing level

Figure 5. Output current wind

Figure 6. Output Voltage wind

Case 1 : PI voltage regulated inverter

Figure 7. Output voltage for inverter

Figure 8. Power generation of the hybrid system under varying wind speed and irradiation

Case 2 : fuzzy logic voltage regulated inverter

Figure 9. Output voltage for inverter

Figure 10. Power generation of the hybrid system under varying wind speed and irradiation

 CONCLUSION:

Nature has provided ample opportunities to mankind to make best use of its resources and still maintain its beauty. In this context, the proposed hybrid PV-wind system provides an elegant integration of the wind turbine and solar PV to extract optimum energy from the two sources. It yields a compact converter system, while incurring reduced cost.

The proposed scheme of wind–solar hybrid system considerably improves the performance of the WECS in terms of enhanced generation capability. The solar PV augmentation of appropriate capacity with minimum battery storage facility provides solution for power generation issues during low wind speed situations.

FLC voltage regulated inverter is more power efficiency and reliable compared to the PI voltage regulated inverter, in this context FLC improve the effect of the MPPT algorithm in the power generation system of which sources solar and wind power generation systems.

REFERENCES:

[1] Natsheh, E.M.; Albarbar, A.; Yazdani, J., “Modeling and control for smart grid integration of solar/wind energy conversion system,” 2nd IEEE PES International Conference and Exhibition on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT Europe),pp.1-8, 5-7 Dec. 2011.

[2] Bagen; Billinton, R., “Evaluation of Different Operating Strategies in Small Stand-Alone Power Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol.20, no.3, pp. 654-660, Sept. 2005

[3] S. M. Shaahid and M. A. Elhadidy, “Opportunities for utilization of stand-alone hybrid (photovoltaic + diesel + battery) power systems in hot climates,” Renewable Energy, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 1741–1753, 2003.

[4] Goel, P.K.; Singh, B.; Murthy, S.S.; Kishore, N., “Autonomous hybrid system using PMSGs for hydro and wind power generation,” 35th Annual Conference of IEEE Industrial Electronics, 2009. IECON ’09, pp.255,260, 3-5 Nov. 2009.

[5] Foster, R., M. Ghassemi, and A. Cota, Solar energy: renewable energy and the environment. 2010, Boca Raton: CRC Press.

A Combination of Shunt Hybrid Power Filter and Thyristor-Controlled Reactor for Power Quality

 

ABSTRACT:

This paper proposes a combined system of a thyristor-controlled reactor (TCR) and a shunt hybrid power filter (SHPF) for harmonic and reactive power compensation. The SHPF is the combination of a small-rating active power filter (APF) and a fifth-harmonic-tuned LC passive filter. The tuned passive filter and the TCR form a shunt passive filter (SPF) to compensate reactive power. The small-rating APF is used to improve the filtering characteristics of SPF and to suppress the possibility of resonance between the SPF and line inductances. A proportional–integral controller was used, and a triggering alpha was extracted using a lookup table to control the TCR. A nonlinear control of APF was developed for current tracking and voltage regulation. The latter is based on a decoupled control strategy, which considers that the controlled system may be divided into an inner fast loop and an outer slow one. Thus, an exact linearization control was applied to the inner loop, and a nonlinear feedback control law was used for the outer voltage loop. Integral compensators were added in both current and voltage loops in order to eliminate the steady-state errors due to system parameter uncertainty. The simulation and experimental results are found to be quite satisfactory to mitigate harmonic distortions and reactive power compensation.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Harmonic suppression,
  2. Hybrid power filter
  3. Modeling
  4. Nonlinear control
  5. Reactive power compensation
  6. Shunt hybrid power filter and thyristor-controlled reactor (SHPF-TCRcompensator)
  7. Thyristor-controlled reactor (TCR)

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. Basic circuit of the proposed SHPF-TCR compensator.

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

Fig. 2. Steady-state response of the SHPF-TCR compensator with harmonic generated load.

