Design and Comparative Study of PhotovoltaicMaximum Power Point Tracking ConverterWith DC Motor Speed Control

ABSTRACT:

 The photovoltaic panels as the power supply depends upon the weather condition (radiation, temperature). These conditions must be known to control the running point of the greatest power of photovoltaic panel. In the present paper , the study and design searching the greatest power point by solar panels direct current motor separately excited speed control. Three control methods studied and designed to search the greatest power point of the photovoltaic panel and speed control of direct current motor. The first method is perturbing and observing controller. The second method is proportional-integral-derivative controller, whereas the controller gains are obtained by using trial and error process. The third method is proportional-integralderivative controller based on bacterial foraging algorithm. It used to compute the proportional-integral-derivative controller gains. The three control methods are used to obtain the greatest power point of PV panels and improve the direct current motor output speed performance response. The study of comparative results for open loop and close loop system with different designed controllers. The Simulation results were studied and compared under many weather conditions and direct current motor load torque disturbance. The results of comparison that produce the best controller method is proportional-integral-derivative controller with bacterial foraging algorithm which produce optimal performance results..

KEYWORDS:

  1. Photovoltaic Panel (PV)
  2. Perturbation and Observation Algorithm (Per & Obs)
  3. Searching the Greatest Power Point (SGPP)
  4. Direct Current Motor (DC Motor),Proportional
  5. Integral Derivative Controller (PID) and Bacterial Foraging
  6. Optimization Algorithm (BFOA)

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig.1 The close loop system block diagram

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Fig.2. The PVpower response under various weather condition without Controller

Fig.3 DC motor speed response when TL=5-8 Nm without controller

Fig.4 PV power response under various condition with Per and Obs Controller

Fig.5. DC motor speed response when TL=5-8 Nm with Per and Obs Controller

Fig.6 PV power response under various condition with PID controller

Fig.7 DC motor speed response when TL=5-8 Nm with PID controller

Fig.8 PV power response under various condition with PID/BFOA Controller

Fig.9 DC motor speed response when TL=5-8 Nm with PID/BFOA Controller

Fig.10 PV power responses when various weather condition with three different controllers

Fig.11. Zoom of Power responses with three different controllers

Fig.12. DC motor speed responses when TL=5-8 Nm with three different Controllers

Fig.13. Zoom of speed response with three different controllers.

CONCLUSION:

The PV system designs and studies with the dc-dc step up boost converter, which loads by DC motor. The DC motor loads by various load torque. The simulation results of the system studies and the PV panels’ output power responses have been studied under the various weather conditions. The DC motor speed control performance have been studied, three techniques were designed, studied and used to improve and track of the maximum power of the PV panels system and these techniques were used to improve the DC motor speed performance. The first technique is Perturbation and Observation technique. The second technique is the proportional-integral-derivative controller and the third technique is hybrid Proportional-integral-derivative with optimization algorithm of bacterial foraging. The output motor speed and maximum power of the PV panels (PV model, DC motor) with the three techniques have been tested and comparatively studied. These comparative results under the various weather conditions and various external load torque that produce the best performance results and greatest tracking power of PV panels is the PID controller based BFOA controller .the comparison results in the table 4 and 5 proved that.

REFERENCES:

[1] H. Chihchiang and S. Chihming, “Study of Maximum Power Tracking Techniques and Control of DC/DC Converter for Photovoltaic Power System ,” in IEEE PESC Power Electronics Specalists Conf.,Vol.1, 1998.

[2] Joe-Air, J., Tsong-Liang, H., Ying-Tung, H., and Chia-Hong ,C. “Maximum Power Tracking for Photovoltaic Power Systems,” Tamkang Journal of Science and Engineering ,Vol.8, No 2,pp. 147-153(2005).

[3] Liu C., Wu B., and Cheung R., “ Advanced Algorithm for MPPT Control of Photovoltaic System,” 1st Canadian Solar Building Research Network Conference, Aug. 2006.

[4] A. Yafaoui.,B. Wu and R. Cheung, “Implementation of Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithm for Residential Photovoltaic Systems ,” Calgary, June , Canadian Solar Conf. 2007.

