Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Based Wind Energy and DG Hybrid System



This paper investigates the use of permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs) for a wind energy conversion system (WECS) and a diesel engine driven generator (DG) set of a standalone hybrid system with a battery energy storage system (BESS). For voltage control at the point of common coupling (PCC) and balanced supply at terminals of DG set, a single phase D-Q theory based control algorithm is applied for the switching of voltage source converter (VSC) of BESS and the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is achieved for WECS with an incremental conductance technique for the switching of a dc-dc boost converter. Simulation results of developed model of proposed standalone hybrid system, which is developed in MATLAB demonstrate performance of both the controllers and power quality improvement of the hybrid system.


  1. WECS
  2. Diesel Generator
  3. Single-Phase D-Q theory
  4. Power Quality
  5. MPPT




Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of Wind-Diesel hybrid configuration


Fig. 2 (a) Characteristics of the system with constant wind speed under varying loads.

Fig. 3 (b) Estimation of supply currents and voltages using control algorithm

Fig.4 (c) dynamic Performance of controller of hybrid system under varying linear loads at 10 m/s wind speed

Fig. 5(a) Characteristics of the system with constant wind speed under varying loads.

Fig. 6(b) Estimation of supply currents and voltages using control algorithm

Fig.7(c) dynamic Performance of controller of hybrid system under varying nonlinear loads at 10 m/s wind speed.

Fig. 8 waveforms and harmonic spectra (a) Phase ‘a’ supply voltage of at PCC (b) Phase ‘a’ supply current under nonlinear unbalanced loads.

Fig. 9 Controllers’ performance under wind speed reduction (11 m/s-8 m/s)

Fig. 10  Controllers’ performance under rise in wind speed (8 m/s-11 m/s)


A 3-φ standalone wind-diesel hybrid system using PMSG along with BESS has been simulated in MATLAB using Simpower system tool boxes. Various components have been designed for the hybrid system and controller’s satisfactory performance has been depicted using 1-φ-D-Q theory with SOGI filters for various loads under dynamic conditions while maintaining constant voltage at PCC and balanced source currents of diesel generator and also for harmonics suppression as per guidelines of IEEE-519-1992 standard. A mechanical sensor less approach has been used for achieving MPPT through incremental conductance technique.


[1] Bin Wu, Y. Lang, N. Zargari, and Samir Kouro, Handbook of Power Conversion and Control of Wind Energy Systems, John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey, 2011.

[2] B. Singh, and R. Niwas, “Power quality improvements in diesel engine driven induction generator system using SRF theory,” in Proc. of IEEE  Fifth Power India Conference, 2012, pp.1,5, 19-22 Dec. 2012.

[3] B. Singh, and J. Solanki, “Load Compensation for Diesel Generator Based Isolated Generation System Employing DSTATCOM,” in Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems, 2006, PEDES ’06, pp.1-6, 12-15 Dec. 2006.

[4] S. Sharma, and B. Singh, “An autonomous wind energy conversion system with permanent magnet synchronous generator,” in Proc. Of Inter. Conf. on Energy, Automation, and Signal (ICEAS), 2011, pp.1-6, 28-30 Dec. 2011.

[5] P.K. Goel, B. Singh, S.S. Murthy, and N. Kishore, “Autonomous hybrid system using SCIG for hydro power generation and variable speed PMSG for wind power generation,” in Proc. of Inter. Conf. on Power Electronics and Drive Systems, PEDS’ 2009, pp.55-60, 2-5 Nov. 2009.

Major Projects

For Latest Major Projects – BTech and MTech, go through the project list given below.


Asoka Technologies is a Research and Development center established in 2012,Which helps students in developing IEEE electrical projects using Matlab Simulink software accurately. Research and Development plays a vital role in enhancing one’s self development in terms of up-gradation and moving forward.Our main goal is to create work that is honest. We strive hard to fulfill the students requirements in terms of developing their skills.We design with the belief that process and collaboration should be as exciting and fun as the end result.

