Performance Analysis of Solar PV array and Battery Integrated Unified Power Quality Conditioner for Microgrid Systems

ABSTRACT:

In this work, a methodology for implementation of an automated transition of a solar PV array and battery integrated unified power quality conditioner (PV-BUPQC) between standalone and grid connected modes of operation is presented and analyzed. This system consists of a shunt and series active filters connected back to back with a common DC-link. The system addresses the issue of the integrating power quality improvement along with the generation of clean energy. Moreover, due to the automated transition, the critical loads have continuous power supply irrespective of grid availability. The key challenges addressed are implementation of automated transition in a PV-B-UPQC system with minimal disturbance to the local loads. The system operation is validated through experimentation under a number of dynamic conditions such as automated transition, supply voltage variations, unavailability of the grid, variation in solar power generation, load variation, etc., which are typically encountered in a modern distribution network.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Power quality
  2. Unified power quality conditioner
  3. Solar PV Generation
  4. Battery energy storage
  5. Automated transition
  6. Constant power generation

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

CONCLUSION:

The design and performance of solar PV and battery integrated UPQC have been presented in this work. Due to the presence of energy storage in form of battery bank, the system operates in standalone mode of operation whenever grid is not available thus maintaining continuity of power supply to critical loads. Moreover, the system mitigates power fluctuations occurring in PV power generation due to weather conditions, thus enabling smooth power generation. This leads to increased stability of the overall system. The behavior of the system under steady state has been found satisfactory and the PCC currents meet the THD limits prescribed in the IEEE-519 standard.

The response of the PV-B-UPQC has been extensively evaluated under both standalone and grid connected modes of operation. The response of PV-B UPQC is found satisfactory under various conditions of irradiation variation, load unbalance and sags/swells in PCC voltage. Under all these disturbance conditions, the PV-B-UPQC is able to feed constant power into distribution network. The system automatically changes from the grid-tied operation to islanded operation and vice versa with minimal disturbance to the sensitive and critical load. The three wire PV-B-UPQC is suitable for the systems with operating with sensitive and critical load such as in data centers, hospitals, factories where uninterrupted power supply is of prime importance. The integration of battery and renewable energy, enables minimum dependence on the grid for power demand while the surplus PV power can support the grid by giving power to nearby loads at PCC.

REFERENCES:

[1] S. Singh, B. Singh, G. Bhuvaneswari, and V. Bist, “A power quality improved bridgeless converter-based computer power supply,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 4385–4394, Sep. 2016

[2] A. K. Giri, S. R. Arya, and R. Maurya, “Compensation of power quality problems in wind-based renewable energy system for small consumer as isolated loads,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 66, no. 11, pp. 9023–9031, Nov. 2019.

[3] N. Saxena, I. Hussain, B. Singh, and A. L. Vyas, “Implementation of a grid-integrated pv-battery system for residential and electrical vehicle applications,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 65, no. 8, pp. 6592–6601, Aug. 2018.

[4] S. Roy Ghatak, S. Sannigrahi, and P. Acharjee, “Multi-objective approach for strategic incorporation of solar energy source, battery storage system, and dstatcom in a smart grid environment,” IEEE Systems Journal, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 3038–3049, Sep. 2019.

[5] K. K. Prasad, H. Myneni, and G. S. Kumar, “Power quality improvement and pv power injection by dstatcom with variable dc link voltage control from rsc-mlc,” IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 876–885, Apr. 2019.

Active Power Filter for Harmonic Mitigation of Power Quality Issues in Grid Integrated Photovoltaic Generation System

ABSTRACT:

 Single phase supply scheme tied with Photovoltaic arrangement (PV) employed on perturbed & observed (P&O) maximum energy point tracking technique with shunt active power filter allied to a rectifier feed R-L nonlinear load. The traditional Perturbed & Observed technique maximum energy point tracking topology is applied to attained maximum output power from Photovoltaic array(PVA), Proportional Integral conventional controller with phase detector (PD) phase locked loop (PLL) synchronization are executed to produce reference current. It provide at control unit of pulse width modulation topology( PWM) is utilized in inverter to get steady output voltage. Self supported DC bus PWM converter is regulated from PV array. In proposed architecture is minimized total harmonic pollution existing in supply current owing to power electronic load (PEL). Total current harmonic pollution (THDi) is compensated using dynamic filter shunt active power filter (SAPF) and power factor obtain better later than compensation. Hence, reactive power (KVAR) is delivered through system decrease and active power (KW) enhance. The suggested scheme has been implemented by way of MATLAB/SIMULINK 2015(a) environment.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF)
  2. Photovoltaic Array (PVA)
  3. Proportional Integral controller
  4. Pulse width Modulated (PWM) Converter
  5. Maximum Power Point Tracking (P & O) Scheme