[5] Vikrant.A.Chaudhari, “ Automatic Peak Power Tracking for Solar PV Module Using dSpacer Software. ,” in Maulana Azad National Institute Of Technology, vol.Degree of Master of Technology In Energy. Bhopal: Deemed University, 2005,pp.98.

Grid Interactive Bidirectional Solar PV Array FedWater Pumping System

ABSTRACT:

 This paper proposes a grid interactive bidirectional solar water pumping system using a three phase induction motor drive (IMD). A single phase voltage source converter (VSC) is used to direct the flow of power from grid supply to the pump and back to the grid from SPV array. A boost converter is used for the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of the SPV array. A smart power sharing control is proposed, with preference given to the power from SPV array over the grid power. Moreover, the grid input power quality is also improved. Various modes of operation of the pump are elaborated and the performance of the system at starting, in steady state and dynamic conditions are simulated. The simulated results show the novelty and the satisfactory performance of the system.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Solar water pump
  2. MPPT
  3. Grid interactive
  4. Smart power sharing

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. Configuration for the single phase grid interactive SPV water

pumping system

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 Fig. 2(a) Starting performance of the proposed system in mode I

Fig. 3(b) Steady state performance of the proposed system in mode I

Fig. 4(c) Performance of the system in mode I under decreasing radiation

from 800 W/m2 to 500 W/m2

Fig. 5(d) Performance of the system in mode I under increasing radiation

from 500 W/m2 to 800 W/m2

Fig. 6(a) Starting performance of the system in mode II

Fig. 7(b) Steady state performance of the system in mode II

 

Fig. 8(a) Characteristics of the system in mode III with decrease in

Radiation

Fig. 9(b) Characteristics of the system in mode III with increase in

Radiation

Fig. 10(a) Characteristics of the system in mode IV with increase in

Radiation

Fig. 11 (b) Characteristics of the system in mode III with decrease in

radiation

 CONCLUSION:

A single phase grid interactive solar water pumping is presented in the paper. Various modes of operation are identified and simulated in MATLAB Simulink environment. The simulated results have demonstrated the satisfactory performance of the system at starting, and in steady and dynamic conditions. The proposed system not only is able to share the power between two sources but it also improves the quality of power drawn. Moreover, the system manages to feed the power from the SPV array as in when required. The system is well suited for the rural and agricultural usage.

REFERENCES:

[1] J. Zhu, “Application of Renewable Energy,” in Optimization of Power System Operation, Wiley-IEEE Press, 2015, p. 664.

[2] Z. Ying, M. Liao, X. Yang, C. Han, J. Li, J. Li, Y. Li, P. Gao, and J. Ye, “High-Performance Black Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells by a Highly Simplified Metal-Catalyzed Chemical Etching Method,” IEEE J. Photovolt., vol. PP, no. 99, pp. 1–06, 2016.

[3] M. Steiner, G. Siefer, T. Schmidt, M. Wiesenfarth, F. Dimroth, and A. W. Bett, “43% Sunlight to Electricity Conversion Efficiency Using CPV,” IEEE J. Photovolt., vol. PP, no. 99, pp. 1–5, 2016.

[4] M. Kolhe, J. C. Joshi, and D. P. Kothari, “Performance analysis of a directly coupled photovoltaic water-pumping system,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 613–618, Sep. 2004.

[5] S. R. Bhat, A. Pittet, and B. S. Sonde, “Performance Optimization of Induction Motor-Pump System Using Photovoltaic Energy Source,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. IA-23, no. 6, pp. 995–1000, Nov. 1987.

Solar Powered Based Water Pumping System Using Perturb and Observation MPPT Technique

ABSTRACT:

This paper concentrates on solar photovoltaic(PV) water pumping system using perturb and observation maximum power point tracking(MPPT) technique. This whole system is divided into two stages. In the first stage, an arrangement of PV modules is made which is a combination of number PV cells in series or parallel to extract the solar energy and convert into electricity. To maximize the power output of PV module, perturb and observation (P&O) MPPT technique has been used. In its second stage, direct torque and flux control(DTFC) with space vector modulation(SVM) is used to control switching pulses of the voltage source inverter(VSI). The speed of induction motor drive is controlled by DTFC technique. The whole system is developed in MATLAB and outputs are observed.

