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Single-Stage Buck-Derived LED Driver With Improved Efficiency and Power Factor Using Current Path Control Switches

ABSTRACT:

This paper proposes a single-stage light-emitting diode (LED) driver based on an inverted buck topology, using current path control switches. The proposed circuit consists of a control circuit, a bridge diode, and an inverted buck converter with multiple switches connected to the LED segments in parallel. Whereas the typical buck LED driver operates with a fixed LED forward voltage, the proposed driver operates with a variable LED forward voltage, according to the input voltage level. Because of this capability to adjust the LED forward voltage, it can reduce the current ripple and the switching frequency with a small inductance value. In addition, it enables operation with LED lamps of a wide voltage range, while simultaneously achieving small dead-angles. The detailed operation principles are described, and the design considerations for the proposed driver are discussed. The proposed driver circuit and control operation are verified experimentally using a 7 W hardware prototype with four LED segments. The obtained experimental results show that, under a 110 Vrms input voltage, the proposed driver achieves a power factor of 0.94 with a small dead-angle and an efficiency of 94 %.

KEYWORDS:                                                                                                

  1. Buck power factor collection (PFC)
  2. Constant off-time control
  3. Light-emitting diode (LED) driver
  4. Scalable LED string

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

PROPOSED CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. Proposed single-stage LED driver..

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Fig. 2. Simulation results for the proposed LED driver operated at

110Vrms/60 Hz. (a) Overall waveforms. (b) Switching waveforms at input peak

CONCLUSION:

This paper proposes an offline LED driver based on the inverted buck converter. The proposed driver is configured as a hybrid combination of buck topology and multiple switches, which connect to the several LED segments. The proposed driver can reduce both the switching frequency and the LED current ripple using relatively small inductors, because it can adjust the LED forward voltage according to the input voltage level. In addition, it has small dead-angles and achieves high efficiency values when used with high output voltages. The features and operation principles of the proposed LED driver have been described in detail. The overall schematic was presented, and its control method discussed. A 7 W prototype LED driver was implemented and tested. The obtained experimental results verify the operation and performance levels of the proposed driver. At 110 Vrms, it exhibits simultaneously a high efficiency (94 %) and a high PF value (0.94).

REFERENCES:

[1] T. Komine, and M. Nakagawa, “Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights,” IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron., vol. 50, no.1, pp.100-107, Jan. 2004.

[2] D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, et al., “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 310–320, Mar. 2002.

[3] N. Narendran and Y. Gu, “Life of LED-based white light sources,” IEEE Display Technol., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 167-151, Aug. 2005.

[4] T. Hao, J. Lam, and P. K. Jain, “A New High Power Factor, Soft-switched LED Driver without Electrolytic capacitors,” in Proc. IEEE APEC, 2013, pp.823-828.

[5] Y. Y Hsieh, and Y. Z. Juang, “Analysis and Suppression of Over current in Boost LED Drivers,” IEEE Display Technol., vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 388-395, May 2013.

 

 

A Hybrid PV-Wind-Diesel System for Optimal Performance in Microgrid

ABSTRACT:  

The PV-Hydro Diesel technology can be made attractive option because the features various merits like as low maintenance requirement, environmental friendliness and absence of fuel cost. The efficiency of energy conversion a PV generation system may low because sun power cell exhibits to the nonlinear voltage and current and power versus voltage characteristics. The recent advancements in the technology and the reduction of fossil fuel resources have further contributed to the cause. But still, there lies several challenges to it. The paper proposes a novel approach of hybridization of renewable sources using Maximum Peak Power Transfer technique and optimal control. The performance of our approach is quite better than its other counterparts in terms of transient state and the magnitude of voltage obtained.

KEYWORDS:

  1. MPPT
  2. PV- Hydro – Diesel
  3. Perturb and observe

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

PROPOSED MODEL:

 

Fig. 1: Representing the overall proposed model

 EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Fig. 2 Representing The FFT analysis of the voltage waveform at the load end. when the FFT analysis of the wave form is done the THD value is found to be 0.17 %.

