An Efficient Constant Current Controller for PV SolarPower Generator Integrated with the Grid

ABSTRACT:  

This paper presents the detailed design and modeling of grid integrated with the Photovoltaic Solar Power Generator. As the Photovoltaic System uses the solar energy as one of the renewable energies for the electrical energy production has an enormous potential. The PV system is developing very rapidly as compared to its counterparts of the renewable energies. The DC voltage generated by the PV system is boosted by the DC-DC Boost converter. The utility grid is incorporated with the PV Solar Power Generator through the 3-ı PWM DC-AC inverter, whose control is provided by a constant current controller. This controller uses a 3-ı phase locked loop (PLL) for tracking the phase angle of the utility grid and reacts fast enough to the changes in load or grid connection states, as a result, it seems to be efficient in supplying to load the constant voltage without phase jump. The complete mathematical model for the grid connected PV system is developed and simulated. The results verify that the proposed system is proficient to supply the local loads.

KEYWORDS:

  1. PV Solar Power Generator
  2. DC-DC Boost Converter
  3. PWM inverter
  4. PLL
  5. Constant Current Controller (CCC)

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig.1 Switching Model of Solar Inverter

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Fig.2 P-V Curve of the Solar Array

Fig. 3 V-I Curve of the Solar Array

Fig. 4 DC voltage delivered by the Boost converter

Fig. 5Inverter output voltage before filtering

Fig. 6 Inverter output voltage after filtering

Fig. 7 Load current for supplying the 2 MW load.

Fig.8 Load current for supplying the load of about 30 MW, 2 MVAr

CONCLUSION:

For improving the energy efficiency and power quality issues with the increment of the world energy demand, the power generation using the renewable energy source is the only solution. There are several countries located in the tropical and temperature regions, where the direct solar density may reach up to 1000W/m2. Hence PV system is considered as a primary resource. In this paper, the detailed modeling of grid connected PV generation system is developed. The DC-DC boost converter is used to optimize the PV array output with the closed loop control for keeping the DC bus voltage to be constant. The 2 level 3-phase inverter is converting the DC into the sinusoidal AC voltage. The control of the solar inverter is provided through the constant current controller. This controller tracks the phase and frequency of the utility grid voltage using the Phase- Locked-Loop (PLL) system and generates the switching pulses for the solar inverter. Using this controller the output voltage of the solar inverter and the grid voltage are in phase. Thus the PV system can be integrated to the grid. The simulation results the presented in this paper to validate the grid connected PV system model and the applied control scheme.

REFERENCES:

[1] A. M. Hava, T. A. Lipo and W. L. Erdman. “Utility interface issues for line connected PWM voltage source converters: a comparative study”, Proceeding of APEC’95, Dallas (USA), pp. 125-132, March 1995.

[2] L. J. BORLE, M. S. DYMOND and C. V. NAYAR, “Development and testing of a 20 kW grid interactive photovoltaic power conditioning system in Western Australia”, IEEE Transaction, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 502-508, 1997.

[3] M. Calais, J. Myrzik, T. Spooner, V. Agelidis, “Inverters for single- phase grid connected photovoltaic systems – an overview”, IEEE 33rd Annual Power Electronics Specialists Conference, Volume 4, 23-27 June 2002

[4] S. K. Chung, “Phase-Locked Loop for Grid connected Three-phase Power Conversion Systems”, IEE Proceeding on Electronic Power Application, Vol. 147, No. 3, pp. 213-219, 2000.

[5] S. Rahman, “Going green: the growth of renewable energy”, IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, 16-18 Nov./Dec. 2003.

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