 KEYWORDS:

  1. Solar PV array
  2. MPPT
  3. P&O Algorithm
  4. DC-DC Boost converter
  5. DTFC-SVM
  6. Induction motor

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

 Fig-1: Solar Water Pumping System

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Fig. 2. DC link voltage (output voltage of the boost converter)

Fig. 3. output waveform of IMD under no load

Fig. 4. Waveforms under loading condition

CONCLUSION:

In this paper control methods which regulates the flow rate of water supply of solar powered based water pumping systen using IMD is illustrated. From the simulation results it can be concluded that this system has good performance. As per view of irrigation system , the SPV array has been operated under standard enviromental conditions. The system is operated on maximum power by using P&O MPPT algorithm. Water flow rate and stator current of motor is controlled by the speed PI controller.

 REFERENCES:

 [1] U. Sharma, S. Kumar, and B. Singh, “Solar array fed water pumping system using induction motor drive,” 1st IEEE Int. Conf. Power Electron. Intell. Control Energy Syst. ICPEICES 2016, 2017.

[2] M. A. G. De Brito, L. P. Sampaio, L. G. Jr, G. A. Melo, and C. A. Canesin, “Comparative Analysis of MPPT Techniques for PV Applications,” pp. 99–104, 2011.

[3] D. P. Hohm, “Comparative Study of Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithms Using an Experimental, Programmable, Maximum Power Point Tracking Test Bed,” 2000.

[4] S. Member, “A Comparative study of different MPPT techniques using different dc-dc converters in a standalone PV system,” pp. 1690–1695, 2016.

[5] Z. Ben Mahmoud, M. Ramouda, and A. Khedher, “A Comparative Study of Four Widely-Adopted MPPT Techniques for PV Power Systems,” no. 1, pp. 16–18, 2016.

Solar Power Based Three-Level Neutral Clamped Inverter Fed DTFC-SVM of an IM Drive

ABSTRACT:

This paper presents a solar power based three-level neutral clamped inverter (3LNCI) fed induction motor drive (IMD) with space vector modulation based direct torque and flux control (DTFC-SVM) for the water pumping applications. Due to the robustness and the flexible operating characteristics, induction motor is most suitable for water pump system. A DC/DC boost converter along with perturb and observe method of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control technique is employed to draw sophisticated power from the solar photovoltaic (PV) array. The DTFC-SVM of an IMD using 3LNCI is proposed for improving performance and reducing the ripple contents of torque, flux and stator currents. The proposed method is simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment and simulated results are presented under various operating conditions.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Direct torque and flux control
  2. Induction motor drive
  3. Space vector modulation
  4. Three-level diode clamped inverter
  5. Photovoltaic array

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. Schematic model of DTFC-SVM of IMD

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Fig.2. Results under no-load torque operating condition using (a) 2LI and (b)

3LNCI: Plot (from top to bottom): (i) Torque, (ii) stator current, (iii) speed,

(iv) stator flux qd-components in stationary reference frame.

Fig.3. Loading performance at 1400rpm using (a) 2LI and (b) 3LNCI: (i)

Torque, (ii) speed, (iii) stator current and (iv) error speed.

Fig.4. Reversal speed Performance using (a) 2LI and (b) 3LNCI: (i) Torque,

(ii) speed, (iii) stator current and (iv) stator flux qd-components.

 CONCLUSION:

It has been concluded that the solar powered three-level neutral clamped inverter fed induction motor drive with DTFCSVM using proportional-integral controller (PIC) quite suitable for the water pumping applications. The solar panel has been operated at the peak values of voltage, current and power by using a simple perturb and observe method of MPPT algorithm, and the required DC output voltage achieved by using DC/DC boost converter. From the simulation results we can conclude that the three-level SVM based IM drives can provide better performance and torque ripple levels are also lowerd in comparision with Two- level SVM based IM drive.