Fig.3: The THD of the output

 CONCLUSION:

This paper proposed a novel approach of utilising a New Hybrid Technique approach to solve the MPPT problem in microgrid consisting of PV-Hydro Diesel cell connected to a grid using three phase inverter. The solar cell model was designed and given to boost converter. The converter output was analysed. An incremental conductance technique was also implemented for comparison purpose. The result of hybrid model was found to be quite better than the incremental conductance technique in terms of output voltage magnitude and THD content. The THD content reduces using our proposed approach. Also when the current is compared, the oscillations die out very fast in case of hybrid model while in I&C approach it is more or less sustained. In future this algorithm can be improved using other techniques and approaches. Also real time implementation of the algorithms can be done and hardware testing can be done. Hybrid with other algorithms can be utilised and the performances can be compared. Also clustering and other gradient learning methods can be utilised and the model can be tested for grid connection.

REFERENCES:

[1] Reddy, K. Pavankumar, and M. Venu Gopala Rao. “Modelling and Simulation of Hybrid Wind Solar Energy System using MPPT.” Indian Journal of Science and Technology 8, no. 23 (2015).

[2] Dalala, Zakariya M., Zaka Ullah Zahid, Wensong Yu, Younghoon Cho, and Jih-Sheng Lai. “Design and analysis of an MPPT technique for small-scale wind energy conversion systems.” Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on 28, no. 3 (2013): 756-767.

[3] Jain, S., Agarwal, V., 2004. A new algorithm for rapid tracking of approximate maximum power point in PV-Hydro systems. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 2, 16–19.

[4] Bhandari, Binayak, Shiva Raj Poudel, Kyung-Tae Lee, and Sung-Hoon Ahn. “Mathematical modeling of hybrid renewable energy system: A review on small hydro-solar-wind power generation.” international journal of precision engineering and manufacturing-green technology 1, no. 2 (2014): 157-173.

[5] S. Yuvarajan and JulineShoeb, “A Fast and Accurate Maximum Power Point Tracker for PV Systems,” IEEE, 2008.

 

Solar Photovoltaic Array Fed Luo Converter Based BLDC Motor Driven Water Pumping System

ABSTRACT:  

This paper deals with the solar photovoltaic (SPV) array fed water- pumping system using a Luo converter as an intermediate DC-DC converter and a permanent magnet brushless DC (BLDC) motor to drive a centrifugal water pump. Among the different types of DC-DC converters, an elementary Luo converter is selected in order to extract the maximum power available from the SPV array and for safe starting of BLDC motor. The elementary Luo converter with reduced components and single semiconductor switch has inherent features of reducing the ripples in its output current and possessing a boundless region for maximum power point tracking (MPPT). The electronically commutated BLDC motor is used with a voltage source inverter (VSI) operated at fundamental frequency switching thus avoiding the high frequency switching losses resulting in a high efficiency of the system. The SPV array is designed such that the power at rated DC voltage is supplied to the BLDC motor-pump under standard test condition and maximum switch utilization of Luo converter is achieved which results in efficiency improvement of the converter. Performances at various operating conditions such as starting, dynamic and steady state behavior are analyzed and suitability of the proposed system is demonstrated using MATLAB/Simulink based simulation results.

KEYWORDS:

  1. SPV array
  2. Luo converter
  3. BLDC motor
  4. Centrifugal water pump
  5. MPPT
  6. Switch utilization

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1 Configuration of proposed SPV array-Luo converter fed BLDC motor drive for water pumping system.

 EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

Fig. 2 Performances of SPV array of the proposed SPV array-Luo converter

fed BLDC motor drive for water pumping system.

Fig. 3 Performances of Luo converter of the proposed SPV array-Luo

converter fed BLDC motor drive for water pumping system.

 

Fig. 4 Performances of BLDC motor-pump of the proposed SPV array-Luo

converter fed BLDC motor drive for water pumping system.

 CONCLUSION:

A solar photovoltaic array fed Luo converter based BLDC motor has been proposed to drive water-pumping system. The proposed system has been designed, modeled and simulated using MATLAB along with its Simulink and sim-power system toolboxes. Simulated results have demonstrated the suitability of proposed water pumping system. SPV array has been properly sized such that system performance is not influenced by the variation in atmospheric conditions and the associated losses and maximum switch utilization of Luo converter is achieved. Luo converter has been operated in CCM in order to reduce the stress on power devices. Operating the VSI in 120° conduction mode with fundamental frequency switching eliminates the losses caused by high frequency switching operation. Stable operation of motor pump system and safe starting of BLDC motor are other important features of the proposed system.

