In electrical engineering, electric machine is a general term for machines using electromagnetic forces, such as electric motors, electric generators, and others. They are electromechanical energy converters: an electric motor converts electricity to mechanical power while an electric generator converts mechanical power to electricity. The moving parts in a machine can be rotating (rotating machines) or linear (linear machines). Besides motors and generators, a third category often included is transformers, which although they do not have any moving parts are also energy converters, changing the voltage level of an alternating current.
A high-voltage, direct current (HVDC) electric power transmission system (also called a power superhighway or an electrical superhighway) uses direct current for the bulk transmission of electrical power, in contrast with the more common alternating current(AC) systems. For long-distance transmission, HVDC systems may be less expensive and suffer lower electrical losses. For underwater power cables, HVDC avoids the heavy currents required to charge and discharge the cable capacitance each cycle. For shorter distances, the higher cost of DC conversion equipment compared to an AC system may still be justified, due to other benefits of direct current links. HVDC uses voltages between 100 kV and 1,500 kV.
The scientific manuscript is a clear written document (Paper Writing) that illustrates a question and then gives a logical answer to this question based on theoretical or experimental or simulation results. A manuscript conveys the technical information to the reader, thus the presentation and discussion should be straightforward.
The origins and development of the scientific and technical press can be traced back to 1665 when the first “modern” scientific papers appeared and were characterized by non standardised form and style. Subsequently, nearly 300 years ago, in an attempt to ensure that articles met the journal’s standards of quality and scientific validity, the peer-reviewed process for scientific manuscripts was born in England and France. Since then, there has been an enormous proliferation of scientific journals and manuscripts so that, at present, the numbers of biomedical papers published annually by over 20,000 journals, at a rate of 5,500 new papers per day, far exceeds 2,000,000.
Published scientific papers and professional meetings are really essential to disseminate relevant information and research findings. However, most of the abstracts of presentations given at scientific meetings are usually available only in conference proceedings. Though they have the potential to be subsequently published as articles in peer-reviewed journals.
Possible reasons for failed publication include lack of time, research still underway, problems with co-authors and negative results. Undoubtedly, lack of the necessary skills and experience in the process of writing and publishing is another possible contributing factor. Also in the field of Transfusion Medicine although the specialists in this discipline are currently adopting the principles and research methodologies. High-level research is actually being carried out at the same rate as in all medical specialties.
There are three broad groups of manuscripts: original scientific articles, reviews and case reports.
We do write research papers and give guidance for publishing papers in good International Journals.
This paper presents simulation model of the 132KV transmission line with comparison of ANN based STATCOM and conventional PI based STATCOM. The STATCOM being the state-of-the-art VSC based dynamic shunt compensator in FACTS family is used now a days in transmission system for reactive power control, increase of power transfer capacity, voltage regulation etc. Such type of controller is applied at the middle of the transmission line to enhance the power transmission capacity of the line. The simulation result shows that the STATCOM is effective improve the power factor and voltage regulation for the 132kV line loading.
- ANN control strategy
- MatLab simulink
Fig 1: Schematic Representation of the Control Circuit.
EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:
Fig 2 1-phase current and voltage waveform using STATCOM
Fig3 Phase Current and Voltage waveform when the STATCOM is ON
Fig 4Phase Current and Voltage waveform when Load is Varied in the system
Fig 5 Phase Current and Voltage waveform when suddenly a Load is remove from the system at 0.4sec
Fig 6 3-phase current and voltage waveform using STATCOM
Fig 7 Active and Reactive power flow in Transmission system using STATCOM
Fig8 1-phase current and voltage waveform for STATCOM using ANN
Fig 9 Phase Current and Voltage waveform when the STATCOM is ON
Fig 10 1 Phase Current and Voltage waveform when Load is Varied in the System
Fig11 3-phase voltage and current waveform for STATCOM using ANN
The paper present that the STATCOM bring the power factor to the unity thereby enhancing the power transfer capability by supplying or absorbing controllable amount of reactive power. By using a STATCOM with ANN controller and the Response time is faster comparing to the PI Controller because of this voltage regulation maintained within a limit. More over ANN Controlled STATCOM will improve the stability of the system and improve the dynamic performance of the system.
 B.Sing ,R.saha, A.Chandra “Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM): a review” IET Power Electronic 2008
 N.G Hingroni and I Gyugyi. “Understanding FACTS: Concepts and Technology of flexible AC Transmission System”, IEEE Press, New York, 2000.