Quality is the sole cornerstone around which the success of Asoka Technologies has been built, and has reached an exalted state of professional glory in the Electrical projects sector. Asoka Technologies offers variety of Electrical projects which are all 100% output guaranteed for all students of BE / Btech / ME / Mtech etc. Being a electrical projects powerhouse, Asoka Technologies is also very well known for “Custom Development Center”.We believe in providing wings to your thoughts.

major projects

    Academic Electrical Major Projects

Related Links

Latest Projects List

BE/BTech Projects

Power Electronics Projects

Power Systems Projects

Renewable Energy Projects

Electric Machines and Drives Projects

Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator-Based Standalone Wind Energy Supply System


 In this paper, a novel algorithm, based on dc link voltage, is proposed for effective energy management of a standalone permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG)-based variable speed wind energy conversion system consisting of battery, fuel cell, and dump load (i.e., electrolyzer). Moreover, by maintaining the dc link voltage at its reference value, the output ac voltage of the inverter can be kept constant irrespective of variations in the wind speed and load. An effective control technique for the inverter, based on the pulse width modulation (PWM) scheme, has been developed to make the line voltages at the point of common coupling (PCC) balanced when the load is unbalanced. Similarly, a proper control of battery current through dc–dc converter has been carried out to reduce the electrical torque pulsation of the PMSG under an unbalanced load scenario. Based on extensive simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK, it has been established that the performance of the controllers both in transient as well as in steady state is quite satisfactory and I can also maintain maximum power point tracking.


  1. DC-side active filter
  2. Permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG)
  3. Unbalanced load compensation
  4. Variable speed wind turbine
  5. Voltage control




Fig. 1. PMSG-based standalone wind turbine with energy storage and dump load.



Fig. 2. Response of mechanical torque for change in wind velocity.

 Fig. 3. (a) Load current; (b) wind speed.

Fig. 4. DC link voltage.

Fig. 5. RMS output voltage (PCC voltage).

Fig. 6. Instantaneous output voltage at s.

Fig. 7. Instantaneous output line current.

Fig. 8. Powers.

Fig.9. Powers.

Fig. 10. DC link voltage.

Fig. 11. Powers.

Fig. 12. DC link voltage.


Fig. 13. Response of controllers.

Fig. 14. Three phase currents for unbalanced load.

Fig. 15. Electrical torque of PMSG with and without dc–dc converter controller.

Fig. 16. Instantaneous line voltages at PCC for unbalanced load.


Fig. 17. (a) RMS value of line voltages at PCC after compensation; (b) modulation indexes.

Fig. 18. Instantaneous line voltages at PCC after compensation.


Control strategies to regulate voltage of a standalone variable speed wind turbine with a PMSG, battery, fuel cell, and electrolyzer (acts as dump load) are presented in this paper. By maintaining dc link voltage at its reference value and controlling modulation indices of the PWM inverter, the voltage of inverter output is maintained constant at their rated values. From the simulation results, it is seen that the controller can maintain the load voltage quite well in spite of variations in wind speed and load.An algorithm is developed to achieve intelligent energy management among the wind generator, battery, fuel cell, and electrolyzer. The effect of unbalanced load on the generator is analyzed and the dc–dc converter control scheme is proposed to reduce its effect on the electrical torque of the generator. The dc–dc converter controller not only helps in maintaining the dc voltage constant but also acts as a dc-side active filter and reduces the oscillations in the generator torque which occur due to unbalanced load. PWM inverter control is incorporated to make the line voltage at PCC balanced under an unbalanced load scenario. Inverter control also helps in reducing PCC voltage excursion arising due to slow dynamics of aqua elctrolyzer when power goes to it. The total harmonic distortion (THD) in voltages at PCC is about 5% which depicts the good quality of voltage generated at the customer end. The simulation results demonstrate that the performance of the controllers is satisfactory under steady state as well as dynamic conditions and under balanced as well as unbalanced load conditions.


 [1] S. Müller, M. Deicke, and W. De DonckerRik, “Doubly fed induction generator system for wind turbines,” IEEE Ind. Appl. Mag., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 26–33, May/Jun. 2002.

[2] H. Polinder, F. F. A. van der Pijl, G. J. de Vilder, and P. J. Tavner, “Comparison of direct-drive and geared generator concepts for wind turbines,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 725–733, Sep. 2006.