REFERENCES:

[1] Fei Ding, Peng Li, Bibin Huang, Fei Gao, Chengdi Ding and Chengshan Wang, “Modeling and simulation of grid-connected hybrid photovoltaic/battery distributed generation system,” in China Int. Conf. Electricity Distribution (CICED), 13-16 Sept. 2010, pp.1-10.

[2] Zhou Xuesong, Song Daichun, Ma Youjie and Cheng Deshu, “The simulation and design for MPPT of PV System Based on Incremental Conductance Method,” in WASE Int. Conf. Information Eng. (ICIE), vol.2, 14-15 Aug. 2010, pp.314-317.

[3] B. Subudhi and R. Pradhan, “A Comparative Study on Maximum Power Point Tracking Techniques for Photovoltaic Power Systems,” IEEE Trans. Sustainable Energ., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 89-98, Jan. 2013.

[4] M. A. Eltawil and Z. Zhao, “MPPT techniques for photovoltaic applications,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 25, pp. 793-813, Sept. 2013.

 Power Quality Improvement in Utility Interactive Based AC-DC Converter Using Harmonic Current Injection Technique

ABSTRACT

This paper highlights the power quality issues and explains the remedial measures taken by means of hybrid front-end third harmonic current injection rectifiers. Here zig-zag transformer is used as the current injection device so that the advantages pertaining to the zig-zag transformer is effectively utilized. The third harmonic current injection device along with three-level boost converter at the output stage will increase the DC-link voltage. With less boost inductance, generally half of the conventional boost converter inductance is sufficient to implement the proposed converter structure resulting in reduced ripple current and also the device rating is reduced by half of the output voltage. Moreover, the power quality is well improved using third harmonic current modulated front-end structure which is well appropriate for medium/higher power applications. The experimental prototype of hybrid front-end converter is developed in the laboratory to validate the MATLAB simulation results.

KEYWORDS

  1. Current modulation circuit
  2. Front-end rectifier
  3. Power quality
  4. PFC
  5. Third harmonic current injection
  6. Three-level boost converter
  7. THD
  8. Zig-zag transformer

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of proposed front-end AC-DC converter

 EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS

Fig. 2. Simulation results of input phase voltage, input phase current, input voltage and current, DC-link voltage, and DC current for the proposed front-end converter under load variations.

Fig. 3. Frequency spectrum of input line current ias at (a) Light load condition

(20%) (b) Full load condition (100%).

Fig. 4. Comparison of power quality indices with varying load of front-end AC-DC converter with six-pulse DBR (a) Variation of THD of input current with load and (b) Variation of PF of input current with load.

CONCLUSION

In this paper, a front-end AC-DC converter employed with third harmonic current injection circuit using a zig-zag transformer and three-level boost converter has implemented for medium and high-power applications. The three-level boost converter has realized with less boost inductance, an only half rating of the conventional boost converter inductance thereby resulting in less ripple current and also the device rating has reduced by half of the output voltage. The third order current harmonic reduction has achieved by the zig-zag transformer. With less magnetic rating, only 20% of the load rating is sufficient to realize the zig-zag transformer. The proposed converter has modeled, designed and its performance was analyzed by MATLAB simulation under varying load conditions. An experimental setup has been developed, and the performance of the system is verified from the hardware results. The proposed scheme resulted in less input current and voltage THD and maintained PF close to unity. Also, the other power quality parameters such as displacement PF and distortion factor are well within the IEEE standards.

REFERENCES:

[1] Abraham I. Pressman, “Switching Power Supply Design,” McGraw-Hill, International Editions, New York, 1999.

[2] B. Singh, B. N. Singh, A. Chandra, K. Al-Haddad, A. Pandey and D. P. Kothari, “A review of single-phase improved power quality AC-DC converters,” IEEE Trans. on Ind. Electron., vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 962-981, Oct. 2003.