Fig. 3. Harmonic spectrum of source current in phase 1. (a) Before compensation.

(b) After compensation.

Fig. 4. Dynamic response of SHPF-TCR compensator under varying distorted

harmonic type of load conditions.

 

Fig. 5. Dynamic response of SHPF-TCR compensator under the harmonic and reactive power type of loads.

  Fig. 6. Harmonic spectrum of source current in phase 1. (a) Before compensation. (b) After compensation.

Fig. 7. Steady-state response of the SHPF-TCR compensator with harmonic produced load.

 CONCLUSION:

In this paper, a SHPF-TCR compensator of a TCR and a SHPF has been proposed to achieve harmonic elimination and reactive power compensation. A proposed nonlinear control scheme of a SHPF-TCR compensator has been established, simulated, and implemented by using the DS1104 digital realtime controller board of dSPACE. The shunt active filter and SPF have a complementary function to improve the performance of filtering and to reduce the power rating requirements of an active filter. It has been found that the SHPF-TCR compensator can effectively eliminate current harmonic and reactive power compensation during steady and transient operating conditions for a variety of loads. It has been shown that the system has a fast dynamic response, has good performance in both steady-state and transient operations, and is able to reduce the THD of supply currents well below the limit of 5% of the IEEE-519 standard.

REFERENCES:

[1] A. Hamadi, S. Rahmani, and K. Al-Haddad, “A hybrid passive filter configuration for VAR control and harmonic compensation,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 2419–2434, Jul. 2010.

[2] P. Flores, J. Dixon, M. Ortuzar, R. Carmi, P. Barriuso, and L. Moran, “Static Var compensator and active power filter with power injection capability, using 27-level inverters and photovoltaic cells,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 130–138, Jan. 2009.

[3] H. Hu, W. Shi, Y. Lu, and Y. Xing, “Design considerations for DSPcontrolled 400 Hz shunt active power filter in an aircraft power system,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 59, no. 9, pp. 3624–3634, Sep. 2012.

[4] X. Du, L. Zhou, H. Lu, and H.-M. Tai, “DC link active power filter for three-phase diode rectifier,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 1430–1442, Mar. 2012.

[5] M. Angulo, D. A. Ruiz-Caballero, J. Lago, M. L. Heldwein, and S. A. Mussa, “Active power filter control strategy with implicit closedloop current control and resonant controller,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 2721–2730, Jul. 2013.

 

Offshore Wind Farms – VSC-based HVDC Connection

 

ABSTRACT:

Due to significantly higher and more constant wind speeds and the shortage of suitable sites for wind turbines on the land, offshore wind farms are becoming very attractive. The connection of the large offshore wind farms is possible with HVAC, classical HVDC and Voltage Source Converter (VSC based) HVDC technology. In this paper their main features will be given. From the economical and technical viewpoint, the type of connection depends on the size of the wind farm and on the distance to the connection point of the system.

As very promising technology, especially from the technical viewpoint, the focus of this paper will be put on the VSC-based HVDC technology. Its main technical features as well as its model will be detailed. At the end, obtained simulation results for different faults and disturbances for one offshore wind farm connected with VSC-based HVDC technology will be presented.

KEYWORDS:

  1. HVDC
  2. IGBT
  3. Offshore wind farm connection
  4. PWM
  5. Requirements
  6. Stability
  7. VSC

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

 

Fig. 1. Principal scheme of VCS-based HVDC connection

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

 Fig. 2. Active and reactive power at the connection point during reactive power control

Fig. 3. Active and reactive power at the wind farm side during reactive power control

Fig. 4. Active power, reactive power and voltage at system and wind farm side in case of single phase short circuit near to the connection point – 100ms

Fig. 5. Active power, reactive power and voltage at system and wind farm side in case of single phase short circuit at the wind farm side – 100ms

 CONCLUSION:

The connection of an offshore wind farm depends primarily on the amount of power that has to be transmitted and the distance to the connection point.

