A Systematic Method for Designing a PR Controller and Active Damping of the LCL Filter for Single-Phase Grid-Connected PV Inverters

ABSTRACT:

The Proportional Resonant (PR) current controller provides gains at a certain frequency (resonant frequency) and eliminates steady state errors. Therefore, the PR controller can be successfully applied to single grid-connected PV inverter current control. On the contrary, a PI controller has steady-state errors and limited disturbance rejection capability. Compared with the L- and LC filters, the LCL filter has excellent harmonic suppression capability, but the inherent resonant peak of the LCL filter may introduce instability in the whole system. Therefore, damping must be introduced to improve the control of the system.

PV INVERTER

Considering the controller and the LCL filter active damping as a whole system makes the controller design method more complex. In fact, their frequency responses may affect each other. The traditional trial-and-error procedure is too time-consuming and the design process is inefficient. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the frequency response influence between the PR controller and the LCL filter regarded as a whole system.

LCL FILTER

In addition, the paper presents a systematic method for designing controller parameters and the capacitor current feedback coefficient factor of LCL filter active-damping. The new method relies on meeting the stable margins of the system. Moreover, the paper also clarifies the impact of the grid on the inverter output current. Numerical simulation and a 3 kW laboratory setup assessed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

 KEYWORDS:

  1. Single phase
  2. Grid-connected
  3. LCL filter
  4. Active damping
  5. Proportional resonant (PR) controller

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

 

 Figure 1. Two-stage single-phase PV system with LCL-filter control scheme.

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

Figure 2. Grid voltage and injected current at full load with nominal parameters: simulation results. (a) Grid voltage sag; (b) grid voltage swell.

Figure 3. Grid voltage and injected current at full load with inductor L1 variation: simulation results. (a) Inductor L1 increased by 20%: grid voltage sag; (b) Inductor L1 increased by 20%: grid voltage swell; (c) Inductor L1 decreased by 20%: grid voltage sag; (b) Inductor L1 decreased by 20%: grid voltage swell.

Figure 4. Grid voltage and injected current at full load with inductor L2 variation: simulation results. (a) Inductor L2 increased by 150%: grid voltage sag; (b) inductor L2 increased by 150%: grid voltage swell; (c) inductor L2 decreased by 20%: grid voltage sag; (b) inductor L2 decreased by 20%: grid voltage swell.

Figure 5. Grid voltage and injected current at full load with capacitor C variation: simulation results. (a) Capacitor C increased by 20%: grid voltage sag; (b) capacitor C increased by 20%: grid voltage swell; (c) capacitor C decreased by 20%: grid voltage sag; (b) capacitor C decreased by 20%: grid voltage swell.

CONCLUSION:

The stability analysis of the system composed by a PR controller and an LCL filter together is not easy: the frequency responses may affect each other and the PR controller design becomes complex. The traditional method based on trial-and-error procedures, is too time-consuming, and the design process is inefficient. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the frequency response influence between the PR controller and the LCL filter.

PR CONTROLLER

In addition, the paper presents a systematic design method for the PR controller parameters and the capacitor current feedback coefficient, used in the active damping of the LCL filter. Using the new parameters, a numerical simulation shows that the system meets the requirements of stable margins and current tracking steady-state error. The robustness of the current controller is verified through several experimental tests carried out on a 3 kW platform varying the system parameters.

INDUCTOR

The Bode diagrams of the system varying inductor, capacitor, and grid impedance values confirmed that the controller parameters enhance robustness against the system parameters variation. Moreover, the system remains stable even in case of grid voltage fluctuation. Both the simulation and the experimental results assess the validity of the proposed design method.