[3] J. I. Itoh and I. Ashida, “A Novel Three-Phase PFC Rectifier Using a Harmonic Current Injection Method,” IEEE Trans. on Power Electron., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 715-722, March 2008.

[4] N. Vazquez, H. Rodriguez, C. Hernandez, E. Rodriguez and J. Arau, “Three-Phase Rectifier With Active Current Injection and High Efficiency,” IEEE Trans. on Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 110-119, Jan. 2009.

[5] H. Y. Kanaan and K. Al-Haddad, “Three-Phase Current-Injection Rectifiers: Competitive Topologies for Power Factor Correction,” IEEE Ind. Electron. Magazine, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 24-40, Sept. 2012.

 

High-Efficiency Asymmetric Forward-Flyback Converter for Wide Output Power Range

 

ABSTRACT

This paper proposes an asymmetric forward-flyback dc-dc converter that has high power-conversion efficiency ηe over a wide output power range. To solve the problem of ringing in the voltage of the rectifier diodes and the problem of duty loss in the conventional asymmetric half-bridge (AHB) converter, the proposed converter uses a voltage doubler structure with a forward inductor Lf in the second stage, instead of using the transformer leakage inductance, to control output current. Lf resonates with the capacitors in the voltage doubler to achieve a zero-voltage turn-on of switches and a zero-current turn-off of diodes for a wide output power range. The proposed converter could operate at a wider input voltage range than the other AHB converters. ηe was measured as 95.9% at output power PO = 100 W and as 90% at PO = 10 W, when the converter was operated at input voltage 390 V, output voltage 142 V, and switching frequency 100 kHz.

KEYWORDS

  1. DC-DC power conversion
  2. Resonance
  3. Stress
  4. Transformer windings

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. Circuit structure of the proposed converter.

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS

Fig. 2. Voltage and current waveforms of switches of the proposed converter

at (a) PO = 100 W and (b) PO = 10 W.

 

 

Fig. 3. Voltage and current waveforms of D1 and D2 at PO = 100 W: (a) the proposed converter, (b) the conventional AHB converter, and (c) the converter of [20].

 CONCLUSION

The proposed asymmetric forward-flyback dc-dc converter had high power conversion efficiency ηe for a wide range of output power PO. The problems of voltage ringing and duty loss in the conventional AHB converter was solved by adopting a forward inductor Lf in the voltage doubler circuit of the secondary stage. The proposed converter used an unbalanced secondary turns of transformer which allowed it to operate for a much wider range of input voltage than the other converter [20] that uses a voltage doubler structure in the secondary stage. The proposed converter also reduced the voltage stress on switches and the current stress on diodes significantly compared to the dual resonant converter (the converter of [24]). The proposed converter had ηe ≥ 90% for 10 ≤ PO ≤ 100 W at VIN = 390 V, VO = 142 V, and fS = 100 kHz (the highest ηe = 95.9%, at PO = 100 W), and could operate at 330 ≤ VIN ≤ 440 V. The proposed asymmetric forward-flyback dc-dc converter is a good candidate for developing a step-down dc-dc converter for applications that require high power-conversion efficiency over wide ranges of input voltage and output power.

REFERENCES:

[1] J. B. Lio, M. S. Lin, D. Y. Chen, and W. S. Feng, “Single-switch soft-switching flyback converter,” Electron. Letter, vol. 32, no. 16, pp. 1429-1430, Aug. 1996.

[2] A. Abramovitz, C. S. Liao, and K. Smedley, “State-Plane analysis of regenerative snubber for flyback converters,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 5323-5332, Nov. 2013.

[3] L. Huber, and M. M. Jovanovic, “Evaluation of flyback topologies for notebook AC/DC adapter/charger applications,” in Proc. High Freq. Power Conversion Conf., 1995, pp. 284-294.

[4] S. Du, F. Zhu, and P. Qian, “Primary side control circuit of a flyback converter for HBLED,” in Proc. 2nd IEEE Int. Symp. Power Electron. Distrib. Generation Syst., 2010, pp. 339-342.