REFERENCES:

[1] G. S Buja and Kazmierkowski. M. P, “DTC of pwm inverter-fed AC motors – A Survey”, IEEE Trans. on Ind. Elec., vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 744 – 757, 2004.

[2] J. Rodriguez, J. S. Lai, and F. Z. Peng, “Multilevel inverters: a survey of topologies, controls, and applications,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol.49, no.4, pp.724-738, 2002.

[3] Tejavathu Ramesh, Anup Kumar Panda, and S. Shiva Kumar. “MRAS Speed Estimator Based on Type-1 and Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controller for the Speed Sensorless DTFC-SVPWM of an Induction Motor Drive.” Journal of Power Electr., vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 730-740, 2015.

[4] Rodriguez J, Bernet S, Steimer PK, Lizama IE. A survey on neutralpoint- clamped inverters. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics. 57(7):2219-30, 2010.

[5] M. Hamdi, M. Hamouda, F. Fnaiech, and K. Al-Haddad, “Space vector pulse width modulation of multilevel inverters: A new method for selecting the appropriate small hexagon,” 38th Annual Conf. IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON), pp. 774-779, 25-28 Oct. 2012.

 

BLDC Motor Driven Solar PV Array Fed Water Pumping System Employing Zeta Converter

ABSTRACT:

 This paper proposes a solar photovoltaic (SPV) array fed water pumping system utilizing a zeta converter as an intermediate DC-DC converter in order to extract the maximum available power from the SPV array. Controlling the zeta converter in an intelligent manner through the incremental conductance maximum power point tracking (INC-MPPT) algorithm offers the soft starting of the brushless DC (BLDC) motor employed to drive a centrifugal water pump coupled to its shaft. Soft starting i.e. the reduced current starting inhibits the harmful effect of the high starting current on the windings of the BLDC motor. A fundamental frequency switching of the voltage source inverter (VSI) is accomplished by the electronic commutation of the BLDC motor, thereby avoiding the VSI losses occurred owing to the high frequency switching. A new design approach for the low valued DC link capacitor of VSI is proposed. The proposed water pumping system is designed and modeled such that the performance is not affected even under the dynamic conditions. Suitability of the proposed system under dynamic conditions is demonstrated by the simulation results using MATLAB/Simulink software.

KEYWORDS:

  1. SPV array
  2. Zeta converter
  3. INC-MPPT
  4. BLDC motor
  5. Electronic commutation

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

 

 

Fig.1 Configuration of proposed SPV array-Zeta converter fed BLDC motor drive for water pumping system.

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

Fig.2 Performances of the proposed SPV array based Zeta converter fed BLDC motor drive for water pumping system (a) SPV array variables, (b) Zeta converter variables, and (c) BLDC motor-pump variables.

 CONCLUSION:

The SPV array-zeta converter fed VSI-BLDC motor-pump for water pumping has been proposed and its suitability has been demonstrated by simulated results using MATLAB/Simulink and its sim-power-system toolbox. First, the proposed system has been designed logically to fulfil the various desired objectives and then modelled and simulated to examine the various performances under starting, dynamic and steady state conditions. The performance evaluation has justified the combination of zeta converter and BLDC motor drive for SPV array based water pumping. The system under study availed the various desired functions such as MPP extraction of the SPV array, soft starting of the BLDC motor, fundamental frequency switching of the VSI resulting in a reduced switching losses, reduced stress on IGBT switch and the components of zeta converter by operating it in continuous conduction mode and stable operation. Moreover, the proposed system has operated successfully even under the minimum solar irradiance.

REFERENCES:

[1] M. Uno and A. Kukita, “Single-Switch Voltage Equalizer Using Multi- Stacked Buck-Boost Converters for Partially-Shaded Photovoltaic Modules,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, no. 99, 2014.

[2] R. Arulmurugan and N. Suthanthiravanitha, “Model and Design of A Fuzzy-Based Hopfield NN Tracking Controller for Standalone PV Applications,” Electr. Power Syst. Res. (2014). Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsr.2014.05.007

[3] S. Satapathy, K.M. Dash and B.C. Babu, “Variable Step Size MPPT Algorithm for Photo Voltaic Array Using Zeta Converter – A Comparative Analysis,” Students Conference on Engineering and Systems (SCES), pp.1-6, 12-14 April 2013.

