The integration of Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS) into the power grids has been proposed as an effective solution for mitigating voltage and frequency instability problems arising from the integration of renewable resources with intermittent patterns. One of the most important applications of BESS is to restore an electric power system to operation without counting on the external transmission network. To prevent potential damage to the expensive equipment of power plant, the converters must generate a high quality and reliable three phase voltage. This research provides a simulation-based investigation in order to scrutinize different multi-level inverter topologies to find the more appropriate multi-level inverter structure for BESS application. The investigation has been done entitled of quantitative and qualitative studies. Throughout the quantitative study, the output specifications of each inverter topology is scrutinized, while other features such as reliability, modularity and functionality are scrutinized as qualitative study. All topologies are simulated in MATLAB/Simulink at the same operating conditions.
- Multilevel converter
- Battery energy storage
- High power application
Fig. 1. One leg representation of multi-level topologies. a) NPCMLI, b)
CCLMLI, c) CMLI, d) ZsMLI, e) QZsMLI.
Fig. 2. Multi-level topologies classification.
EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:
Fig. 3. Voltage and current waveforms of three level battery source NPC inverter.
Fig. 4. Voltage and current waveforms of three level battery source capacitor clamped inverter.
Fig. 5. Voltage and current waveforms of three level cascaded battery source inverter.
Fig. 6. Voltage and current waveforms of three level Z-source battery connected inverter.
Fig. 7. Voltage and current waveforms of three level Quasi-Z source battery connected inverter.
In this paper the most common multilevel inverter topologies were scrutinized to find the more appropriate topology for BESS application. The investigation has been done entitled of quantitative and qualitative studies. The important output parameters of inverter topologies were investigated as quantitative study, while other features such as reliability, modularity and functionality were scrutinized in qualitative study. Also, various inverter topologies have been evaluated in terms of required capacity in the same operating point. The simulation results proved that the ideal BESS power conversion system, among reviewed multi-level topologies, is Cascaded topology. This topology was chosen for three reasons. First, the efficiency and reliability studies were conducted, and the CMLI was found to be the most efficient and reliable topology with minimum amount of power loss compared to other topologies. Second, it subdivides the battery string and increases the high voltage functionality. Finally, capacitor volume, cost and THD studies were again confirmed the effectiveness of this topology in battery energy storage systems.
- Abu-Rub, M. Malinowski, and K. Al-Haddad, Power electronics for renewable energy systems, transportation and industrial applications. John Wiley & Sons, 2014.
- Soong and P. W. Lehn, “Evaluation of emerging modular multilevel converters for bess applications,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 2086–2094, 2014.
- Medina, A. Bizuayehu, J. P. Catal˜ao, E. M. Rodrigues, and J. Contreras, “Electrical energy storage systems: Technologies’ state-of-the-art, techno-economic benefits and applications analysis,” in Hawaii IEEE International Conference on System Sciences, 2014, pp. 2295–2304.
- H. Allen, R. B. Stuart, and T. E. Wiedman, “No light in august: power system restoration following the 2003 north american blackout,” IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 24–33, 2014.
- Yutian, F. Rui, and V. Terzija, “Power system restoration: a literature review from 2006 to 2016,” Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 332–341, 2016.