[3] T. F. Chan and L. L. Lai, “Permanent-magnet machines for distributed generation: A review,” in Proc. 2007 IEEE Power Engineering Annual Meeting, pp. 1–6.

[4] M. Fatu, L. Tutelea, I. Boldea, and R. Teodorescu, “Novel motion sensorless control of standalone permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG): Harmonics and negative sequence voltage compensation under nonlinear load,” in Proc. 2007 Eur. Conf. Power Electronics and Applications, Aalborg, Denmark, Sep. 2–5, 2007.

[5] M. E. Haque, K. M. Muttaqi, and M. Negnevitsky, “Control of a standalone variable speed wind turbine with a permanent magnet synchronous generator,” in Proc. IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, Jul. 2008, pp. 20–24.

Thermal Stresses Relief Carrier-Based PWM Strategy for Single Phase Multilevel Inverters


Enhancing power cycling capability of power semiconductor devices is highly demanded in order to increase the long term reliability of multilevel inverters. Ageing of power switches and their cooling systems leads to their accelerated damage due to excess power losses and junction temperatures. Therefore, thermal stresses relief (TSR) is the most effective solution for lifetime extension of power semiconductor devices. This paper presents a new thermal stresses relief carrier-based pulse width modulation (TSRPWM) strategy for extending the lifetime of semiconductor switches in single-phase multilevel inverters. The proposed strategy benefits the inherent redundancy among switching states in multilevel inverters to optimally relieve the thermally stressed device. The proposed algorithm maintains the inverter operation without increased stresses on healthy switches and without reduction of the output power ratings. In addition, the proposed algorithm preserves voltage balance of the DC-link capacitors. The proposed strategy is validated on single phase five level T-type inverter system with considering different locations of thermal stresses detection. Experimental prototype of the selected case study is built to verify the results. Moreover, comparisons with the most featured strategies in literature are given in detail.


  1. Lifetime extension
  2. long term reliability
  3. multilevel inverter
  4. pulse width modulation (PWM)
  5. thermal stresses relief



 Fig. 1. A schematic diagram of PWM controlled full bridge n-level T-type inverter


 Fig. 2. Simulation results of the proposed strategy at TSD in SA11 at mi=0.85.


 Fig. 3. Simulation results of the proposed strategy at TSD in SA11 at mi=0.45.

Fig. 4. Simulation results of the proposed TSRPWM strategy at TSD in SA12 and mi=0.85.


This paper has proposed a new carrier-based modulation strategy, called TSRPWM, for single phase multilevel inverters. It retains the same benefits as the conventional carrier PWM methods, i.e., a simple and easy implementation, but presents a significantly reduced power losses and thermal stresses of the stressed semiconductor devices. The main idea of the new proposed strategy is adaptively selecting the redundant switching states in each switching cycle, in order to optimize power losses through the thermally-stressed device. Therefore, both of the junction temperature and temperature cycling of the stressed device are reduced by the proposed strategy compared with normal mode operation of the device. The results of simulation and experimental prototypes are conformed and verified the new proposed concept. A generalized implementation of the proposed TSRPWM, to provide thermal stresses relief for any of the components and for any n-level inverters, is also presented. Moreover, the proposed strategy maintains the inverter operation with the same output ratings, and voltage balance over DC-link capacitors. Finally, the performance of the proposed strategy is compared with the prominent strategies in literature, and the distinction of the proposed strategy has become clear.


[1] Shaoyong Yang, A. Bryant, P. Mawby, Dawei Xiang, Li Ran, and P. Tavner, “An industry-based survey of reliability in power electronic converters,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 1441–1451, May 2011.

[2] S. E. De Leon-Aldaco, H. Calleja, and J. Aguayo Alquicira, “Reliability and mission profiles of photovoltaic systems: a FIDES approach,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 2578–2586, May 2015.

[3] B. Ji, X. Song, E. Sciberras, W. Cao, Y. Hu,0 and V. Pickert, “Multiobjective design optimization of IGBT power modules considering power cycling and thermal cycling,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 2493–2504, May 2015.