[4] A. Trejos, C.A. Ramos-Paja and S. Serna, “Compensation of DC-Link Voltage Oscillations in Grid-Connected PV Systems Based on High Order DC/DC Converters,” IEEE International Symposium on Alternative Energies and Energy Quality (SIFAE), pp.1-6, 25-26 Oct. 2012.

[5] G. K. Dubey, Fundamentals of Electrical Drives, 2nd ed. New Delhi, India: Narosa Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., 2009.

Direct Torque Control using Switching Table forInduction Motor Fed by Quasi Z-Source Inverter

ABSTRACT:

 Z-source inverters eliminate the need for front-end DC-DC boost converters in applications with limited DC voltage such as solar PV, fuel cell. Quasi Z-source inverters offer advantages over Z-source inverter, such as continuous source current and lower component ratings. In this paper, switching table based Direct Torque Control (DTC) of induction motor fed by quasi Z-Source Inverter (qZSI) is presented. In the proposed technique, dc link voltage is boosted by incorporating shoot through state into the switching table. This simplifies the implementation of DTC using qZSI. An additional DC link voltage hysteresis controller is included along with torque and flux hysteresis controllers used in conventional DTC. The results validate the boost capability of qZSI and torque response of the DTC.

KEYWORDS:

  1. DTC
  2. QZSI
  3. DC-DC Converter
  4. DC Link Voltage
  5. Hysteresis Controller

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

 

Fig. 1: Block Diagram for DTC using qZSI

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 Fig.2: Torque vs. Time

Fig. 3: Stator Phase ‘a’ Current

Fig. 4: Speed vs. Time

 

Fig. 5: DC Link Voltage

Fig. 6: Capacitor Voltage, VC1

 CONCLUSION:

 In this paper, direct torque control of induction motor fed by qZSI is presented. Dynamic torque response for step change obtained is 3 ms, which is needed for high performance applications. qZSI provides a single stage solution for drives with variable input DC voItage, instead of DC-DC converter cascaded with 3-leg inverter bridge. This paper presents a solution for drives with lesser DC input voItage availability and also requiring very fast torque response. The results shows that by introducing shoot through state in switching table of direct torque control, DC link voItage in qZSI is boosted. The DC link voItage hysteresis controller uses the input and capacitor voItage for controlling DC link voItage. If there is any disturbance in input voItage, the reference for capacitor voItage will be changed accordingly to maintain the DC link voItage.

REFERENCES:

 [I] 1. Takahashi and Y. Ohmori, “High-performance direct torque control of an induction motor, ” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 257-264, 1989.

[2] B.-S. Lee and R. Krishnan, “Adaptive stator resistance compensator for high performance direct torque controlled induction motor drives, ” in Industry Applications Conference, 1998. Thirty-Third lAS Annual Meeting. The 1998 IEEE, vol. I, Oct 1998, pp. 423-430 voLl.

[3] G. Buja and M. Kazmierkowski, “Direct torque control of pwm inverter-fed ac motors-a survey, ” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 744-757, Aug 2004.

[4] F. Z. Peng, “Z-source inverter, ” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 504-510, Mar 2003.

[5] F. Z. Peng, A. Joseph, J. Wang, M. Shen, L. Chen, Z. Pan, E. Ortiz-Rivera, and Y. Huang, “Z-source inverter for motor drives, ” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 857-863, July2005.

Single Stage PV System based Direct Torque Controlled PMSM Drive for Pump Load Application

ABSTRACT:

 This paper presents design and modelling of single stage standalone PV based PMSM (Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor) drive. Standalone power supply system is more feasible and convenient option for water pumping applications in irrigation. Three phase DTC (Direct Torque Control) VSI (Voltage Source Inverter) is presented for supplying the PMSM for variation in solar irradiation to control the flow of water in pumping application. MATLAB/SIMULINK environment is used for modeled the proposed single stage standalone PV system based PMSM drive and performance is investigated under change in solar irradiation.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Direct Torque Control
  2. PMSM Drive
  3. Solar PV
  4. Water Discharge System

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

 BLOCK DIAGRAM:


Fig. 1 System configuration of Single stage sensor less standalone solar PV based PMSM drive.

