A Unity Power Factor Converter with Isolation for Electric Vehicle Battery Charger

ABSTRACT:  

This paper deals with a unity power factor (UPF) Cuk converter EV (Electric Vehicle) battery charger having a high frequency transformer isolation alternatively of only a single segment front end converter used in vehicle’s traditional battery chargers. The operation of the proposed converter is defined in a number modes of the converter factors i.e. DCM (Discontinuous Conduction Mode) or CCM (Continuous Conduction Mode) alongside with the best plan equations.

PFC

In this way, this isolated PFC converter makes the input current sinusoidal in structure and improves input power factor to unity. Simulation effects for the proposed converter are proven for charging a lead acid EV battery in regular current constant voltage (CC-CV) mode. The rated full load and various enter supply conditions have been viewed to show the extended power quality indices as compared to conventional battery chargers. These indices observe the global IEC 61000-3-2 general to provide harmonic free input parameters for the proposed  circuit.

KEYWORDS:

  1. UPF Cuk Converter
  2. Battery Charger
  3. Front end converter
  4. CC-CV mode
  5. IEC 61000-3-2 standard

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

 Fig. 1 General Schematic of an EV Battery Charger with PFC CUK Converter

 EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

(a)

 (b)

 (c)

Fig.2 Simulated performance of the isolated Cuk converter in rated condition (a) rated input side and output side quantities (b-c) harmonic analysis of the current at source end

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig.3 Simulated performance of the isolated Cuk converter while input is varied to 270V (a) rated input side and output side quantities (b-c) harmonic analysis of the current at source end

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig.4 Simulated performance of the isolated Cuk converter while input is reduced to 270V (a) rated input side and output side quantities (b-c) harmonic analysis of the current at source end

(a)

(b)

 (c)

Fig.5 Simulated performance of the isolated Cuk converter at light load condition (a) rated input side and output side quantities (b-c) harmonic analysis of the current at source end

 

CONCLUSION:

 An isolated Cuk converter based battery charger for EV with remarkably improved PQ indices along with well regulated battery charging voltage and current has been designed and simulated. The converter performance has been found satisfactory and well within standard for rated as well as different varying input rms value of supply voltages. The considerably improved THD in the current at the source end makes the proposed system an attractive solution for efficient charging of EVs at low cost. The proposed UPF converter performance has been tested to show its suitability for improved power quality based charging of an EV battery in CC-CV mode. Moreover, the cascaded dual loop PI controllers are tuned to have the smooth charging characteristics along with maintaining the low THD in mains current.

UPF

The proposed UPF converter topology have the inherent advantage of low ripples in input and output side due to the added input and output side inductors. Therefore, the life cycle of the battery is increased. MATLAB based simulation shows the performance assessment of the proposed charger for the steady state and dynamics condition which clearly state that the proposed charger can sustain the sudden disturbances in supply for charging the rated EV battery load. Moreover, during whole disturbances in supply voltage, the power quality parameters at the input side, are maintained within the IEC 61000-3-2 standard and THD is also very low.

REFERENCES:

[1] Limits for Harmonics Current Emissions (Equipment current ≤ 16A per Phase), International standards IEC 61000-3-2, 2000.

[2] Muhammad H. Rashid, “Power Electronics Handbook, Devices, Circuits, and Applications”, Butterworth-Heinemann, third edition, 2011.

[3] N. Mohan, T. M. Undeland, and W. P. Robbins, Power Electronics: Converters, Applications and Design. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley, 2009.

[4] B. Singh, S. Singh, A. Chandra and K. Al-Haddad, “Comprehensive Study of Single-Phase AC-DC Power Factor Corrected Converters With High-Frequency Isolation”, IEEE Trans. Industrial Informatics, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 540-556, Nov. 2011.

[5] A. Abramovitz K. M. Smedley “Analysis and design of a tapped-inductor buck–boost PFC rectifier with low bus voltage” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 26 no. 9 pp. 2637-2649 Sep. 2011.