[4] U.-M. Choi, F. Blaabjerg, and K.-B. Lee, “Study and handling methods of power IGBT module failures in power electronic converter systems,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 2517–2533, May 2015.

[5] P. A. Mawby, W. Lai, H. Qin, O. Alatise, S. Xu, M. Chen, and L. Ran, “Study on the lifetime characteristics of power modules under power cycling conditions,” IET Power Electron., vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 1045–1052, Apr. 2016.

Single Phase Series Active Power Filter Based on 15-Level Cascaded Inverter Topology


A topology of series active power filter (SAPF) based on a single phase half-bridge cascaded multilevel inverter is proposed to compensate voltage harmonics of the load connected to the point of common coupling (PCC). The main parts of the inverter are presented in detail. Any voltage reference can be easily obtained by a simple control with the proposed inverter. Therefore, the inverter acts as a harmonic source when the reference is a non-sinusoidal signal. A prototype of 15-level inverter based SAPF is manufactured without using a parallel passive filter (PPF) as it is intended to represent the compensation capability of the SAPF by itself. The load connected to PCC whose voltage is non-sinusoidal is filtered both in simulation and experimental studies. The validity of the proposed inverter based SAPF is verified by simulation as well as experimental study. Both simulation and experimental results show that the proposed multilevel inverter is suitable for SAPF applications.


  1. Active power filter
  2. Multilevel inverter
  3. Harmonic compensation
  4. Half-bridge cascaded
  5. Power quality



Figure 1. The basic configuration of the proposed system.


Figure 2. Simulation results – Set I a) V pcc and VhPCC before compensation (50 V Idiv), b) inverter and load voltage after compensation (50 V Idiv).

Figure 3. Simulaton results – Set 2 a) V pcc and V”pcc before compensation (50 V ldiv), b) inverter and load voltage after compensation (50 V Idiv).


This paper proposes a single phase half-bridge cascaded multi level inverter based SAPF. The multi level inverter topology and operation principle is introduced. With the proposed topology, the number of output levels can easily be increased. Switching angles of the semiconductor devices used in the inverter are also obtained by a simple method. A SAPF with the proposed inverter topology is simulated under different harmonic distortion levels of PCC. The aim of the simulation is to compensate the load voltage harmonics connected to PCc. In addition to the simulations, the proposed SAPF prototype is designed. Using this prototype, experimental study is performed. Microchip dsPIC30F6010 is preferred as a controller in this prototype. It is a commercially available and inexpensive microcontroller. The presentable results of the proposed system are summarized as follows;

  • The THD values obtained from simulation study is similar to experimental results.
  • The results of simulation and experimental studies demonstrate the accuracy of the simulation study.
  • The THD values after compensation is reduced to 2.88% and 3.07% by using the proposed inverter based SAPF. After compensation, the waveform of load voltage is almost sinusoidal.
  • A highly distorted sinusoidal waveform with a THD value of 24.12% is compensated with the proposed inverter based SAPF and the THD value is reduced to 3.07%. This shows that the proposed inverter is suitable for SAPF applications.

Both simulation and experimental studies show the validity of the proposed inverter as a SAPF.


[1] M. 1. M. Montero, E. R. Cadaval, F. B. Gonzalez, “Comparison of control strategies for shunt active power filters in three-phase four wire systems”, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., , 22, (I), pp. 229- 236, 2007.

[2] F. Z. Peng, H. Akagi, and A. Nabae, ” A new approach to harmonic compensation in power systems-A combined system of shunt passive and series active filters,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. , Vol. 26, No. 6, pp. 983- 990, Nov.lDec. 1990.

[3] Z. Wang, Q. Wang, W. Yao, and 1. Liu, “A series active power filter adopting hybrid control approach,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron. , Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 301- 310, May 2001.

[4] H. Akagi, ‘Trends in active power line conditioners,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron. , Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 263- 268, May 1994.

[5] M. EI-Habrouk, M. K. Darwish, and P. Mehta, “Active power filters : A review,” lEE Electr. Power Appl., Vol. 147, No. 5, pp. 403-413, Sep.2000.