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:


Fig.2 Steady state performance for single stage standalone PV based permanent magnet synchronous motor drive

Fig.3 Transient performance under change in irradiation

CONCLUSION:

 A single stage off-grid solar photo voltaic system has been modeled using the PMSM employed for centrifugal pump load application. The proposed single stage standalone PV system reduces component count, eliminates intermediate power conversion stage and achieves high conversion efficiency for pumping application. The proposed single stage system gives adequate control on PMSM speed under wide variation in solar irradiation and employing DTC control using three-phase VSl.

REFERENCES:

[1] A. Khaligh and O.C. Onar , Energy harvesting solar, wind, and ocean energy conversion systems, CRC Press, New York, 20 I O.

[2] R. Teodorescu, M. Liserre and P. Rodriguez, Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems, I st edition, John Wiley, United Kingdom, 2011.

[3] M. G Villalva, 1. R. Gazoli and E.R. Filho, “Comprehensive Approach to Modeling and Simulation of Photovoltaic Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Power Electronics, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 1198-1208, Mar. 2009.

[4] M. Matsui, T. Kitano, D. H. Xu and Z. Q. Yang, “A new maximum photovoltaic power tracking control scheme based on power equilibrium at dc link,” Proc. IEEE Industry Application Con!, Oct. 1999, vol. 2, pp. 804-809.

[5].T. K. Mikihiko and M. De-H. Xu, “Power sensor-less MPPT control scheme utilizing power balance at dc link – system design to ensure stability and response,” Proc IEEE IECON Con!, Dec. 200 I, pp. 1309-1314.

Solar Power Based Two Level Inverter Fed DTFCSVMof a Sensorless IM Drive

ABSTRACT:

 This paper presents a solar power based two level inverter fed sensorless induction motor drive (SIMD) with space vector modulation based direct torque and flux control (DTFCSVM) for the water pumping applications. Due to the robustness and the flexible operating characteristics, induction motor is most suitable for water pump system. The back emf based model reference adaptive system (MRAS) is used to estimate the speed of the motor. This sensorless MRAS based speed estimation technique is independent to the changes in the temperature and it makes the system simple, robust and economic. Moreover, it reduces the complexity while implementing the hardware setup. DC/DC boost converter along with perturb and observe method of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control technique is employed to draw sophisticated power from the solar photovoltaic (PV) array. The DTFC-SVM of an IMD using basic two level inverter is proposed for water pumping application. The proposed method is simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment and simulated results are presented under various operating conditions.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Direct torque and flux control
  2. Sensorless induction motor drive
  3. Space vector modulation
  4. Photovoltaic array

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

 

 

Fig. 1. Schematic model of DTFC-SVM of sensorless IMD

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Fig.2. Results under no-load torque operating condition using basic two level

inverter: Plot (from top to bottom): (i) Torque, (ii) stator current, (iii) speed,

(iv)stator flux qd-components in stationary reference frame.

Fig.3. Loading performance at 1400rpm using basic two level inverter: (i)

Torque, (ii) speed, (iii) stator current and (iv) error speed,(v) error speed

between actual and estimated speed of motor,(vi) stator fluxes.0

Fig.4. Reversal speed Performance using basic two level inverter: (i) Torque,

(ii) speed, (iii) stator current and (iv) stator flux qd-components.

CONCLUSION:

It has been concluded that the solar power based basic two level inverter fed sensorless induction motor drive with DTFC-SVM using proportional-integral controller (PIC) is simple,robust,reduces the complexity while desgningthe hard ware setup hence it is quite suitable for the water pumping applications. The solar panel has been operated at the peak values of voltage, current and power by using a simple perturb and observe method of MPPT algorithm, and the required DC output voltage achieved by using DC/DC boost converter. From the simulation results we can conclude that the basic two level-SVM based sensorless IM drives can provide good performance and less ripple content in torque , fluxes.