REFERENCES:

  1. Carrasco, J.M.; Franquelo, L.G.; Bialasiewicz, J.T.; Galvan, E.; Guisado, R.C.P.; Prats, A.M.; Leon, J.I.; Moreno-Alfonso, N. Power-electronic systems for the grid integration of renewable energy sources: A survey. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 2006, 53, 1002–1016.
  2. Wessels, C.; Dannehl, J.; Fuchs, F.W. Active Damping of LCL-Filter Resonance based on Virtual Resistor for PWM Rectifiers—Stability Analysis with Different Filter Parameters. In Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, Rhodes, Greece, 15–19 June 2008; pp. 3532–3538.
  3. Castilla, M.; Miret, J.; Matas, J.; de Vicuna, L.G.; Guerrero, J.M. Control design guidelines for single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic inverters with damped resonant harmonic compensators. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 2009, 56, 4492–4501.
  4. Yi, L.; Zhengming, Z.; Fanbo, H.; Sizhao, L.; Lu, Y. An Improved Virtual Resistance Damping Method for Grid-Connected Inverters with LCL Filters. In Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE 2011), Phoenix, AZ, USA, 17–22 September 2011; pp. 3816–3822.
  5. Parker, S.G.; McGrath, B.P.; Holmes, D.G. Regions of Active Damping Control for LCL Filters. In Proceedings of the Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), Raleigh, NC, USA, 15–20 September 2012; pp. 53–60.

Latest Project List in 2019-20

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shunt active power filter projects

shunt active power filter projects

Shunt Active Power Filter(APF) is a device that is connected in parallel to group of loads. APF cancels the reactive and harmonic currents drawn by the load so as to make supply current sinusoidal. Active Power Filter play a vital role in present day liberalized energy market.

shunt Active Power Filter are explored for executing different power conditioning function simultaneously along with harmonic elimination due to increase in nonlinear and unbalanced load, at the point of common coupling.

shunt active power filter The aim of present dissertation is to study different control strategies for Active Power Filter. More importantly to study instantaneous power theory based Shunt Active Power Filter which is predominantly used in present scenario.

shunt active power filter is investigated through Matlab/Simulink simulation under different load conditions. Simulation results are discussed in depth. Then the design issues of Active Power Filter for different load conditions are also discussed.

Electric Vehicle Drive with MATLAB/Simulink

Electric Vehicle Drive with MATLAB/Simulink

Electric vehicle drive The paper presents the simulation of a basic electric vehicle motor-drive system that is used to investigate power flow during both motoring and regeneration. Electric vehicle drive The simulation assumes a DC permanent magnet motor, an ideal motor controller combined with a proportional-integral controller, and the electric vehicle battery.

Electric vehicle drive The model can be used to evaluate the electric drive’s energy flow and efficiency for specific speed and torque load conditions. Some of the key system parameters were specified and others were modeled as ideal. Electric vehicle drive A stable MATLAB/Simulink model was developed and validated. It was then used to determine the system performance and energy flow over a given set of motoring and regeneration speed/torque conditions.

Electric vehicle drive The model could be used to augment instruction in energy conversion or vehicle systems courses.

Maximum Power Point Tracking Grid-connected PV

Maximum Power Point Tracking Grid-connected PV

Maximum power point tracking This paper proposes a maximum power point tracking scheme using neural networks for a grid connected photovoltaic system. The system is composed of a photovoltaic array, a boost converter, a three phase inverter and grid. The neural network proposed can predict the required terminal voltage of the array in order to obtain maximum power.

Maximum power point tracking The duty  cycle is calculated and the boost converter switches are controlled. Hysteresis current technique is applied on the three phase inverter so that the output voltage of the converter remains constant at any required set point. The complete system is simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK software under sudden weather conditions changes. Results show accurate and fast response of the converter and inverter control and which leads to fast maximum power point tracking.

BLDC Drives Fuzzy Logic Controller

BLDC Drives Fuzzy Logic Controller 

BLDC Drives There are basically two ways to achieve high power density and high efficiency drives. The first technique is to employ high-speed motors, so that motor volume and weight are greatly reduced for the same rated output power. Most adjustable speed drive systems employ a single three-phase induction motor.