Single-Phase Inverter with Energy Buffer and DC-DC Conversion Circuits


This paper proposes a new single-phase inverter topology and describes the control method for the proposed inverter. The inverter consists of an energy buffer circuit, a dc-dc conversion circuit and an H-bridge circuit. The energy buffer circuit and H-bridge circuit enable the proposed inverter to output a multilevel voltage according to the proposed pulse width modulation (PWM) technique. The dc-dc conversion circuit can charge the buffer capacitor continuously because the dc-dc conversion control cooperates with the PWM. Simulation results confirm that the proposed inverter can reduce the voltage harmonics in the output and the dc-dc conversion current in comparison to a conventional inverter consisting of a dc-dc conversion circuit and H-bridge circuit. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed inverter can output currents of low total harmonic distortion and have higher efficiency than the conventional inverter. In addition, it is confirmed that these features of the proposed inverter contribute to the suppression of the circuit volume in spite of the increase in the number of devices in the circuit.


  1. Energy buffer circuit
  2. Single-phase inverter
  3. Dc-dc conversion
  4. Pulse width modulation



Fig. 1 Configuration of proposed inverter.


Fig. 2 Waveforms for (a) proposed inverter and (b) conventional inverter during dc-ac conversion under conditions of Pac = 500 W, vs = 90 V, vb = 70 V and dc link command voltage vdcc = 160 V. (The scales for vg, vb, vdc and vo are 80 V/div., and those for ic and io are 4.0 A/div.)

Fig. 3 Waveforms of (a) proposed inverter and (b) conventional inverter during ac-dc conversion under conditions of Pdc = 500 W, vs = 90 V, vbc = 70 V and vdcc = 160 V. (The scales for vg, vb, vdc and vo are 80 V/div., and those for ic and io are 4.0 A/div.)

Fig. 4 Simulated waveforms of (a) proposed inverter and (b) MEB inverter with a buffer capacitance of 1 mF during dc-ac conversion under conditions of Pac = 500 W, vs = 90 V and vbc = 70 V. (The scales for vg, vb and vo are 80 V/div., and those for ic and io are 4.0 A/div.)


In this paper the most common multilevel inverter topologies were scrutinized to find the more appropriate topology for BESS application. The investigation has been done entitled of quantitative and qualitative studies. The important output parameters of inverter topologies were investigated as quantitative study, while other features such as reliability, modularity and functionality were scrutinized in qualitative study. Also, various inverter topologies have been evaluated in terms of required capacity in the same operating point. The simulation results proved that the ideal BESS power conversion system, among reviewed multi-level topologies, is Cascaded topology. This topology was chosen for three reasons. First, the efficiency and reliability studies were conducted, and the CMLI was found to be the most efficient and reliable topology with minimum amount of power loss compared to other topologies. Second, it subdivides the battery string and increases the high voltage functionality. Finally, capacitor volume, cost and THD studies were again confirmed the effectiveness of this topology in battery energy storage systems.


[1] H. Abu-Rub, M. Malinowski, and K. Al-Haddad, Power electronics for renewable energy systems, transportation and industrial applications. John Wiley & Sons, 2014.

[2] T. Soong and P. W. Lehn, “Evaluation of emerging modular multilevel converters for bess applications,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 2086–2094, 2014.

[3] P. Medina, A. Bizuayehu, J. P. Catal˜ao, E. M. Rodrigues, and J. Contreras, “Electrical energy storage systems: Technologies’ state-of-the-art, techno-economic benefits and applications analysis,” in Hawaii IEEE International Conference on System Sciences, 2014, pp. 2295–2304.

[4] E. H. Allen, R. B. Stuart, and T. E. Wiedman, “No light in august: power system restoration following the 2003 north american blackout,” IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 24–33, 2014.

[5] L. Yutian, F. Rui, and V. Terzija, “Power system restoration: a literature review from 2006 to 2016,” Journal of Modern Power Systems and Clean Energy, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 332–341, 2016.