REFERENCES:

[1] G. S Buja and Kazmierkowski. M. P, “DTC of pwm inverter-fed AC motors – A Survey”, IEEE Trans. on Ind. Elec., vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 744 – 757, 2004.

[2] J. Rodriguez, J. S. Lai, and F. Z. Peng, “Multilevel inverters: a survey of topologies, controls, and applications,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol.49, no.4, pp.724-738, 2002.

[3] Tejavathu Ramesh, Anup Kumar Panda, and S. Shiva Kumar. “MRAS Speed Estimator Based on Type-1 and Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controller for the Speed Sensorless DTFC-SVPWM of an Induction Motor Drive.” Journal of Power Electr., vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 730-740, 2015.

[4] Shukla, Saurabh, and Bhim Singh. “MRAS based speed estimation of single stage solar powered vector controlled induction motor drive for water pumping.” Power India International Conference (PIICON), 2016 IEEE 7th. IEEE, 2016.

[5] Shukla, Saurabh, and Bhim Singh. “Single Stage PV Array Fed Speed Sensorless Vector Control of Induction Motor Drive for Water Pumping.” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications (2018).

A DSP Based Digital Control Strategy for ZVS Bidirectional Buck+Boost Converter

ABSTRACT:

 The non-isolated bidirectional DC-DC converters are the most popular topology for low or medium power of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) or fuel cell vehicle (FCV) applications. These kinds of converters have the advantages of simple circuit topology, bidirectional flows, zero-voltageswitching (ZVS), high efficiency, and high power density. The turned-on ZVS for all MOSFETs is achieved by the negative offset of the inductor current at the beginning and the end of each switching period. To do this, the converter requires a complex switching strategy which is preferred to be implemented by the digital signal processing (DSP). This paper presents the digital implementation of the switching pattern to ensure the ZVS condition for such converter. A 5kW prototype is performed to verify the capability of such control scheme.

KEYWORDS:

  1. DC-DC converter
  2. Bidirectional converter
  3. Digital control
  4. Phase shift control

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Fig1. Bidirectional dc dc converter

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 Fig. 2. Inductor current waveforms of (a) boost mode and (b) buck mode

 

Fig. 3. ZVS turn on of switch S1

Fig. 4. Overall efficiency of both boost and buck operating modes

 CONCLUSION:

 A DSP based digital control strategy for the bidirectional DC-DC converter is proposed in this paper. The new control strategy provides a negative inductor current at the beginning of each pulse period that, in conjunction with just the parasitic MOSFET output capacitances but no additional components, allows ZVS with the full voltage and load range. The DSP chip TMS320F28035 from Texas Instruments is employed to perform this control algorithm. The experimental results not only show the ZVS for four switches but also provide an excellent overall efficiency at least 96% at the power range.

REFERENCES:

 [1] S. S. Williamson, S. M. Lukic, and A. Emadi, “Comprehensive drive train efficiency analysis of hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicles based on motor controller efficiency modeling,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 730-740, May 2006.

[2] K. Wang, C. Y. Lin, L. Zhu, D. Qu, F. C. Lee, and J. Lai, “Bidirectional dc to dc converters for fuel cell systems,” in Conf. Rec. 1998 IEEE Workshop Power Electronics in Transportation, pp. 47-51.

[3] A. Emadi, S. S. Williamson, and A. Khaligh, “Power electronics intensive solutions for advanced electric, hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicular power systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 567-577, May 2006.

[4] D. Patel Ankita, “Analysis of bidirectional Buck-Boost converter by using PWM control scheme,” ISSN: 2321-9939, Electronics and Communication, Marwadi Education Foundation Group of Institute, Rajkot, India.

[5] Texas Instruments, “Modeling of bidirectional Buck/Boost converter for digital control using C2000 microcontroller,” Application report SPRABX5, January 2015.