The Application of Electric Spring in Grid-ConnectedPhotovoltaic System

ABSTRACT:  

The characteristics of distributed photovoltaic system power generation system is intermittent and instability. Under the weak grid conditions, when the active power of the PV system injected into the grid is fluctuant, the voltage of supply feeder will increase or decrease, thus affecting the normal use of sensitive load. The electric spring can transfer the energy injected into the supply feeder to the wide-voltage load, which is in series with the ES, to ensure the voltage stability of the sensitive load in the system. In this paper, a grid-connected photovoltaic simulation model with electric spring is built in Matlab / simulink. The voltage waveforms on the ES and sensitive load is obtained under the condition of changing the active power injected into the supply feeder by the grid-connected photovoltaic system. Thought the analysis of the waveforms, we can find that the Electric spring is a kind of effective method to solve the voltage fluctuation of the supply feeder in the grid-connected PV system.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Electric spring
  2. Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System
  3. Voltage Regulation
  4. Photovoltaic Consumption

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

 BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Figure 1. The photovoltaic system model with Electric spring

 EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Figure 2. The effective value of line voltage when the active power of PV system decreases

Figure 3. The line voltage when the active power of PV system increases (with ES)

 CONCLUSION:

 This paper applies the electric spring to the PV system to solve the problem that the bus voltage fluctuates due to the power fluctuation during the PV power injected into the bus. By building a simulation model in Matlab /Simulink, it is proved that the voltage on the bus can be effectively stabilized after adding the electric spring in the grid-connected photovoltaic system. When the active power of the PV fluctuates, the electric spring can transfer the voltage fluctuation on the bus to the wide-voltage load, in order to ensure that the bus voltage stability in the vicinity of the given value. Therefore, this is an effective method to solve the fluctuation of the bus voltage in PV grid connected system.

REFERENCES:

  1. Hui S Y R, Lee C K, Wu F. Electric springs—A new smart grid technology[J]. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 2012, 3(3): 1552-1561.
  2. F. Kienzle, P. Ahein, and G. Andersson, “Valuing investments in multi-energy conversion, storage, and demand-Side management systems under uncertainty,” IEEE Trans Sustain. Energy, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 194–202,Apr. 2011.
  3. C. K. Lee and S. Y. R. Hui, “Input voltage control bidirectional power converters,” US patent application, US2013/0322139, May 31, 2013.
  4. CHEN Xu, ZHANG Yongjun, HUANG Xiangmin. Review of Reactive Power and Voltage Control Method in the Background of Active Distribution Network[J]. Automation of Electric Power Systems,2016,40(01):143-
  5. Lee S C, Kim S J, Kim S H. Demand side management with air conditioner loads based on the queuing system model[J]. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 2010, 26 (2): 661-668.

Active and Reactive Power Control of Single Phase Transformerless Grid Connected Inverter for Distributed Generation System

ABSTRACT:

This paper presents a novel approach by which enhancement in power quality is ensured along with power control for a grid interactive inverter. The work presented in this paper deals with modeling and analyzing of a transformer less grid-connected inverter with active and reactive power control by controlling the inverter output phase angle and amplitude in relation to the grid voltage. In addition to current control and voltage control, power quality control is made to reduce the total harmonics distortion. The distorted current flow can compensate for the disturbance caused by nonlinear load.

INVERTER

The Simulation of the grid interactive inverter is carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment and experimental results were presented to validate the proposed methodology for control of transformer less grid interactive inverter which supplies active and reactive power to the loads and also makes the grid current to a sinusoidal one to improve the power factor and reduce the harmonics in grid current. This work offers an increased opportunity to provide distributed generation (DG) use in distribution systems as reliable source of power generation to meet the increased load demand which helps to provide a reasonable relief to the customers and utilities to meet the increasing load demand

KEYWORDS:

  1. Grid interactive inverter
  2. Voltage Controller
  3. Current Controller
  4. THD improvement
  5. Reactive power compensation
  6. Intelligent power module

 SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Figure 1: Schematic diagram of grid connected system

Figure 2: grid tie inverter

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

Figure 3: Simulation waveforms of current a) when load is controlled rectifier b) inverter current c) grid current d) the reference current

Figure 4: Power flow graph.

Figure 5: grid voltage, load current & grid current

Figure 6: FFT analysis

Figure 7: load current

Figure 8: Injected current

 CONCLUSION:

 The simulation of single phase grid interactive inverter has been carried out with non-linear load and the results obtained from the simulations shows that this control technique improves the power quality ie THD and the power factor. The simulation also shows that power transfer of active and reactive power from the inverter to grid is possible. The reactive power required for the load is completely provided from the inverter. The hardware implementation of the interactive inverter has been conducted using real time workshop in the MATLAB Simulink environment.