Grid Connected Wind- Photovoltaic hybrid System


 This paper presents a modeling and control strategies of a grid connected Wind-Photovoltaic hybrid system. This proposed system consists of two renewable energy sources in order to increase the system efficiency. The Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm is applied to the PV system and the wind system to obtain the maximum power for any given external weather conditions. The generator side converter is controlled by the Field Oriented Control (FOC). This approach is used to control independently the flux and the torque by applying the d- and q-components of the current motor. The utility grid side converter is controlled by the Voltage Oriented Control (VOC) strategy which is adopted to adjust the DC-link at the desired voltage. The simulation results using PSIM software environment prove the good performance of these used techniques to generate sinusoidal current waveforms. This current is synchronized with the grid voltage. Moreover, the DC bus voltage is perfectly constant because only the active power is injected into the grid. Simulations are carried out to validate the effectiveness of the proposed system methods.


  1. Converter
  2. FOC
  3. Grid
  4. hybrid system
  5. MPPT control
  6. photovoltaic system
  7. SCIG
  8. VOC
  9. Wind turbine




Fig. l.The proposed PV -wind hybrid system


Fig. 2 Solar irradiance changes

Fig. 3 The variation of PY arrays current

Fig. 4 The PY arrays voltage

Fig. 5 The PY arrays power and reference

Fig. 6 Duty cycle

Fig. 7 Wind speed profile

Fig. 8 Electrical angular speed of the SCIG and its reference

Fig. 9 The active power injected into the grid

Fig. 10 The Reactive power injected into the grid

Fig. 11 The waveforms of the current

Fig. 12 The three phase current and voltage waveforms

Fig. 13. DC link voltage.


In this paper, Wind-Photo voltaic hybrid system control has been investigated. An MPPT method has been studied. It has been simulated with different solar irradiation and wind speed environments in order to maximize the output power of the proposed system . Two control techniques have been employed to improve the hybrid system usefulness . The controlled rectifier connected to the squirrel-cage induction generator (SCIG) has been controlled by the Field Oriented Control (FOC) to reach the optimal rotational speed, The grid-side inverter has been controlled by the Voltage Oriented Control (VOC) method to keep the dc-link voltage at the desired value. The hybrid system simulation has been implemented in PSIM software and its performances were proved when the solar irradiance change or the wind speed occurs.


 [1] Liyuan Chen, Yun Liu “Scheduling Strategy of Hybrid Wind Photovoltaic- Hydro Power Generation System” International Conference on Sustainable Power Generation and Supply (SUPERGEN 2012), Sept. 2012.

[2] Akhilesh P. Pati!, Rambabu A. Vatti and Anuja S. Morankar,” Simulation of Wind Solar Hybrid Systems Using PSIM ” International Journal of Emerging Trends in Electrical and Electronics (lJETEE), Vol. 10, Issue. 3, April-2014.

[3] Rabeh Abbassi, Manel Hammami, Souad Chebbi. “Improvement of the integration of a grid connected wind-photovoltaic hybrid system” Electrical Engineering and Software Applications (lCEESA), International Conference , 2013

[4] Harini M., Ramaprabha R. and Mathur B. L. “Modeling of grid connected hybrid windlPV generation system using matlab, Vol. 7,no. 9, September 2012.

[5] Nabil A. Ahmed “On-Grid Hybrid Wind/Photovoltaic/Fuel Cell Energy System” Conference on Power & Energy ( IPEC), December 2012.




Single Phase Dynamic Voltage Restorer Topology Based on Five-level Ground point Shifting Inverter


A Single Phase Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) based on five-level ground point shifting multilevel inverter topology has been proposed in this paper. The proposed inverter has a floating ground point. Therefore, by shifting the ground point, it is observed that the inverter circuit gives five output voltage levels from single DC voltage source. This configuration uses less number of switches compared to the existing multilevel inverter topologies. A fast sag swell identification technique using d-q reference frame is also discussed in this paper. This proposed topology of the DVR can compensate voltage sag, swell, flicker and maintain the required voltage at the load bus. The detailed simulation study is carried out using MATLAB/Simulink to validate the result.


  1. Voltage sag
  2. Swell
  3. Ground Point Shifting Multilevel Inverter (GPSMI)
  4. Topology
  5. DVR



Fig. 1. General structure of the proposed DVR.


Fig. 2. (a) Grid terminal voltage (vt) and (b) load voltage (vl) during sag


Fig. 3. direct axis value of the d-q reference frame which is used to detect

sag in the system.