 D.J Hanson, M.L.Woodhouse, C.Horwill “STATCOM: a new era of Reactive Compensation” Power Engineering Journal June 2002
 Mustapha Benghanem — Azeddine Draou” A NEW MODELLING AND CONTROL ANALYSIS OF AN ADVANCED STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR USING A THREE–LEVEL (NPC) INVERTER TOPOLOGY” Journal of ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, VOL. 57, NO. 5, 2006, 285–290
 Jagdish Kumar, Biswarup Das, and Pramod Agarwal “ Modeling of 11- Level Cascade Multilevel STATCOM” International Journal of Recent Trends in Engineering, Vol 2, No. 5, November 2009
An interline dynamic voltage restorer (IDVR) is invariably employed in distribution systems to mitigate voltage sag/swell problems. An IDVR merely consists of several dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs) sharing a common dc link connecting independent feeders to secure electric power to critical loads. While one of the DVRs compensates for the local voltage sag in its feeder, the other DVRs replenish the common dc-link voltage. For normal voltage levels, the DVRs should be bypassed. Instead of bypassing the DVRs in normal conditions, this paper proposes operating the DVRs, if needed, to improve the displacement factor (DF) of one of the involved feeders. DF improvement can be achieved via active and reactive power exchange (PQ sharing) between different feeders. To successfully apply this concept, several constraints are addressed throughout the paper. Simulation and experimental results elucidate and substantiate the proposed concept.
- Displacement factor improvement
- Interline dynamic voltage restorer (IDVR)
- Interline dynamic voltage restoring and displacement factor controlling (IVDFC)
- PQ sharing mode
Fig. 1. Single line diagram of an IPFC in transmission system.
EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:
Fig. 2. Per-phase PQ sharing mode simulation results: (a)–(c) for first case and (d)–(f) for the second case.
Fig. 3. Per-phase simulation results for voltage sag condition at: (a) feeder 1 and (b) feeder 2.
Fig. 4. Per-phase experimental and corresponding simulation results for DF improvement case: (a) and (b) receiving feeder; (c) and (d) sourcing feeder (time/div= 10 ms/div).
Fig. 5 Per-phase experimental results and corresponding simulation results for voltage sag case: (a) and (b) at feeder 1 and (c) and (d) at feeder 2 (time/div = 10 ms/div).
Fig. 6 Per-phase experimental results and corresponding simulation results for voltage swell case at: (a) and (b) feeder 1 and (c) and (d) at feeder 2 (time/div = 10 ms/div).
This paper proposes a new operational mode for the IDVR to improve the DF of different feeders under normal operation. In this mode, theDFof one of the feeders is improved via active and reactive power exchange (PQ sharing) between feeders through the common dc link.
The same system can also be used under abnormal conditions for voltage sag/swell mitigation. The main conclusions of this work can be summarized as follows:
1) Under PQ sharing mode, the injected voltage in any feeder does not affect its load voltage/current magnitude, however, it affects the DFs of both sourcing and receiving feeders. The DF of the sourcing feeder increases while the DF of the receiving feeder decreases.
2) When applying the proposed concept, some constraints should be satisfied to maintain the DF of both sourcing and receiving feeders within acceptable limits imposed by the utility companies. These operational constraints have been identified and considered.
3) The proposed mode is highly beneficial if the active power rating of the receiving feeder is higher than the sourcing feeder. In this case, the DF of the sourcing feeder will have a notable improvement with only a slight variation in DF of the receiving feeder.
The proposed concept has been supported with simulation and experimental results.
 S. A. Qureshi and N. Aslam, “Efficient power factor improvement technique and energy conservation of power system,” Int. Conf. Energy Manage. Power Del., vol. 2, pp. 749–752, Nov. 21–23, 1995.
 J. J. Grainger and S. H. Lee, “Optimum size and location of shunt capacitors for reduction of losses on distribution feeders,” IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-100, no. 3, pp. 1105–1118, Mar. 1981.
 S. M. Kannan, P. Renuga, and A. R. Grace, “Application of fuzzy logic and particle swarm optimization for reactive power compensation of radial distribution systems,” J. Electr. Syst., 6-3, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 407–425, 2010.
 L. Ramesh, S. P. Chowdhury, S. Chowdhury, A. A. Natarajan, and C. T. Gaunt, “Minimization of power loss in distribution networks by different techniques,” Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst. Eng., vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 521–527, 2009.
 T. P.Wagner, A. Y. Chikhani, and R. Hackam, “Feeder reconfiguration for loss reduction: An application of distribution automation,” IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1922–1933, Oct. 1991.
In this paper, a new control strategy of a three level 48-pulse static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) is proposed with a constant dc link voltage and pulse width modulation at fundamental frequency switching. The proposed STATCOM is realized using eight units of three-level voltage source converters (VSCs) to form a three-level 48-pulse STATCOM. The conduction angle of each three-level VSC is modulated to control the ac converter output voltage, which controls the reactive power of the STATCOM. A fuzzy logic controller is used to control the STATCOM. The dynamic performance of the STATCOM is studied for the control of the reference reactive power, the reference terminal voltage and under the switching of inductive and capacitive loads.