An Improved Control Algorithm of Shunt Active Filter for Voltage Regulation, Harmonic Elimination, Power-Factor Correction, and Balancing of Nonlinear Loads

ABSTRACT:  

This paper deals with an implementation of a new control algorithm for a three-phase shunt active filter to regulate load terminal voltage, eliminate harmonics, correct supply power-factor, and balance the nonlinear unbalanced loads. A three-phase insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) based current controlled voltage source inverter (CC-VSI) with a dc bus capacitor is used as an active filter (AF). The control algorithm of the AF uses two closed loop PI controllers. The dc bus voltage of the AF and three-phase supply voltages are used as feed back signals in the PI controllers. The control algorithm of the AF provides three-phase reference supply currents. A carrier wave pulse width modulation (PWM) current controller is employed over the reference and sensed supply currents to generate gating pulses of IGBT’s of the AF. Test results are presented and discussed to demonstrate the voltage regulation, harmonic elimination, power-factor correction and load balancing capabilities of the AF system.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Active filter
  2. Harmonic compensation
  3. Load balancing
  4. Power-factor correction
  5. Voltage regulation

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:


Fig. 1. Fundamental building block of the active filter.

 EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Fig. 2. Performance of the AF system under switch IN and steady state conditions with a three-phase nonlinear load.

Fig. 3. Steady state response of the AF for voltage rgulation and harmonic elimination with a three-phase nonlinear load.

Fig. 4. Steady state response of the AF for voltage regulation, harmonic elimination, and load balancing with a single-phase nonlinear load.

Fig. 5. Switch IN response of the AF for voltage regulation, harmonic elimination with a three-phase nonlinear load.

Fig. 6. Switch IN response of the AF for voltage regulation, harmonic elimination and load balancing with a single-phase nonlinear load.

Fig. 7. Dynamic response of the AF for voltage regulation, harmonic elimination, and load balancing under the load change from three-phase to single-phase.

Fig. 8. Dynamic response of the AF for voltage regulation, harmonic elimination, and load balancing under the load change from single-phase to three-phase.

Fig. 9. Steady state response of the AF for power-factor correction, harmonic elimination with a three-phase nonlinear load.

Fig. 10. Steady state response of the AF for power-factor correction, harmonic elimination, and load balancing with a single-phase nonlinear load.

Fig. 11. Switch IN response of the AF for power-factor correction and harmonic elimination with a three-phase nonlinear load.

Fig. 12. Switch IN response of the AF for power-factor correction, harmonic elimination, and load balancing with a single-phase nonlinear load.

 CONCLUSION:

 An improved control algorithm of the AF system has been implemented on a DSP system for voltage regulation/power-factor correction, harmonic elimination and load balancing of nonlinear loads. Dynamic and steady state performances of the AF system have been observed under different operating conditions of the load. The performance of the AF system has been found to be excellent. The AF system has been found capable of improving the power quality, voltage profile, power-factor correction, harmonic elimination and balancing the nonlinear loads. The proposed control algorithm of the AF has an inherent property to provide a self-supporting dc bus and requires less number of current sensors resulting in an over all cost reduction. It has been found that for voltage regulation and power-factor correction to unity are two different things and can not be achieved simultaneously. However, a proper weight-age to in-phase and quadrature components of the supply current can provide a reasonably good level of performance and voltage at PCC can be regulated with a leading power-factor near to unity. It has been found that the AF system reduces harmonics in the voltage at PCC and the supply currents well below the mark of 5% specified in IEEE-519 standard.

REFERENCES:

[1] L. Gyugyi and E. C. Strycula, “Active AC power filters,” in Proc.IEEE-IAS Annu. Meeting Record, 1976, pp. 529–535.

[2] T. J. E. Miller, Reactive Power Control in Electric Systems. Toronto,Ont., Canada: Wiley, 1982.

[3] J. F. Tremayne, “Impedance and phase balancing of main-frequency induction furnaces,” Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. B, pt. B, vol. 130, no. 3, pp. 161–170, May 1983.

[4] H. Akagi, Y. Kanazawa, and A. Nabae, “Instantaneous reactive power compensators comprising switching devices without energy storage components,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. IA-20, pp. 625–630, May/June 1984.

[5] T. A. Kneschki, “Control of utility system unbalance caused by single-phase electric traction,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., vol. IA-21, pp. 1559–1570, Nov./Dec. 1985.