Fig. 4. During voltage sag (a) grid terminal voltage (vt), (b) series injected

voltage (vinj) and (c) inverter terminal voltage (vinv).

Fig. 5. FFT analysis of the series injected voltage (vinj).

Fig. 6. (a) Grid terminal voltage and (b) load voltage during Voltage flicker


This paper proposes dynamic voltage restorer based on the ground point shifting multilevel Inverter topology (GPSMI). The operation of the multilevel inverter and the power circuit diagram is explained. The inverter topology requires less number of switches than conventional multi-level inverter. In this inverter topology, only two switches are active at any instant of time that reduce switch conduction loss. The passive filter requirement in the DVR topology is reduced by using this multi-level inverter. Proper PWM for this proposed inverter has been explained. Instantaneous sag identification technique using d-q reference frame has also been explained. This proposed DVR can mitigate the power quality problem like sag/swell and voltage flicker.


 [1] IEEE Guide for Voltage Sag Indices,” in IEEE Std 1564-2014 , vol., no., pp.1-59, June 20 2014

[2] IEEE Guide for Identifying and Improving Voltage Quality in Power Systems,” in IEEE Std 1250-2011 (Revision of IEEE Std 1250-1995) , vol., no., pp.1-70, March 31 2011

[3] A. Ghosh and G. Ledwich, ”Structures and control of a dynamic voltage regulator (DVR),” Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting, 2001. IEEE, Columbus, OH, 2001, pp. 1027-1032 vol.3. doi: 10.1109/PESW.2001.917209

[4] Huiwen Liu, Bowen Zheng and Xiong Zhan, ”A comparison of two types of storageless DVR with a passive shunt converter,” 2016 IEEE 8th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (IPEMC-ECCE Asia), Hefei, 2016, pp. 1280-1284.

[5] P. C. Loh, D. M. Vilathgamuwa, S. K. tang, H. L. Long, ”Multilevel dynamic voltage restorer”, IEEE Power Electronic Letters, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 125-130, Dec. 2004.

Simulation of a Single-Phase Five-Level Cascaded H Bridge Inverter with Multicarrier SPWM B-Spline Based Modulation Techniques


 Multilevel Power Inverters are now often used to convert DC to AC voltage waveform. This kind of converter allows high power quality with low output harmonics and lower commutation losses with respect to the traditional ones in order to optimize this aspect. This paper presents a novel simulation analysis of the Multicarrier Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (MC SPWM) techniques B-Spline functions based to control the switches of five-level single-phase cascaded H bridge inverter. In order to verify the performance of the converter, the harmonic content of the voltage due to modulation techniques has been taken into account. Results highlight the comparison between different B-Spline functions.


  1. Multilevel power converter
  2. Multicarrier modulation techniques
  3. B-spline functions



Fig. 1: CHBMI single-phase with 2n+ 1 level



 Fig. 2: Comparison of THD% versus reference voltage trend for Phase Disposition PD carriers: B2(t), B3(t) and B4(t).

Fig. 3: Comparison THD% versus reference voltage trend for

Phase Opposition Disposition POD carriers: B2(t), B3(t) and B4(t).

Fig. 4: Comparison THD% versus reference voltage trend for

Alternative Phase Opposition Disposition APOD carriers: B2(t),

B3(t) and B4(t).

Fig. 5: Comparison THD% versus reference voltage trend for

Phase Shifted PS carriers: B2(t), B3(t) and B4

Fig. 6: Comparison Fundamental Amplitude versus reference

voltage trend for Phase Disposition PD carriers: B2(t), B3(t) and


Fig. 7: Comparison Fundamental Amplitude versus reference

voltage trend for Phase Opposition Disposition POD carriers:

B2(t), B3(t) and B4(t).


Fig. 8: Comparison Fundamental Amplitude versus reference

voltage trend for Alternative Phase Opposition Disposition APOD

carriers: B2(t), B3(t) and B4(t).

Fig. 9: Comparison Fundamental Amplitude versus reference

voltage trend for Phase Shifted PS carriers: B2(t), B3(t) and B4(t).