- Fuzzy logic control (FLC)
- Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM)
- Voltage source converter (VSC)
- Flexible ac transmission system (FACTS)
- Power frequency switching (PFS)
Fig. 1 System configuration for simulation
EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:
Fig. 2 a Dynamic performance of STATCOM for varying the reference reactive power. b Zoomed-in waveforms of the STATCOM ac current as well the dc current during a floating, b capacitive and c inductive operations
Fig. 3 Dynamic performance of STATCOM for varying the reference terminal voltage
Fig. 4 Dynamic performance of STATCOM by switching on inductive and capacitive loads
Fig. 5 a ac terminal voltage without STATCOM on switching non-linear load. b Dynamic performance of STATCOM and ac terminal voltage by switching on switching non-linear load
Fig. 6 Dynamic performance of STATCOM by switching on large value of apparent power
Fig. 7 Dynamic performance of STATCOM under short circuit of the upper half of the dc bus capacitance
Fig. 8 Dynamic performance of STATCOM under short circuit of the complete dc bus capacitance
Fig. 9 a Variation of the dc voltage with sudden load change using a PI and an FLC. b Variation of the ac terminal voltage with sudden load change using a PI and an FLC
A new control strategy of a three-level 48-pulse STATCOM has been proposed with a constant dc link voltage and pulse width modulation at fundamental frequency switching. Its performance has been validated using MATLAB/Simulink. Simulation results have validated the satisfactory dynamic and steady performances of the proposed STATCOM operation. The harmonic content of the STATCOM current is found well below 5 % as per IEEE 519 standard .
- T. Johns, A. Ter-Gazarian, D.F. Warne, Flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS), IEE Power Energy Series, the Institute of Electrical Engineers, London, UK, 1999
- N.G. Hingorani, L. Gyugyi, Understanding FACTS: Concepts and Technology of Flexible ac Transmission Systems (IEEE Press, 2000)
- R.M. Mathur, R.K. Verma, Thyristor-Based FACTS Controllers for Electrical Transmission Systems (Wiley-IEEE Press, 2002)
- K.R. Padiyar, FACTS Controllers in Power Transmission and Distribution (New Age International (P) Limited Publishers, India, 2007)
- K.K. Sen, Introduction to FACTS Controllers: Theory, Modeling and Applications (Wiley-IEEE Press, 2009)
This paper presents the performance and comparative analysis of Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) based on 6, 12 and 48-pulse VSC configuration. STATCOM is implemented for regulation of the voltage at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) bus which has time-variable loads. The dq decoupled current control strategy is used for implementation of STATCOM, where modulation index M and phase angle ø are varied for achieving voltage regulation at the PCC bus. The 6, 12 and 48-pulse configurations are compared and analyzed on the basis of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) and time response parameters such as rise time, maximum overshoot and settling time. The simulation of various configurations of STATCOM is carried out using power system block-set in MATLAB/Simulink platform.
- Decoupled current control system
- Voltage Sourced Converter
- Total Harmonic Distortion
Fig.1:Single line diagram of STATCOM.
EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:
Fig. 2: PCC bus voltage-VM for 6, 12 and 48 pulse STATCOM respectively.
Fig. 3: q-axis STATCOM current-ishq for PI controller of 6, 12 and 48 pulse STATCOM respectively.
Fig. 4: d-axis STATCOM current-ishd for PI controller of 6, 12 and 48 pulse STATCOM respectively.
a: Dc capacitor voltage-Vdc
b: Active power of loads-PL
c: Reactive power-Qstat
d: Active power-Pstat
Fig. 5: Vdc, PL, Qstat and Pstat for 48 pulse STATCOM respectively.
In this paper, for voltage regulation and dynamic power flow control a 48-pulse ±100 MVA two-level GTO STATCOM has been modeled and simulated using decoupled current control strategy. By varying the modulation index (M) and phase angle (ɸ) between PCC bus voltage and STATCOM voltage, voltage regulation at the PCC bus is achieved. The THD and various time response parameters of 6, 12 and 48 pulse STATCOM are compared. The results show that THD of output voltage of 48 pulse STATCOM is less than 5%, which satisfies the IEEE 519 standard. Hence, there is no need of active filter. Also, 48 pulse STATCOM has better transient response as compared to 6, 12 pulse STATCOM.
 K. Padiyar, FACTS controllers in power transmission and distribution. New Age International, 2007.
 K. K. Sen and M. L. Sen, Introduction to FACTS controllers: theory, modeling, and applications. John Wiley & Sons, 2009, vol. 54.
 A. Edris, “Facts technology development: an update,” IEEE Power engineering review, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 4–9, 2000.
 El-Moursi and A.M. Sharaf, “Novel controllers for the 48-pulse vscstatcom and ssscfor voltage regulation and reactive power compensation,” IEEE Transactions on Powersystems, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 1985–1997, 2005.
 N. G. Hingorani and L. Gyugyi, Understanding FACTS: concepts and technology of flexible AC transmission systems. Wiley-IEEE press, 2000.
Power electronics is the application of solid-state electronics to the control and conversion of electric power.
The first high power electronic devices were mercury-arc valves. In modern systems the conversion is performed with semiconductor switching devices such as diodes, thyristors and transistors, pioneered by R. D. Middlebrook and others beginning in the 1950s. In contrast to electronic systems concerned with transmission and processing of signals and data, in power electronics substantial amounts of electrical energy are processed. An AC/DC converter (rectifier) is the most typical power electronics device found in many consumer electronic devices, e.g. television sets, personal computers, battery chargers, etc. The power range is typically from tens of watts to several hundred watts. In industry a common application is the variable speed drive (VSD)that is used to control an induction motor. The power range of VSDs start from a few hundred watts and end at tens of megawatts.
The power conversion systems can be classified according to the type of the input and output power