Primarily due to comparatively small size and short distance to the connection point as well as due to its lower costs and experience, all actual offshore wind farms and those planned to be installed are still using/plan to use HVAC connection.

The advantages of using a HVDC solution are more significant with increase of the distance and power.

The VSC-based HVDC technology is due to its technical advantages like: active and, especially, reactive power control (voltage control), isolated operation, no need for an active commutation voltage etc. very good solution for an offshore wind farm connection. Performed simulation and their results of simulated faults and disturbances show that the technical requirements can be fulfilled.

REFERENCES:

[1] European Wind Energy Association. (2004). Wind Energy – The Facts. [Online]. Available: http://www.ewea.org

[2] Global Wind Energy Council. (2004). [Online]. Available: http://www.gwec.net

[3] F.W. Koch, I. Erlich, F. Shewarega, and U. Bachmann, “Dynamic interaction of large offshore wind farms with the electric power system”, in Proc. 2003 IEEE Power Tech Conf., Bologna, Italy, vol. 3, pp. 632-638.

[4] J.G. Slootweg and W.L. Kling, “Is the Answer Blowing in the Wind?”, IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, vol. 1, pp. 26-33, Nov./Dec. 2003.

[5] Wind Energy Study 2004. [Online]. Available: http://www.ewea.org

Offshore Wind Farm Power Control Using HVdc Link Control de puissance d’un parc éolien en mer utilisant la liaison CCHT

ABSTRACT:

In this paper, a method is presented to control offshore wind farm output power. This method is able to fix the wind farm output power even during wind speed variations. In the proposed method, the offshore wind farm is connected to the onshore grid through the high-voltage dc (HVdc) cable. Moreover, the power control of the wind turbines is achieved by controlling the HVdc convertors. In the proposed system, the generator side convertors have to control the active power absorbed from the wind, and the grid side ones are obtained to control the HVdc link voltage. The control system is based on applying the appropriate modulation index to the voltage source converters. Two control strategies are proposed and analyzed to control wind farm output power. The simulation results illustrate that the proposed method is able to smooth the output power of the offshore wind farms appropriately. The proposed wind farm configuration and the control system are validated by simulations in the MATLAB/Simulink environment.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Current source inverter (CSI)
  2. Offshore wind farm
  3. Permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG)
  4. PQ-bus
  5. Voltage source converter (VSC)

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. Proposed configuration of wind turbines connection.

 EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

 Fig. 2. (a) Wind speed variations (m/s). (b) Turbine rotational speed (rad/s).

(c) Turbine efficiency.

Fig. 3. HVdc link voltage.

Fig. 4. Wind farm output power.

CONCLUSION:

In this paper, the configuration and control methods have been proposed for the offshore wind turbines, connected to the onshore grid. This method is capable to control and smooth the wind farm output power, injected to the onshore grid. The proposed system can mitigate the fluctuations of wind farm output power, even during wind speed variations. In other words, the wind farm can operate such as a PQ-bus. Moreover, two strategies (fixed power and MPPT) have been analyzed and compared with each other. Finally, the proposed method is compared with other similar works to smooth the output power of the wind farm. The main result is that the proposed method can smooth the output power better than the TSR, PAC, and OTC methods. But it is a bit weaker than the KEC method in power smoothing issue. Moreover, using this method, the wind farm is able to cooperate in frequency control of the onshore grid by controlling the desired active power, to improve the power system operation, which is the future work of the authors.

REFERENCES:

[1] J. O. Dabiri, “Potential order-of-magnitude enhancement of wind farm power density via counter-rotating vertical-axis wind turbine arrays,” J. Renew. Sustain. Energy, vol. 3, no. 4, p. 043104, 2011.

[2] J. Hua, “A floating platform of concrete for offshore wind turbine,” J. Renew. Sustain. Energy, vol. 3, no. 6, p. 063103, 2011.