This paper presents a simulation analysis of the Multicarrier Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation techniques B-Spline functions based for five-level single-phase cascaded H-bridge inverter. The multi carrier modulation techniques taken into account are PD, POD, APOD and PS using PB2(t), PB3(t) and PB4(t) as carrier signals. In order to verify the performance of converter and harmonic content of the voltage, the used tool for comparison of different modulation techniques is THD%. The computed THD% values versus reference voltage (peak value) for the phase voltage have been presented and the related results have been compared among different carrier signals used. The minimum value of the THD% has  been obtained by using the PS modulation techniques with PB4(t) as carrier signal.


 [1] A. Takahashi I. Nabe and H. Akagi, A new neutral-point clamped PWM inverter, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., 17, 518″ 1981.

[2] .T. Rodriguez, .T.-S. Lai, and F. Z. Peng, Multilevel inverters: a survey of topologies, controls, and applications, Industrial Electronics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 724- 738, Aug. 2002.

[3] M. Caruso et al., Design and experimental characteriz.ation of a low-cost, real-time, wireless AC monitoring system based on ATmega 328P-PU microcontroller, 2015 AEIT International Annual Conference (AEIT), Naples, 2015, pp. 1- 6. doi: 1O.1109!AEIT.2015.7415267

[4] M. Caruso, V. Cecconi, A. O. Di Tommaso, and R. Rocha. A Rotor Flux and Speed Observer for Sensorless Single-Phase Induction Motor Applications. International Journal of Rotating Machinery, vol. 2012, no. 276906, p. 13,2012.

[5] M. Caruso, A. O. Di Tommaso, F. Genduso, R. Miceli and G. R. Galluzzo, A DSP-Based Resolver-To-Digital Converter for High-Peiformance Electrical Drive Applications, in IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 63, no. 7, pp. 4042-4051, July 2016.

Solar Photovoltaic Powered Sailing Boat Using Buck Converter


 The main objective of this paper is to establish technical and economical aspects of the application of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system in sailing boat using a buck converter in order to enhance the power generation and also to minimize the cost. Performance and control of dc-dc converter, suitable for photovoltaic (PV) applications, is presented here. A buck converter is employed here which extracts complete power from the PV source and feeds into the dc load. The power, which is fed into the load, is sufficient to drive a boat. With the help of matlab simulink software PV module and buck model has been designed and simulated and also compared with theoretical predictions.


  1. Buck Converter
  2. Ideal Switch
  3. Matlab Simulink
  4. PV
  5. Solar Sailing Boat



Figure 1. Schematic Diagram of PV powered Sailing Boat


 Figure 2. Simulation result of maximum voltage, current and power in PV array

Figure 3. Simulation result of Buck converter

Figure 4. Simulation result of PV with Buck


Solar PV powered sailing boat using buck converter is proposed here. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is tested. This is a new and innovative application which is fully environmental friendly and is almost polution less. As the upper portion of the boat is unused, solar panels are implemented in that portion quite easily, no extra space is required. Fuel cost is not required in day time due to the presence of sunlight. lastly, energy pay back period will be lesser than diesel run boat.


 [1] P Vorobiev, Yu. Vorobiev. Automatic Sun Tracking Solar Electric Systems for Applications on Transport. 7th International Conference on Electrical Engineering, Computing Science and Automatic Control. 2010.

[2] Nobuyulu Kasa, Takahiko Iida, Hideo Iwamoto. An inverter using buck-boost type chopper circuits for popular small-scale photovoltaic power system. IEEE. 1999.

[3] Peng Zhang, Wenyuan Li, Sherwin Li, Yang Wang, Weidong Xiao. Reliability assessment of photovoltaic power systems: Review of current status and future perspectives. Applied Energy. 2013; 104(2013): 822–833,

[4] M Nagao, H Horikawa, K Harada. Photovoltaic System using Buck-Boost PWM Inverter. Trans. of IEEJ. 1994; ll4(D): 885-892.

[5] A Zegaoui, M Aillerie, P Petit, JP Sawicki, JP Charles, AW Belarbi. Dynamic behaviour of PV generator trackers under irradiation and temperature changes. Solar Energy. 2011; 85(2011): 2953–2964.