Nowadays, there is a great development in electric vehicle production and utilization. It has no pollution, high efficiency, low noise, and low maintenance. However, the charging stations, required to charge the electric vehicle batteries, impose high energy demand on the utility grid. One way to overcome the stress on the grid is the utilization of renewable energy sources such as
photovoltaic energy. The utilization of standalone charging stations represents good support to the utility grid. Nevertheless, the electrical design of these systems has different techniques and is sometimes complex. This paper introduces a new simple analysis and design of a standalone charging station powered by photovoltaic energy. Simple closed-form design equations are derived, for all the system components. Case-study design calculations are presented for the proposed charging station. Then, the system is modeled and simulated using Matlab/Simulink platform. Furthermore, an experimental setup is built to verify the system physically. The experimental and simulation results of the proposed system are matched with the design calculations. The results show that the charging process of the electric vehicle battery is precisely steady for all the PV insolation disturbances. In addition, the charging/discharging of the energy storage battery responds perfectly to store and compensate for PV energy variations.
- Electric vehicle
- Charging station;
- Maximum power point tracking
An isolated EV charging station based on a PV energy source is proposed. The system consists of PV panel, boost converter, ESS batteries, two DC/DC charging converters, and an EV battery. The control system consists of three controllers named the MPPT, the EV charger, and the storage converter controller. PI voltage and current controllers are adapted to control charging/discharging of the ESS system and the EV charger as well. The system is simulated and implemented physically. A single-chip PIC18F4550 microcontroller is utilized to realize the system controllers. New simple energy and power analyses procedure has been introduced. Hence, closed-form equations have been derived to help in the design phase. Complete design of the system, including the ESS size, the PV rating, and the filter components, has been proposed. Simulation and experimental results are very close and verify the effectiveness of the proposed system. At different insolation levels, the results show that the charging process of the EV battery is steady without any disturbance. However, the charging/discharging of the ESS battery responds perfectly to store and compensate for PV energy variations. The current and voltage controllers of the converters give good responses and track their references well. In addition, the MPPT controller tracks the peak conditions of the PV precisely.
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