[5] E. S. Kim, B. G. Chung, S. H. Jang, M. G. Choi, and M. H. Kye, “A study of novel flyback converter with very low power consumption at the standby operation mode,” in Proc. IEEE Appl. Power Electron. Conf., 2010, pp. 1833-1837

An Adaptive Proportional Resonant Controller forSingle Phase PV Grid Connected Inverter Based onBand-Pass Filter Technique

ABSTRACT:  

This paper being an adaptive proportional resonant (PR) controller for single phase grid connected inverter that adapts its control parameters to grid impedance change. Forth order band bass filter is method and then merge with the adaptive system for on-line detection of any variations in the resonance frequency. The estimated frequency is then prepared by statistical signal processing operation to identify the variations in the grid impedance. For the on–line tuning of the PR parameters, a look-up table technique is utilized and its parameters are linked with the measure impedance values. Simulation results based on MATLAB environment clearly verify the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme for 2 kW grid connected inverter system.

 

KEYWORDS:
  1. Adaptive Proportional Resonant Controller
  2. Grid Impedance Estimation
  3. LCL Filter
  4. Look-up Table

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. Block diagram of the proposed adaptive PR controller.

 EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Fig. 2. Simulation result of emulated grid voltage.

Fig.3. FFT analysis of grid current. (a) APR controller. (b).PR controller.

Fig. 4. Online adaptation of the APR control parameters.

Fig. 5. Grid voltage and current waveforms under changeable grid

impedance with the proposed control strategy.

 CONCLUSION:

 A new control strategy based on an adaptive proportional resonant (APR) controller has been grown and successfully proved on a simulated 2 kW single phase grid tide PV inverter. A fourth order Sallen-Key band pass filter tailored to the system to taking the harmonic components around the resonant frequency has been execute. data signal processing metthod was employed in order to provide the controller with signals compare to the variable grid impedance. A large low level of current total harmonic distortion (THD) is reach in comparison with conventional PR controller and submission with IEEE929-Standard has been show.

REFERENCES:

[1] S. Kouro, J. I. Leon, D. Vinnikov, and L. G. Franquelo, “Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems: An Overview of Recent Research and Emerging PV Converter Technology,” IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, vol. 9, pp. 47-61, 2015.

[2] “IEEE Recommended Practice for Utility Interface of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems,” in IEEE Std 929-2000, ed, 2000.

[3] “IEEE Draft Application Guide for IEEE Standard 1547, Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems,” in IEEE Unapproved Draft Std P1547.2/D11, Sept 2008, ed, 2008, p. 1.

[4] H. M. El-Deeb, A. Elserougi, A. S. Abdel-Khalik, S. Ahmed, and A. M. Massoud, “An adaptive PR controller for inverter-based distribution generation with active damped LCL filter,” in 2013 7th IEEE GCC Conference and Exhibition (GCC), 2013, pp. 462-467.

[5] W. L. Chen and J. S. Lin, “One-Dimensional Optimization for Proportional-Resonant Controller Design Against the Change in Source Impedance and Solar Irradiation in PV Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 61, pp. 1845-1854, 2014.

Standalone Operation of Modified Seven-Level Packed U-Cell (MPUC) Single-Phase Inverter

ABSTRACT:

In this paper the standalone operation of the modified seven-level Packed U-Cell (MPUC) inverter is given and consider. The MPUC inverter has two DC sources and six switches, which cause seven voltage levels at the output. Compared to cascaded H-bridge and neutral point clamp multilevel inverters, the MPUC inverter generates a higher number of voltage levels using fewer components. The experimental results of the MPUC prototype validate the appropriate operation of the multilevel inverter dealing with various load types including motor, linear, and nonlinear ones. The design considerations, including output AC voltage RMS value, switching frequency, and switch voltage rating, as well as the harmonic analysis of the output voltage waveform, are taken into account to prove the advantages of the introduced multilevel inverter.

KEYWORDS:

1. Multilevel inverter
2. Packed u-cell
3. Power quality
4. Multicarrier PWM
5. Renewable energy conversion

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Figure 1. Single-phase seven-level MPUC inverter in standalone mode of operation

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Figure 2. Seven-level MPUC inverter output voltage and current with DC source voltages. Ch1: V1,
Ch2: V2, Ch3: Vab, Ch4: il.