[3] A. Urtasun, P. Sanchis, I. S. Martín, J. López, and L. Marroyo, “Modeling of small wind turbines based on PMSG with diode bridge for sensorless maximum power tracking,” Renew. Energy, vol. 55, pp. 138–149, Jul. 2012.

[4] (2007). Global Wind and Energy Council, Market Forecast 2010- 2014. [Online]. Available: http://www.gwec.net/fileadmin/documents/ Publications/GlobalWind2007report/market/forecast%2020102014

[5] M. Kesraoui, N. Korichi, and A. Belkadi, “Maximum power point tracker of wind energy conversion system,” Renew. Energy, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 2655–2662, 2011.

Modeling and Control of Multi-Terminal HVDC with Offshore Wind Farm Integration and DC Chopper Based Protection Strategies

 

ABSTRACT:

Multi-Terminal HVDC based on three-level neutral-clamped voltage source converters (VSC) is an ideal approach for the integration of DFIG wind farms to the power grid. However, dc-link faults and ac faults are major concerns for the safety and consistency of VSC-HVDC system. This paper demonstrates methods employing both full bridge and half bridge DC-DC converters for the fast clearance and protection of dc and ac ground faults respectively. In addition, control strategies incorporating decoupling control and feed-forward compensation on both grid side and wind farm side VSCs are also presented. Normal operations are observed to examine the performance of the MT-HVDC system, and also dc-link fault and three-phase ground fault at inverter side are simulated to verify the effectiveness of the approach employing DC-DC converters to suppress dc current overshoot in case of dc-link fault and mitigate dc voltage overshoot during three-phase ac ground fault. This proposed MT-HVDC transmission system and the fault-ride through capabilities provided by the dc choppers is validated by the simulation studies using detailed Matlab/Simulink model for normal operation, dc and ac ground faults.

KEYWORDS:

  1. VSC-HVDC
  2. DFIG
  3. DC chopper
  4. Faults

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1 Topology of the proposed multi-terminal VSC-HVDC system.

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

Fig. 2 Simulation results of MT-HVDC during normal operation: (a) active power of wind farm, (b) dc voltage, and (c) ac rms current.

Fig. 3 Simulation results of 6 DFIG units during normal operation: (a) active power, (b) reactive power, (c) ac rms voltage, and (d) back-to-back dc-link voltage of DFIG unit.

Fig. 4 Simulation results of MT-HVDC during dc pole-to-pole fault with and without full bridge dc chopper protection: (a) dc voltage, and (b) dc current.

Fig. 5 Simulation results of MT-HVDC during three-phase ac ground fault at inverter side with and without half bridge dc chopper protection: (a) ac rms voltage at inverter side, (b) dc voltage overshoot without protection measures, and (c) dc voltage with protection measures.

CONCLUSION:

This paper investigates a multi-terminal VSC-HVDC system, which integrates two DFIG wind farms to the ac grid. The control strategies of both WFVSC and GSVSC stations are discussed in detail, and two approaches employing both full bridge and half bridge dc choppers are extended and displayed. Simulation studies are carried out in normal, dc pole-to-pole and ac ground fault operations, and the result verifies the effectiveness of the proposed MT-HVDC system in both the performance of wind power delivery and the protection measures for various fault conditions. Specifically, the dc voltage drop and dc current overshoot are eliminated during dc fault with full bridge dc choppers, while only a 8% voltage overshoot is observed with the implementation of half bridge dc choppers in case of three-phase ac ground fault.

REFERENCES:

[1] S. G. Hernandez, E. M. Goytia and O. A. Lara, “Analysis of wide area integration of dispersed wind farms using multiple VSC-HVDC links,” in Proc. of EPE, Sevilla, pp. 17-26, 2008.

[2] S. Towito, M. Berman, G. Yehuda and R. Rabinvici, “Distribution generation case study: electric wind farm doubly fed induction generators”, in Proc. Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineering(CEEE), Israel, pp. 393-397, Nov. 2006.