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

CONCLUSION:

In this research paper SAPF based on phase detector circuit (PLL) for unit vector generation with traditional PI controller is implemented. This controller regulates DC side voltage, reference current generated by PI conventional controller and positive progression predictor PLL synchronization unit. Hystersis band current control (HBCC) is employed to produce gate signal for voltage source inverter (VSI). The source current THD is abridged to fewer than 5% that is in accordance IEEE-519 standards for harmonic. Active power is improved by dynamic filtering using SAPF and decrease in reactive power consequently, power factor level is become finer.

REFERENCES:

[1] M. Singh, V. Khadkikar, A. Chandra, and R. K. Varma,“Grid Interconnection of Renewable Energy Sources at the Distribution Level With Power-Quality Improvement Features” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 26, no. 1, January 2011.

[2] S. Agrawal, Seemant Chorsiya, D.K Palwalia, “Hybrid Energy Management System design with Renewable Energy Sources (Fuel Cells, PV Cells and Wind Energy): A Review”, IJSET, vol. 6, no. 3, pp.174-177, 2018. DOI : 10.5958/2277 1581.2017.00104.8.

[3] M. G. Villalva, J. R. Gazoli and E. R. Filho, “Modeling and circuit based simulation of photovoltaic arrays”, Brazilian Power Electronics Conference, Bonito-Mato Grosso do Sul, pp. 1244-1254, 2009.

[4] S. Agrawal and D. K. Palwalia, “Analysis of standalone hybrid PVSOFC-  battery generation system based on shunt hybrid active power filter for harmonics mitigation.” IEEE Power India International Conference (PIICON) pp. 1-6, 2016.

[5] M. M. Hashempour, M. Savaghebi, J. C. Vasquez and J. M. Guerrero, “A Control Architecture to Coordinate Distributed Generators and Active Power Filters Coexisting in a Microgrid”, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 2325-2336, Sept. 2016.

Compact Regenerative Braking Scheme for aPM BLDC Motor Driven Electric Two-Wheeler

ABSTRACT:

 Regenerative method of braking of an electric vehicle (EV) helps in efficient utilization of the battery power to increase the range of the vehicle. Methods described in literature for the regeneration use complex control algorithms to deal with the energy flow during the transition from the motoring mode to the regenerative braking mode of PM BLDC motor driven EV. In this paper, a simple method to control the power flow from the motor to the battery by changing the switching sequence given to the inverter used in the PM BLDC motor drive is presented. The newly presented method gives lower braking time and higher regeneration, and also does not necessitate any additional converters or ultra-capacitors.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Electric two wheeler
  2. Electric vehicle (EV)
  3. Hub motor
  4. Motor
  5. PM BLDC Motor
  6. Regenerative braking

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

 CONCLUSION:

The line back-EMF based regeneration method presented in this paper delivers far better performance than the mechanical braking in two-wheeler EVs also. Further, the presented method is the simplest one among the known regenerative methods in terms of the simplicity of the system, ease of implementation and also the higher braking torque developed. In this method, a noticeable power is fed back to the battery. The range of the EV is obviously increased.

REFERENCES:

[1] J. W. Dixon, and M. E. Ortlizar, “Ultracapacitors + DC–DC Converters in Regenerative Braking System,” IEEE Aerospace andElectronic Systems magazine, Vol. 17, No. 8, pp. 16–21, August 2002.

[2] J. Cao, B. Cao, Z. Bai and W. Chen,” Energy regenerative Fuzzy Sliding mode Controller design for Ultra capacitor –Battery Hybrid Power Electric Vehicle,” Proceedings of the IEEE Int. Conf. on Mechatronics and Automation, , pp. 1570–1575, August 2007.

[3] J. Cao and B. Cao,”Fuzzy-logic – Based Sliding Mode Controller Design for Position -Sensorless Electric vehicle,” IEEE Trans.Power Electron. vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 2368– 2378, October 2009.

[4] M. Ye, Z. F. Bai, and B. Cao, “Robust H2/Infinity Control for Regenerative Braking of Electric Vehicles,” Proceedings of the IEEE Int. Conf. on Control and Automation, pp. 1366–1370, May/June 2007

[5] J. Cao, B. Cao, Z. Bai and P. Xu , ” Regenerative – Braking Sliding mode Control of Electric Vehicle based on Neural network Identification,” Proceedings of the IEEE Int. Conf. on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, pp. 1219–1224, July 2008.