Figure 3. One cycle of output voltage and gate pulses of MPUC inverter switches. Ch1: Vab, Ch2: T1
gate pulses, Ch3: T2 gate pulses, Ch4: T3 gate pulses

Figure 4. MPUC inverter switches’ voltage ratings. Ch1: Vab, Ch2: T1 voltage, Ch3: T2 voltage, Ch4:
T3 voltage. and nonlinear). The step-by-step process for connecting loads is depicted in Figure 7, which show

Fig.5. Test results when a nonlinear load is connected to the MPUC inverter.Ch1 :Vab :Ch4 :il.

Figure 6. Output voltage and current waveform of MPUC inverter when different loads are added
step by step. Ch1: Vab, Ch4: il. (A) Transient state when nonlinear load is added to the RL load (left)
and after a while a motor load is added to the system (right); (B) steady state when a nonlinear load is
added to the RL load (left) and after a while a motor load is added to the system (right).

Figure 7. Voltage and current waveform of MPUC inverter with RMS calculation for 120 V system.

CONCLUSION:

In this paper a reconfigured PUC inverter topology has been presented and studied experimentally. The proposed MPUC inverter can generate a seven-level voltage waveform at the output with low harmonic contents. The associated switching algorithm has been designed and implemented on the introduced MPUC topology with reduced switching frequency aspect. Switches’ frequencies and ratings have been investigated experimentally to validate the good dynamic performance of the proposed topology. Moreover, the comparison of MPUC to the CHB multilevel inverter showed other advantages of the proposed multilevel inverter topology, including fewer components, a lower manufacturing price, and a smaller package due to reduced filter size.
Author Contributions: All authors contributed equally to the work presented in this paper.
Funding: This research received no external funding.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

REFERENCES:

1. Bose, B.K. Multi-Level Converters; Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute: Basel, Switzerland, 2015.
2. Mobarrez, M.; Bhattacharya, S.; Fregosi, D. Implementation of distributed power balancing strategy with a layer of supervision in a low-voltage DC microgrid. In Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), Tampa, FL, USA, 26–30 March 2017; pp. 1248–1254.
3. Franquelo, L.G.; Rodriguez, J.; Leon, J.I.; Kouro, S.; Portillo, R.; Prats, M.A.M. The age of multilevel converters arrives. IEEE Ind. Electron. Mag. 2008, 2, 28–39. [CrossRef]
4. Malinowski, M.; Gopakumar, K.; Rodriguez, J.; Perez, M.A. A survey on cascaded multilevel inverters. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 2010, 57, 2197–2206. [CrossRef]
5. Nabae, A.; Takahashi, I.; Akagi, H. A new neutral-point-clamped PWM inverter. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 1981,5, 518–523. [CrossRef]

Single Stage PV Array Fed Speed Sensorless Vector Control of Induction Motor Drive for Water Pumping

ABSTRACT:  

This paper deals with a single stage solar powered speed sensorless vector controlled induction motor drive for water pumping system, which is superior to conventional motor drive. The speed is estimated through estimated stator flux. The proposed system includes solar photovoltaic (PV) array, a three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) and a motor-pump assembly.

An incremental conductance (InC) based MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) algorithm is used to harness maximum power from a PV array. The smooth starting of the motor is attained by vector control of an induction motor. The desired configuration is designed and simulated in MATLAB/Simulink platform and the design, modeling and control of the system, are validated on an experimental prototype developed in the laboratory.

KEYWORDS:
  1. Speed Sensorless Control
  2. Stator Field-Oriented Vector Control
  3. Photovoltaic (PV)
  4. InC MPPT Algorithm
  5. Induction Motor Drive (IMD)
  6. Water Pump

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. PV fed induction motor drive configuration

 EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Fig. 2. Starting and MPPT of PV array at 1000 W/m2

Fig. 3. Intermediate signals during starting at 1000 W/m2

(a)

(b)

Fig. 4. Simulation results during starting at 1000 W/m2 (a) Proposed drive (b) Waveforms showing sensed speed and estimated speed

Fig. 5. SPV array performance during decrease in insolation from 1000 W/m2 to 500 W/m2