[3] N. Flourentzou, V. G. Agelidis, and G. D. Demetriades, “VSC-based HVDC power transmission systems: an overview,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 592-602, Mar. 2009.

[4] L. Xu, L. Yao, and C. Sasse, “Grid integration of large DFIG-based wind farms ssing VSC transmission,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 22, no. 3, pp.976-984, Aug. 2007.

[5] L. Weimers, “HVDC Light: A new technology for a better environment”, IEEE Power Eng. Review, vol. 18, no. 8, pp.19-20, Aug. 1998.

Inertial Response of an Offshore Wind Power Plant with HVDC-VSC

 

ABSTRACT:

This paper analyzes the inertial response of an offshore wind power plant (WPP) to provide ancillary services to the power system grid. The WPP is connected to a high-voltage direct-current voltage source converter HVDC-VSC to deliver the power to the onshore substation. The wind turbine generator (WTG) used is a doubly-fed induction generator (Type 3 WTG). In this paper we analyze a control method for the WTGs in an offshore WPP to support the grid and contribute ancillary services to the power system network. Detailed time domain simulations will be conducted to show the transient behavior of the inertial response of an offshore WPP.

 KEYWORDS:

  1. HVDC
  2. Inertial response
  3. Offshore wind turbine

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. Test system schematic

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

Fig. 2. ΔT order applied to the controller of the DFIG

Fig. 3. DFIG rotating speed, 150 MW

Fig. 4. DFIG electromagnetic torque, 150 MW

Fig. 5. HVDC link voltage , 150 MW

Fig. 6. HVDC link current, 150 MW

Fig. 7. Real and reactive power (rectifier side), 150 MW

Fig. 8. Real and reactive power (inverter side), 150 MW

Fig. 9. DFIG rotating speed, 180 MW

Fig. 10. DFIG electromagnetic torque, 180 MW

Fig. 11. HVDC link voltage , 180 MW

 

Fig. 12. HVDC link current, 180 MW

Fig. 13. Real and reactive power (rectifier side), 180 MW

Fig. 14. Real and reactive power (inverter side), 180 MW

Fig. 15. DFIG rotating speed, 200 MW, 12 m/s

Fig. 16. DFIG electromagnetic torque, 200 MW, 12 m/s

Fig. 17. HVDC link voltage , 200 MW, 12 m/s

Fig. 18. HVDC link current, 200 MW, 12 m/s

 CONCLUSION:

Detailed time domain simulations were conducted in order to analyze the transients present on the inertial response of an offshore WPP delivering power through an HVDC-VSC link. Several results from transient behavior are presented, these results show that an offshore WPP connected to the grid via an HVDC-VSC link is able to deliver inertial response if it is requested.

These results are important as the WPP importance for the power system is growing and its performance during contingencies must be asured.

REFERENCES:

[1] A. Bodin, “HVDC Light—A Preferable Power Transmission System for Renewable Energies.” Proceedings of the 2011 Third International Youth Conference on Energetics; July 7–9, 2011, Leiria, Portugal

[2] M. de Prada Gil, O. Gomis-Bellmunt, A. Sumper, and J. Bergas-Jané, “Analysis of a Multi-Turbine Offshore Wind Farm Connected to a Single Large Power Converter Operated with Variable Frequency.” Energy (36: 5), May 2011; pp. 3272–3281

[3] Feltes, C., and Erlich, I. “Variable Frequency Operation of DFIG-Based Wind Farms Connected to the Grid Through VSC-HVDC Link.” IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, June 24–28, 2007, Tampa, Florida.

[4] N. Miller, K. Clark, M. Cardinal, and R. Delmerico, “Grid-friendly wind plants controls: GE Wind CONTROL—Functionality and field tests,” presented at European Wind Energy Conf., Brussels, Belgium, 2008.

[5] N. W. Miller, K. Clark, and M. Shao, “Impact of frequency responsive wind plant controls on grid performance,” presented at 9th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power, Quebec, Canada, Oct. 18–19, 2010.