BLDC Drives With such a drive system, the drive has to be shut down if any phase fails. In order to improve reliability of drive systems, six-phase induction motors fed by double current source inverters have been introduced. Compared to induction motors, permanent magnet (PM) motors have higher efficiency due to the elimination of magnetizing current and copper loss in the rotor. It has become possible because of their superior performance in terms of high efficiency, fast response, weight, precise and accurate control, high reliability, maintenance free operation, brushless construction and reduced size.

BLDC Drives This project presents a current blocking strategy of brushless DC (BLDC) motor drive to prolong the capacity voltage of batteries per charge in electric vehicle applications. The BLDC motor employs a fuzzy controller for torque hysteresis control (THC) that can offer a robust control and quick torque dynamic performance. The proposed concept is verified by using Matlab/Simulink software and the corresponding results are presented.

Single Phase to Three Phase Converter Projects

Single Phase to Three Phase Converter  List

Three Phase Converter projects An economic single-phase to three- phase converter which provides variable output voltage and soft starting capability by using four high frequency switches (IGBT, MOSFET), four diodes, and a triac. This converter can run a three-phase Induction motor which is much more able compared to a single phase motor.

Three Phase Converter projects In order to have a balanced  output voltage in all modes of operation (start-up, speed control, and steady state) two closed loop controllers has been utilized: one for dc link voltage and the other one for inverter output. The proposed scheme with variable output voltage and fixed frequency provides a limited-range speed control of the induction motor.

Three Phase Converter projects  As a result, the new single-phase to three-phase converter brings the  controllable output voltage as in a six-switches standard three- phase inverter. The front-end rectifier has the capacity of active input current shaping. Analysis and simulation results are presented in the result section to display these new features.

Single Phase to Three Phase Converter projects

Image result for single phase to three phase converter diagram"

Project list 2019-2020

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Single-Stage Buck-Derived LED Driver With Improved Efficiency and Power Factor Using Current Path Control Switches

ABSTRACT:

This paper proposes a single-stage light-emitting diode (LED) driver based on an inverted buck topology, using current path control switches. The proposed circuit consists of a control circuit, a bridge diode, and an inverted buck converter with multiple switches connected to the LED section in parallel. Whereas the typical buck LED driver operates with a fixed LED forward voltage, the proposed driver operates with a variable LED forward voltage, according to the input voltage level. Because of this power to adjust the LED forward voltage, it can reduce the current ripple and the switching frequency with a small inductance value.

LED

In addition, it enables operation with LED lamps of a wide voltage range, while together achieving small dead-angles. The detailed operation principles are described, and the design considerations for the proposed driver are discussed. The proposed driver circuit and control operation are verified experimentally using a 7 W hardware prototype with four LED section. The get experimental results show that, under a 110 Vrms input voltage, the proposed driver produce a power factor of 0.94 with a small dead-angle and an efficiency of 94 %.

KEYWORDS:                                                                                                

  1. Buck power factor collection (PFC)
  2. Constant off-time control
  3. Light-emitting diode (LED) driver
  4. Scalable LED string

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

PROPOSED CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. Proposed single-stage LED driver..

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Fig. 2. Simulation results for the proposed LED driver operated at

110Vrms/60 Hz. (a) Overall waveforms. (b) Switching waveforms at input peak

CONCLUSION:

This paper proposes an offline LED driver based on the inverted buck converter. The proposed driver is construct as a hybrid combination of buck topology and multiple switches, which connect to the several LED section. The proposed driver can reduce both the switching frequency and the LED current ripple using relatively small inductors, because it can adjust the LED forward voltage give to the input voltage level. In addition, it has small dead-angles and produce high ability values when used with high output voltages.

proposed driver

The features and operation principles of the proposed LED driver have been define in detail. The overall schematic was presented, and its control method discussed. A 7 W prototype LED driver was start and tested. The get experimental results verify the operation and performance levels of the proposed driver. At 110 Vrms, it display simultaneously a high efficiency (94 %) and a high PF value (0.94).