SINGLE PHASE

The half wave rectifier is used as load in the hardware implementation. The results show that the controller is capable for reactive power compensation, and maintaining constant voltage at the grid satisfying standard for grid interconnection. That is the THD is lessthan5% 3.74 and the power factor is .9977 which is near to unity. Energy conservation by load management is possible and a reasonable relief to the customer and voltage profile is maintained at the grid. This work can be extended to cascaded inverter configuration and reliability analysis has to be made as a better option for future studies.

REFERENCES:

[1] EPRI-white paper “Integrating Distributed Resources into electric utility systems ”Technology Review.December2001

[2] Thomas Ackerman “Distributed Generation, a definition’’ Electric power system research,57(3),2001,pp195-204

[3] G. Joos, B.T Ooi, D. McGill is, F.D. Galiana, and R. Marceau, “The potential of distributed generation to provide ancillary services,” at IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, 16-20 July 2000, vol. 3, pp. 1762 – 1767

[4] Frede Blaabjerg, Zhechen, Soreren Baekhoej Kjaer “Power electronics as efficient interface in dispersed power generation system” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics vol:19,no.5, sept2004 pp1184-1194

[5] Yong Yang, Yi Ruan, Huan-qing Shen, Yan-yan Tang and Ying Yang; “Grid-connected inverter for wind power generation system” Journal of Shanghai University, Page(s):.51-56, Vol. 13, No 1,Feb,2009.

A Nested Control Strategy for Single Phase Power Inverter Integrating Renewable Energy Systems in a Microgrid

ABSTRACT:  

In this paper a nested power-current-voltage control scheme is introduced for control of single phase power  inverter, integrating small-scale renewable energy based power generator in a microgrid for both stand-alone and grid-connected modes. The interfacing power electronics converter raises various power quality issues such as current harmonics in injected grid current, fluctuations in voltage across the local loads, voltage harmonics in case of non-linear loads and low output power factor. The proposed nested proportional resonant current and model predictive voltage controller aims to improve the quality of grid current and local load voltage waveforms in grid-tied mode simultaneously by achieving output power factor near to unity. In stand-alone mode, it strives to enhance the quality of local load voltage waveform. The nested control strategy successfully accomplishes smooth transition from grid-tied to stand-alone mode and vice-versa without any change in the original control structure. The performance of the controller is validated through simulation results.

KEYWORDS:

  1. Microgrid
  2. Stand-alone mode
  3. Grid-connected mode
  4. Voltage harmonics
  5. Current harmonics
  6. Proportional resonant control
  7. Model predictive control

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig. 1. Block diagram of MPVC scheme

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 Fig. 2(a). Steady state grid voltage, load voltage and grid current waveforms with resistive load

Fig. 3(b). Steady state grid voltage, load voltage and grid current waveforms with non-linear load

Fig. 4. THD values of voltage and current waveforms in grid connected mode

Fig. 5(a). Steady state grid voltage, load voltage and filter current waveforms with resistive load

Fig. 6 (b). Steady state grid voltage and load voltage waveforms with non-linear Load

Fig. 7. THD values of load voltage waveform in stand-alone mode

Fig. 8(a). Transient state grid voltage, load voltage and grid current waveforms with change in active power reference

Fig. 9(b). Transient state grid voltage, load voltage and grid current waveforms with change in reactive power reference

Fig. 10(c). Grid voltage, load voltage and grid current waveforms during voltage Sag

(a) Transfer from stand-alone to grid-tied mode

(b) Transfer from grid-tied to stand-alone mode

Fig.11. Grid voltage, load voltage, filter inductor current, grid current

Waveforms

(a) Transfer from stand-alone to grid-tied mode

(b) Transfer from grid-tied to stand-alone mode

Fig.12. Grid current tracking error waveforms

CONCLUSION:

 

In this paper, a nested proportional resonant current and model predictive voltage controller is introduced for control of single phase VSI integrating a RES based plant in a microgrid. This strategy improves the quality of local load voltage and grid current waveforms with both linear and non linear loads. A non-linear load such as the diode bridge rectifier introduces voltage harmonics, but this scheme is successful in achieving low THD values for inverter local load voltage and grid current simultaneously. Simulation results validates the outstanding performance of the proposed controller in both steady state and transient state operations. A smooth transfer of operation modes from stand-alone to grid-tied and vice versa is also achieved by the nested control scheme without changing the control algorithm.

 

REFERENCES:

[1] H. Farhangi, “The path of the smart grid,” IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 18-28, Jan/Feb. 2010.

[2] F. Blaabjerg, Z. Chen, and S. B. Kjaer, “Power electronics as efficient interface in dispersed power generation systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 1184–1194, Sep. 2004.