(a)

 (b)

Fig. 6. Dynamic performance during irradiance decrement from 1000 W/m2 to 500 W/m2 (a) Proposed drive (b) Waveforms showing sensed speed and estimated speed

Fig. 7. PV array performance on increasing insolation from 500 W/m2 to 1000 W/m2

(a)

(b)

Fig. 8. Dynamic performance during irradiance decrement from 500 W/m2 to 1000 W/m2 (a) Proposed drive (b) Waveforms showing sensed speed and estimated speed

CONCLUSION:

 A single stage solar PV array fed speed sensorless vector-controlled induction motor drive has been operated subjected to different conditions and the steady state and dynamic behaviors have been found quite satisfactory and suitable for water pumping. The torque and stator flux, have been controlled independently. The motor is started smoothly. The reference speed is generated by DC link voltage controller controlling the voltage at DC link along with the speed estimated by the feed-forward term incorporating the pump affinity law. The power of PV array is maintained at maximum power point at the time of change in irradiance. This is achieved by using incremental-conductance based MPPT algorithm.

The speed PI controller has been used to control the q-axis current of the motor. Smooth operation of IMD is achieved with desired torque profile for wide range of speed control. Simulation results have displayed that the controller behavior is found satisfactory under steady state and dynamic conditions of insolation change. The suitability of the drive is also verified by experimental results under various conditions and has been found quite apt for water pumping.

REFERENCES:

[1] R. Foster, M. Ghassemi and M. Cota, Solar energy: Renewable energy and the environment, CRC Press, Taylor and francis Group, Inc. 2010.

[2] M. Kolhe, J. C. Joshi and D. P. Kothari, “Performance analysis of a directly coupled photovoltaic water-pumping system”, IEEE Trans. on Energy Convers., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 613-618, Sept. 2004.

[3] J. V. M. Caracas, G. D. C. Farias, L. F. M. Teixeira and L. A. D. S. Ribeiro, “Implementation of a high-efficiency, high-lifetime, and low-cost converter for an autonomous photovoltaic water pumping system”, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 631-641, Jan.-Feb. 2014.

[4] R. Kumar and B. Singh, “ Buck-boost converter fed BLDC motor for solar PV array based water pumping, ” IEEE Int. Conf. Power Electron. Drives and Energy Sys. (PEDES), 2014.

[5] Zhang Songbai, Zheng Xu, Youchun Li and Yixin Ni, “Optimization of MPPT step size in stand-alone solar pumping systems,” IEEE Power Eng. Society Gen. Meeting, June 2006.

A Novel Design of Hybrid Energy Storage Systemfor Electric Vehicles

ABSTRACT:  

In order to provide long distance endurance and ensure the minimization of a cost function for electric vehicles, a new hybrid energy storage system for electric vehicle is designed in this paper. For the hybrid energy storage system, the paper proposes an optimal control algorithm designed using a Li-ion battery power dynamic limitation rule-based control based on the SOC of the super-capacitor. At the same time, the magnetic integration technology adding a second-order Bessel low-pass filter is introduced to DC-DC converters of electric vehicles. As a result, the size of battery is reduced, and the power quality of the hybrid energy storage system is optimized. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by simulation and experiment.

KEYWORDS:
  1. Hybrid energy storage system
  2. Integrated magnetic structure
  3. Electric vehicles
  4. DC-DC converter
  5. Power dynamic limitation

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig.1 Topology of the hybrid energy storage system

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

(a) Power command and actual power

 

(b) Power of the super-capacitor and Li-ion battery

Fig.2 Simulation results of the proposed HESS

  • (a) Battery current

(b) Super-capacitor current

(c) Load current

  • (d) Load voltage

Fig.3 Simulation results of the proposed HESS applied on electric vehicles

 

CONCLUSION:

 In this paper, a new hybrid energy storage system for electric vehicles is designed based on a Li-ion battery power dynamic limitation rule-based HESS energy management and a new bi-directional DC/DC converter. The system is compared to traditional hybrid energy storage system, showing it has significant advantage of reduced volume and weight. Moreover, the ripple of output current is reduced and the life of battery is improved.

REFERENCES:

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