REFERENCES:

[1] T. Komine, and M. Nakagawa, “Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights,” IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron., vol. 50, no.1, pp.100-107, Jan. 2004.

[2] D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, et al., “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 310–320, Mar. 2002.

[3] N. Narendran and Y. Gu, “Life of LED-based white light sources,” IEEE Display Technol., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 167-151, Aug. 2005.

[4] T. Hao, J. Lam, and P. K. Jain, “A New High Power Factor, Soft-switched LED Driver without Electrolytic capacitors,” in Proc. IEEE APEC, 2013, pp.823-828.

[5] Y. Y Hsieh, and Y. Z. Juang, “Analysis and Suppression of Over current in Boost LED Drivers,” IEEE Display Technol., vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 388-395, May 2013.

A Hybrid PV-Wind-Diesel System for Optimal Performance in Microgrid

ABSTRACT:  

The PV-Hydro Diesel technology can be made attractive option because the features various merits like as low maintenance requirement, environmental friendliness and absence of fuel cost. The efficiency of energy conversion a PV generation system may low because sun power cell exhibits to the nonlinear voltage and current and power versus voltage characteristics.

PV

The recent advancements in the technology and the reduction of fossil fuel resources have further contributed to the cause. But still, there lies several challenges to it. The paper proposes a novel approach of hybridization of renewable sources using Maximum Peak Power Transfer technique and optimal control. The performance of our approach is quite better than its other counterparts in terms of transient state and the magnitude of voltage obtained.

KEYWORDS:

  1. MPPT
  2. PV- Hydro – Diesel
  3. Perturb and observe

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

PROPOSED MODEL:

 

Fig. 1: Representing the overall proposed model

 EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Fig. 2 Representing The FFT analysis of the voltage waveform at the load end. when the FFT analysis of the wave form is done the THD value is found to be 0.17 %.

Fig.3: The THD of the output

 CONCLUSION:

This paper proposed a novel approach of utilising a New Hybrid Technique approach to solve the MPPT problem in microgrid consisting of PV-Hydro Diesel cell connected to a grid using three phase inverter. The solar cell model was designed and given to boost converter. The converter output was analysed. An incremental conductance technique was also implemented for comparison purpose. The result of hybrid model was found to be quite better than the incremental conductance technique in terms of output voltage magnitude and THD content.

MPPT

The THD content reduces using our proposed approach. Also when the current is compared, the oscillations die out very fast in case of hybrid model while in I&C approach it is more or less sustained. In future this algorithm can be improved using other techniques and approaches. Also real time implementation of the algorithms can be done and hardware testing can be done. Hybrid with other algorithms can be utilised and the performances can be compared. Also clustering and other gradient learning methods can be utilised and the model can be tested for grid connection.

REFERENCES:

[1] Reddy, K. Pavankumar, and M. Venu Gopala Rao. “Modelling and Simulation of Hybrid Wind Solar Energy System using MPPT.” Indian Journal of Science and Technology 8, no. 23 (2015).

[2] Dalala, Zakariya M., Zaka Ullah Zahid, Wensong Yu, Younghoon Cho, and Jih-Sheng Lai. “Design and analysis of an MPPT technique for small-scale wind energy conversion systems.” Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on 28, no. 3 (2013): 756-767.

[3] Jain, S., Agarwal, V., 2004. A new algorithm for rapid tracking of approximate maximum power point in PV-Hydro systems. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 2, 16–19.

[4] Bhandari, Binayak, Shiva Raj Poudel, Kyung-Tae Lee, and Sung-Hoon Ahn. “Mathematical modeling of hybrid renewable energy system: A review on small hydro-solar-wind power generation.” international journal of precision engineering and manufacturing-green technology 1, no. 2 (2014): 157-173.

[5] S. Yuvarajan and JulineShoeb, “A Fast and Accurate Maximum Power Point Tracker for PV Systems,” IEEE, 2008.