[3] F. Blaabjerg, R. Teodorescu, M. Liserre, and A. V. Timbus, “Overview of control and grid synchronization for distributed power generation systems,” IEEE Trans. on Ind. Electron., vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 1398–1409,  Oct. 2006.

[4] Q. C. Zhong and T. Hornik, “Cascaded Current–Voltage Control to Improve the Power Quality for a Grid-Connected Inverter With a Local  Load,” IEEE Transactions on Ind. Electron., vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 1344- 1355, April 2013.

[5] Y Zhilei, X Lan and Y Yangguang, “Seamless Transfer of Single-Phase Grid-Interactive Inverters Between Grid-Connected and Stand-Alone  Modes,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1597-1603, June 2010.

An Intelligent Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller for aBLDC Motor

ABSTRACT:  

Brushless DC (BLDC) motors are one of the most widely used motors, not only because of their efficiency, and torque characteristics, but also because they have the advantages of being a direct current (DC) supplied, eliminating the disadvantages of using Brushes. BLDC motors have a very wide range of speed, so speed control is a very important issue for it. Sliding mode control (SMC) is one of the popular strategies to deal with uncertain control systems. The Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller (FSMC) combines the intelligence of a fuzzy inference system with the sliding mode controller. In this paper, an intelligent Fuzzy Sliding Mode controller for the speed control of BLDC motor is proposed. The mathematical model of the BLDC motor is developed and it is used to examine the performance of this controller. Conventionally PI controllers are used for the speed control of the BLDC motor. When Fuzzy SMC is used for the speed control of BLDC motor, the peak overshoot is completely eliminated which is 3% with PI controller. Also the rise time is reduced from 23 ms to 4 ms and the settling time is reduced from 46 ms to 4 ms by applying FMSMC. This paper emphasizes on the effectiveness of speed control of BLDC motor with Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller and its merit over conventional PI controller.

KEYWORDS:

  1. BLDC motors
  2. Sliding Mode Control
  3. Fuzzy Sliding Mode controller
  4. PI Controller

SOFTWARE: MATLAB/SIMULINK

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

Fig 1 Block diagram of BLDC speed control.

EXPECTED SIMULATION RESULTS:

 

Fig 2 Step response with Fuzzy SMC and Fuzzy PI and PI Controllers

Fig 3 Current in the three phases

 

CONCLUSION:

 Fuzzy sliding mode controller for the speed control of BLDC motor is designed and its performance comparison with PI controller is carried out in this paper. Conventionally PI controllers are used for the speed control of BLDC motor and they give moderate performance under undisturbed conditions even though they are very simple to design and easy to implement. But their performance is poor under disturbed condition like sudden changes in reference speed and sudden change in load. The BLDC motor with PI controller shows large overshoot, high settling time and comparatively large  speed variation under loaded condition.

The Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller combines the intelligence of fuzzy logic with the Sliding Mode technique. The peak overshoot is completely eliminated and the rise time and settling time are improved when Fuzzy SMC is applied for the speed control of BLDC motor. The fluctuation in speed of the motor under loaded condition is also reduced when fuzzy SMC is applied. Thus this controller becomes an ideal choice for applications where very precise and fine control is required.

REFERENCES:

[1] Neethu U., Jisha V. R., “Speed Control of Brushless DC Motor : A Comparative Study”, IEEE International Conference on Power  Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems, Vol. 8, No. 12, 16-19 December 2012, Bengaluru India.

[2] Chee W. Lu, “T orque Controller for Brushless DC Motors”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 46, No. 2, April 1999.

[3] Tony Mathew, Caroline Ann Sam, ”Closed Loop Control of BLDC Motor Using a Fuzzy Logic Controller and Single Current Sensor”, International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems (ICACCS), Vol. 2, No. 13, 19-21 December 2013, Coimbatore India.

[4] T . Raghu, S. Chandra Sekhar, J. Srinivas Rao,“SEPIC Converter based – Drive for Unipolar BLDC Motor”, International Journal of Electrical  and Computer Engineering (IJECE), Vol.2, No.2, April 2012, pp. 159- 165.

[5] M. A. Jabbar, Hla Nu Phyu, Zhejie Liu, Chao Bi, “Modelling and Numerical Simulation of a Brushless Permanent – Magnet DC Motor in Dynamic Conditions by Time – Stepping T echnique”, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 40, no. 3, MAY/JUNE 2004.